List of United Kingdom by-elections (1979–present)

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This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom since 1979, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: red for a Labour gain, blue for a Conservative gain, orange for a Liberal, SDP or Liberal Democrat gain, yellow for a SNP gain and grey for any other gain.

Resignations[edit]

Where the cause of by-election is given as "resignation" or "seeks re-election", this indicates that the incumbent was appointed on his or her own request to an "office of profit under the Crown", either the Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Steward of the Manor of Northstead. Accepting an office of profit under the Crown vacates the Member's seat. This process is used because members of the House of Commons are not technically permitted to resign. A member who resigns in this manner may stand for re-election.

By-elections[edit]

Present Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Newark 5 June 2014[1] Patrick Mercer Conservative Robert Jenrick Conservative Resignation (following recommendation from the Standards Committee that he be suspended for six months for breach of the paid advocacy rule)[2]
Wythenshawe and Sale East 13 February 2014[3] Paul Goggins Labour Mike Kane Labour Death (stroke/haemorrhage)[4]
South Shields 2 May 2013 David Miliband Labour Emma Lewell-Buck Labour Resignation to join US charity organisation[5]
Mid Ulster 7 March 2013 Martin McGuinness Sinn Féin Francie Molloy Sinn Féin Resignation to end 'double-jobbing' as Member of Parliament and Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly[6]
Eastleigh 28 February 2013 Chris Huhne Liberal Democrat Mike Thornton Liberal Democrat Resignation following pleading guilty to perverting the course of justice
Croydon North 29 November 2012 Malcolm Wicks Labour Steve Reed Labour Death (cancer)[55 1][7]
Middlesbrough 29 November 2012 Sir Stuart Bell Labour Andy McDonald Labour Death (cancer)[55 2]
Rotherham 29 November 2012 Denis MacShane Labour Sarah Champion[55 3] Labour Resignation (following recommendation from the Standards and Privileges Committee that he be suspended for 12 months for submitting false expenses invoices stemming from the United Kingdom Parliamentary expenses scandal)[55 4]
Cardiff South and Penarth 15 November 2012 Alun Michael Labour Stephen Doughty Labour Resignation to contest South Wales Police and Crime Commissioner election
Corby 15 November 2012[8] Louise Mensch Conservative Andy Sawford Labour Resignation for family reasons[55 5]
Manchester Central 15 November 2012 Tony Lloyd Labour Lucy Powell Labour Resignation to contest Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner election
Bradford West 29 March 2012 Marsha Singh Labour George Galloway Respect Resignation (serious health problems)[55 6]
Feltham and Heston 15 December 2011 Alan Keen Labour Seema Malhotra Labour Death (cancer)[55 7]
Inverclyde 30 June 2011[55 8] David Cairns Labour Iain McKenzie Labour Death (pancreatitis)
Belfast West 9 June 2011[55 9] Gerry Adams Sinn Féin Paul Maskey Sinn Féin Resignation (to contest the Louth constituency in the Irish general election)[55 10]
Leicester South 5 May 2011 Sir Peter Soulsby Labour Jon Ashworth Labour Resignation (to contest the mayoralty of Leicester)[55 11]
Barnsley Central 3 March 2011[55 12] Eric Illsley Labour[55 13] Dan Jarvis Labour Resignation (pleaded guilty to charges of false accounting stemming from the United Kingdom Parliamentary expenses scandal)[55 14]
Oldham East and Saddleworth 13 January 2011 Phil Woolas Labour Debbie Abrahams Labour Void election; reported personally guilty of false statements of fact concerning a candidate.[55 15]
  1. ^ "Labour MP Malcolm Wicks dies at 65". Jersey Evening Post. 29 September 2012. 
  2. ^ "Middlesbrough MP Sir Stuart Bell dies, aged 74". BBC News. 13 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "Champion secures clear victory". 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "MP's expenses: Denis MacShane resigns as MP". 2 November 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  5. ^ Cronin, Kate (6 August 2012). "Louise Mensch resigns as Corby and East Northamptonshire MP". Northamptonshire Telegraph. 
  6. ^ "Bradford West MP Marsha Singh to stand down". BBC News. 1 March 2012. 
  7. ^ Hope, Christopher (14 November 2011). "Labour MP Alan Keen dies at 73". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "Inverclyde Westminster by-election date set". BBC News. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  9. ^ "Notice of election". Belfast Area Electoral Office. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "John Bercow says Gerry Adams is not an MP". BBC News. 26 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Sir Peter Soulsby to stand down as MP following selection as Labour’s Mayoral Candidate". Labour East Midlands. 5 March 2011. 
  12. ^ http://news.sky.com/skynews/Article/201009115926253
  13. ^ Eric Illsley was elected as a Labour MP from 1987 and was re-elected in 2010 as a Labour candidate, but was suspended by the Labour Party shorly afterwards after being charged with fraud arising from the United Kingdom Parliamentary expenses scandal.
  14. ^ "MPs' expenses: Eric Illsley is to stand down as MP". BBC News. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  15. ^ "Judges order election re-run in ex-minister's seat". BBC News. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 

2005–2010 Parliament[edit]

At the dissolution of Parliament in 2010 there were three vacancies: North West Leicestershire and Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland caused by the death of their respective members; and Strangford caused by the resignation of its member. With the close proximity of the 2010 general election, by-elections were not held in these seats.

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Glasgow North East[54 1] 12 November 2009 Michael Martin Speaker[54 2] Willie Bain Labour Resignation
Norwich North[54 1] 23 July 2009 Ian Gibson Labour Chloe Smith Conservative Resignation
Glenrothes 6 November 2008 John MacDougall Labour Lindsay Roy Labour Death (Mesothelioma)
Glasgow East[54 3] 24 July 2008 David Marshall Labour John Mason SNP Resignation
Haltemprice and Howden 10 July 2008 David Davis Conservative David Davis Conservative Resigned to recontest
Henley 26 June 2008 Boris Johnson Conservative John Howell Conservative Election as Mayor of London
Crewe and Nantwich[54 1] 22 May 2008 Gwyneth Dunwoody Labour Edward Timpson Conservative Death (Heart Attack)
Sedgefield 19 July 2007 Tony Blair Labour Phil Wilson Labour Resignation on appointment as Middle East Envoy
Ealing Southall 19 July 2007 Piara Khabra Labour Virendra Sharma Labour Death (Liver Problems)
Bromley and Chislehurst 29 June 2006 Eric Forth Conservative Bob Neill Conservative Death (Cancer)
Blaenau Gwent 29 June 2006 Peter Law Independent Dai Davies Independent Death (Cancer)
Dunfermline and West Fife[54 3] 9 February 2006 Rachel Squire Labour Willie Rennie Liberal Democrat Death (Cancer/Stroke)
Livingston 29 September 2005 Robin Cook Labour Jim Devine Labour Death (Heart Disease)
Cheadle 14 July 2005 Patsy Calton Liberal Democrat Mark Hunter Liberal Democrat Death (Cancer)
  1. ^ a b c Gain retained at the 2010 general election.
  2. ^ Michael Martin had originally been elected as a Labour MP.
  3. ^ a b Gain not retained at the 2010 general election.

2001–2005 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Hartlepool 30 September 2004 Peter Mandelson Labour Iain Wright Labour Resignation on appointment as European Commissioner
Birmingham Hodge Hill 15 July 2004 Terry Davis Labour Liam Byrne Labour Resignation on appointment as Secretary-General of the Council of Europe
Leicester South[53 1] 15 July 2004 Jim Marshall Labour Parmjit Singh Gill Liberal Democrat Death (Heart Attack)
Brent East[53 2] 18 September 2003 Paul Daisley Labour Sarah Teather Liberal Democrat Death (Cancer)
Ogmore 14 February 2002 Sir Raymond Powell Labour Huw Irranca-Davies Labour Death (Unknown; probable Asthma Attack)
Ipswich 22 November 2001 Jamie Cann Labour Chris Mole Labour Death (Liver disease)
  1. ^ Gain not retained at the 2005 general election.
  2. ^ Gain retained at the 2005 general election.

1997–2001 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Falkirk West 21 December 2000 Dennis Canavan Labour/ Independent[52 1] Eric Joyce Labour Resignation following election to the Scottish Parliament
West Bromwich West 23 November 2000 Betty Boothroyd Speaker[52 2] Adrian Bailey Labour Life peerage
Preston 23 November 2000 Audrey Wise Labour Mark Hendrick Labour Death (cancer)
Glasgow Anniesland 23 November 2000 Donald Dewar Labour John Robertson Labour Death (Brain haemorrhage after heart surgery)
South Antrim 21 September 2000[52 3] Clifford Forsythe UUP William McCrea DUP Death (sudden illness)
Tottenham 22 June 2000 Bernie Grant Labour David Lammy Labour Death (heart attack)
Romsey 4 May 2000[52 4] Michael Colvin Conservative Sandra Gidley Liberal Democrat Death (accidental fire)
Ceredigion 3 February 2000 Cynog Dafis Plaid Cymru Simon Thomas Plaid Cymru Resignation following election to the Welsh Assembly
Kensington and Chelsea 25 November 1999 Alan Clark Conservative Michael Portillo Conservative Death (cancer)
Wigan 23 September 1999 Roger Stott Labour Neil Turner Labour Death (long illness)
Hamilton South 23 September 1999 George Robertson Labour Bill Tynan Labour Life peerage upon appointment as Secretary-General of NATO
Eddisbury 22 July 1999 Alastair Goodlad Conservative Stephen O'Brien Conservative Appointment as High Commissioner to Australia
Leeds Central 10 June 1999 Derek Fatchett Labour Hilary Benn Labour Death (heart attack)
Winchester 20 November 1997 Mark Oaten Liberal Democrat Mark Oaten Liberal Democrat Void election
Beckenham 20 November 1997 Piers Merchant Conservative Jacqui Lait Conservative Resignation (scandal)
Paisley South 6 November 1997 Gordon McMaster Labour Douglas Alexander Labour Death (suicide)
Uxbridge 31 July 1997 Sir Michael Shersby Conservative John Randall Conservative Death
  1. ^ Dennis Canavan was elected as a Labour MP from Feb 1974 onwards but in 1999 left the party when he was not selected as a Labour candidate for the Scottish Parliament and instead successfully stood as an independent.
  2. ^ Betty Boothroyd had originally been elected as a Labour MP.
  3. ^ Gain not retained at the 2001 general election.
  4. ^ Gain retained at the 2001 general election.

1992–1997 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wirral South 27 February 1997[51 1] Barry Porter Conservative Ben Chapman Labour Death
Barnsley East 12 December 1996 Terry Patchett Labour Jeff Ennis Labour Death
South East Staffordshire 11 April 1996[51 1] Sir David Lightbown Conservative Brian Jenkins Labour Death
Hemsworth 1 February 1996 Derek Enright Labour Jon Trickett Labour Death
Littleborough and Saddleworth 27 July 1995[51 2] Geoffrey Dickens Conservative Chris Davies Liberal Democrat Death
North Down 15 June 1995[51 1] Sir James Kilfedder Ulster Popular Unionist Robert McCartney UK Unionist Death
Perth and Kinross 25 May 1995[51 1] Sir Nicholas Fairbairn Conservative Roseanna Cunningham SNP Death
Islwyn 16 February 1995 Neil Kinnock Labour Don Touhig Labour Appointment as European Commissioner
Dudley West 15 December 1994[51 1] John Blackburn Conservative Ian Pearson Labour Death
Monklands East 30 June 1994 John Smith Labour Helen Liddell Labour Death
Newham North East 9 June 1994 Ron Leighton Labour Stephen Timms Labour Death
Eastleigh 9 June 1994[51 1] Stephen Milligan Conservative David Chidgey Liberal Democrat Death (auto-erotic asphyxiation)
Dagenham 9 June 1994 Bryan Gould Labour Judith Church Labour Appointment as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Waikato, New Zealand
Bradford South 9 June 1994 Bob Cryer Labour Gerry Sutcliffe Labour Death (road accident)
Barking 9 June 1994 Jo Richardson Labour Margaret Hodge Labour Death
Rotherham 5 May 1994 Jimmy Boyce Labour Denis MacShane Labour Death
Christchurch 29 July 1993[51 3] Robert Adley Conservative Diana Maddock Liberal Democrat Death
Newbury 6 May 1993[51 1] Judith Chaplin Conservative David Rendel Liberal Democrat Death
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gain retained at the 1997 general election.
  2. ^ Littleborough and Saddleworth was abolished in boundary changes taking effect from 1997. Davies contested the successor seat of Oldham East and Saddleworth for the Liberal Democrats but lost to Labour.
  3. ^ Gain not retained at the 1997 general election.

1987–1992 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Langbaurgh 7 November 1991[50 1] Richard Holt Conservative Ashok Kumar Labour Death
Kincardine and Deeside 7 November 1991[50 1] Alick Buchanan-Smith Conservative Nicol Stephen Liberal Democrat Death
Hemsworth 7 November 1991 George Buckley Labour Derek Enright Labour Death
Liverpool Walton 4 July 1991 Eric Heffer Labour Peter Kilfoyle Labour Death
Monmouth 16 May 1991[50 1] Sir John Stradling Thomas Conservative Huw Edwards Labour Death
Neath 4 April 1991 Donald Coleman Labour Peter Hain Labour Death
Ribble Valley 7 March 1991[50 1] David Waddington Conservative Michael Carr Liberal Democrat Life Peerage on appointment as Leader of the House of Lords
Paisley South 29 November 1990 Norman Buchan Labour Gordon McMaster Labour Death
Paisley North 29 November 1990 Allen Adams Labour Irene Adams Labour Death
Bradford North 8 November 1990 Pat Wall Labour Terry Rooney Labour Death
Bootle 8 November 1990 Michael Carr Labour Joseph Benton Labour Death
Eastbourne 18 October 1990[50 1] Ian Gow Conservative David Bellotti Liberal Democrat Death (killed by IRA)
Knowsley South 27 September 1990 Sean Hughes Labour Edward O'Hara Labour Death
Bootle 24 May 1990 Allan Roberts Labour Michael Carr Labour Death
Upper Bann 17 May 1990 Harold McCusker UUP David Trimble UUP Death
Mid Staffordshire 22 March 1990[50 1] John Heddle Conservative Sylvia Heal Labour Death (suicide)
Vauxhall 15 June 1989 Stuart Holland Labour Kate Hoey Labour Appointment to the European University Institute, Florence
Glasgow Central 15 June 1989 Robert McTaggart Labour Mike Watson Labour Death
Vale of Glamorgan 4 May 1989[50 1] Sir Raymond Gower Conservative John Smith Labour Death
Richmond 23 February 1989 Leon Brittan Conservative William Hague Conservative Appointment as European Commissioner
Pontypridd 23 February 1989 Brynmor John Labour Kim Howells Labour Death
Epping Forest 15 December 1988 Sir John Biggs-Davison Conservative Steven Norris Conservative Death
Glasgow Govan 10 November 1988[50 1] Bruce Millan Labour Jim Sillars SNP Appointment as European Commissioner
Kensington 14 July 1988 Sir Brandon Rhys Williams, Bt. Conservative Dudley Fishburn Conservative Death
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gain not retained at the 1992 general election.

1983–1987 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Truro 12 March 1987 David Penhaligon Liberal Matthew Taylor Liberal Death (road accident)
Greenwich 26 February 1987[49 1] Guy Barnett Labour Rosie Barnes Social Democrat Death
Knowsley North 13 November 1986 Robert Kilroy-Silk Labour George Howarth Labour New BBC TV presenter career
Newcastle-under-Lyme 17 July 1986 John Golding Labour Llinos Golding Labour Appointment as General Secretary of the National Communications Union
Ryedale 8 May 1986[49 2] John Spence Conservative Elizabeth Shields Liberal Death
West Derbyshire 8 May 1986 Matthew Parris Conservative Patrick McLoughlin Conservative Appointment as presenter of LWT program Weekend World
Fulham 10 April 1986[49 2] Martin Stevens Conservative Nick Raynsford Labour Death
Upper Bann 23 January 1986 Harold McCusker UUP Harold McCusker UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Strangford 23 January 1986 John Taylor UUP John Taylor UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Newry & Armagh 23 January 1986[49 1] James Nicholson UUP Seamus Mallon SDLP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
North Antrim 23 January 1986 Ian Paisley DUP Ian Paisley DUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
East Antrim 23 January 1986 Roy Beggs UUP Roy Beggs UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
South Antrim 23 January 1986 Clifford Forsythe UUP Clifford Forsythe UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Belfast North 23 January 1986 Cecil Walker UUP Cecil Walker UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Belfast East 23 January 1986 Peter Robinson DUP Peter Robinson DUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Belfast South 23 January 1986 Martin Smyth UUP Martin Smyth UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
North Down 23 January 1986 James Kilfedder Ulster Popular Unionist James Kilfedder Ulster Popular Unionist Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
South Down 23 January 1986[49 3] Enoch Powell UUP Enoch Powell UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Fermanagh & South Tyrone 23 January 1986 Ken Maginnis UUP Ken Maginnis UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Lagan Valley 23 January 1986 James Molyneaux UUP James Molyneaux UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
East Londonderry 23 January 1986 William Ross UUP William Ross UUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Mid Ulster 23 January 1986 William McCrea DUP William McCrea DUP Sought re-election in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Tyne Bridge 5 December 1985 Harry Cowans Labour David Clelland Labour Death
Brecon and Radnor 4 July 1985[49 1] Tom Hooson Conservative Richard Livsey Liberal Death
Enfield Southgate 13 December 1984 Sir Anthony Berry Conservative Michael Portillo Conservative Death (killed by IRA)
Portsmouth South 14 June 1984[49 2] Bonner Pink Conservative Mike Hancock Social Democrat Death
South West Surrey 3 May 1984 Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden Conservative Virginia Bottomley Conservative Death
Stafford 3 May 1984 Sir Hugh Fraser Conservative Bill Cash Conservative Death
Cynon Valley 3 May 1984 Ioan Evans Labour Ann Clwyd Labour Death
Chesterfield 1 March 1984 Eric Varley Labour Tony Benn Labour Appointment as Chairman of Coalite PLC
Penrith and the Border 28 July 1983 William Whitelaw Conservative David Maclean Conservative Hereditary Peerage on appointment as Leader of the House of Lords
  1. ^ a b c Gain retained at the 1987 general election.
  2. ^ a b c Gain not retained at the 1987 general election.
  3. ^ Enoch Powell retained the seat for the Ulster Unionists in the by-election but lost it to the Social Democratic and Labour Party at the 1987 general election.

1979–1983 Parliament[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Darlington 24 March 1983[48 1] Edward Fletcher Labour Oswald O'Brien Labour Death
Bermondsey 24 February 1983[48 2] Robert Mellish Labour/Ind Labour Simon Hughes Liberal Resignation (dispute with party)
Glasgow Queen's Park 2 December 1982 Frank McElhone Labour Helen McElhone Labour Death
Peckham 28 October 1982 Harry Lamborn Labour Harriet Harman Labour Death
Birmingham Northfield 28 October 1982[48 3] Jocelyn Cadbury Conservative John Spellar Labour Death (suicide)
Gower 16 September 1982 Ifor Davies Labour Gareth Wardell Labour Death
Coatbridge and Airdrie 24 June 1982 James Dempsey Labour Thomas Clarke Labour Death
Mitcham and Morden 3 June 1982[48 4] Bruce Douglas-Mann Labour/Ind SDP Angela Rumbold Conservative Sought re-election upon change of party allegiance
Beaconsfield 27 May 1982 Sir Ronald Bell Conservative Tim Smith Conservative Death
Glasgow Hillhead 25 March 1982[48 2] Sir Thomas Galbraith Conservative Roy Jenkins Social Democrat Death
Belfast South 4 March 1982 Robert Bradford UUP Martin Smyth UUP Death (killed by IRA)
Crosby 26 November 1981[48 3] Sir Graham Page Conservative Shirley Williams Social Democrat Death
Croydon North West 22 October 1981[48 3] Robert Taylor Conservative Bill Pitt Liberal Death
Fermanagh & South Tyrone 20 August 1981[48 5] Bobby Sands Anti H-Block Owen Carron Anti H-Block Death (hunger strike)
Warrington 16 July 1981 Sir Thomas Williams Labour Douglas Hoyle Labour Appointment as High Court Judge
Fermanagh & South Tyrone 9 April 1981[48 5] Frank Maguire Independent Republican Bobby Sands Anti H-Block Death
Glasgow Central 26 June 1980 Thomas McMillan Labour Robert McTaggart Labour Death
Southend East 13 March 1980[48 2] Sir Stephen McAdden Conservative Teddy Taylor Conservative Death
South West Hertfordshire 13 December 1979 Geoffrey Dodsworth Conservative Richard Page Conservative Resignation on medical advice
Manchester Central 27 September 1979 Harold Lever Labour Robert Litherland Labour Life Peerage
  1. ^ Oswald O'Brien retained the seat for Labour in the by-election but lost it to the Conservatives in the 1983 general election only 11 weeks later.
  2. ^ a b c Gain retained at the 1983 general election.
  3. ^ a b c Gain not retained at the 1983 general election.
  4. ^ Mitcham and Morden was the last time an incumbent government gained a seat from the opposition in a by-election.
  5. ^ a b Following Sands' death, Owen Carron retained the seat for Anti H-Block in the second by-election and defended it as Sinn Féin in the 1983 general election but lost to the Ulster Unionists.

UK by-election records[edit]

For a list of exceptional results and records in the history of by-elections in the United Kingdom see: United Kingdom by-election records

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Patrick Mercer 'deliberately evaded' MPs' rules, watchdog finds". BBC News. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Former Tory MP Mercer resigns after Commons suspension". BBC News. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  3. ^ "Wythenshawe and Sale East by-election date announced". BBC News. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  4. ^ Linton, Deborah (8 January 2014). "Labour MP Paul Goggins, 60, dies in hospital". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Watt, Nicholas (27 March 2013). "David Miliband to step down as MP". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "Sinn Fein's Martin McGuinness resigns as Mid-Ulster MP". BBC News Online. 30 December 2012. 
  7. ^ Croydon North by-election: Labour's Steve Reed secures win | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-20544539 | accessdate= 30/11/12
  8. ^ "By-elections: Labour takes Corby from Conservatives". BBC News. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 

References[edit]