List of Ukrainian rulers

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Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg

This list encompasses all rulers and leaders of what is today Ukraine, from ancient to modern times.

The term "Ukrainians" is used according to the modern definition of "the inhabitants of the land Ukraine"[1] not just those who identify with the ethnic group. This list includes only local rulers whose seat of power was located in the modern Ukraine and only the rulers whose power was derived directly from the people of the territory at the time, and does not include the governors who received their authority from some foreign powers (as during Lithuanian, Polish, Hungarian, Austrian, Russian, Czechoslovakian and Romanian overlordship).

This is not a list of sovereigns. Throughout its history the territory of modern Ukraine had various forms of governance from monarchies to democratic republics.

Antiquity (c. 500 BC – 16 BC)[edit]

Scythian kings[2][edit]

Main article: Scythia
Scythian king Skilurus, relief from Scythian Neapolis, Crimea, 2nd century BC

Scythia was a loose state that originated as early as the 8th century BC. Little is known of them and their rulers. Most detailed description came down to us from Herodotus.

Kings of Cimmerian Bosporus[edit]

A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus

The shores of Crimea were settled by Greeks since the 7th century BC. The kingdom was established around 480 BC. It was ruled by three consecutive dynasties: Archaenactidae (480 BC – 438 BC), Spartocids (438 BC – 108 BC), and Pontids (108 BC – 16 BC). After Pontids the territory became a Roman client kingdom.

Pontids

Migration period (c. 200 – c. 800)[edit]

In Eastern Europe the The Great Migration Period kicked off with the descent of the Goths from the Baltic region into the territory of modern Ukraine, about AD 200. They either took over or assimilated with the local Slavic tribes. The Goths were in turn pushed out by aggressively encroaching Huns, about 375. The Goths went on to conquer Southern Europe and the Huns moved to the Balkans and created a Hunnic Empire which lasted for a hundred years. After splitting of the Empire, some of the Huns moved back north in the territories of modern Ukraine and formed Patria Onoguria, now known as Old Great Bulgaria. In the 7th century Onoguria largely defected to Khazaria – an expanding Turkic state centered in the North Caucuses which controlled the Eurasian steppe until the 9th century.

Gothic rulers[edit]

Main article: Chernyakhov culture

In 238, the Goths for the first time passed the Danube, and took to the Black Sea. The division of the Goths (Thervingi-Vesi and Greuthungi-Ostrogothi) is first attested in 291.

Tervingi

The Balti dynasty, Balth(e)s, Baltungs, or Balthings, existed among the Tervingi ("forest people"), called later the Visigothi. The names of the Drevlyans and the Gothic Tervingi in Ukraine have often been adduced as parallels to agac-ari ("forest men" in Turkic).

  • Nidad, reik ("ruler") (c. 218 – 249)
  • Ovida, son of Nidad, co-ruler (c. 249 – 273)
  • Cniva aka Kniwa ("knife"), brother of Ovida, co-ruler
  • Ilderic aka Hilderith, son of Ovida, co-ruler (c. 273 – 317)
  • Ariaric aka Ascaric, brother of Hilderith, co-ruler
  • Geberic aka Geberich, son of Hilderith, kindin ("king") (c. 317 – 350)
  • Athanaric aka Aþanareiks ("year-king"), pagan, Gunþi-reik ("battle prince") (365–381)
  • Fritigern aka Frithugairns ("desiring peace"), converted to Arianism, Gunþi-reik (369–382)

Greuthungi

The Amali dynasty, Amals, Amaler, or Amalings of the Greuthungi ("steppe dwellers" or "people of the pebbly coasts"), called later the Ostrogothi.

  • Amal (Amala), the Fortunate, born fl. 110 or c. 123
  • Hisarna, (Isarna), the Iron One, born fl. 140 or c. 153
  • Ostrogotha, the Patient, born fl. 170 or c. 183, died c. 250 in Ukraine
  • Hunuil ("Immune to Magic") aka Ginvila, born fl. 210 or c. 213
  • Athal (Athala), the Noble One, born fl. 240 or c. 243 in Ukraine
  • Achiulf (Agiulf), born fl. 270 or c. 273 in Ukraine
  • Wultwulf (Vultuulf, Vulthulf, Vuldulf), born fl. 300 in Ukraine, died fl. 370, prince of the Goths
  • Ermanaric (Hermanaric, Ermanarich, Hermanarik), born c. 303 in Ukraine, king of the Getae/Greutungi/Ostrogoths (335 or 350 – 375 or 376)
  • Winithar (Vinitharius), Conqueror of the Venedi-Slavs (Antes), born fl. 345 or c. 353 in Ukraine, the last independent king of the Ostrogoths (376–380)
  • Hunimund ("Protege of the Huns"), the Beautiful, born c. 326 in Ukraine, the first Hunnic vassal prince of the Ostrogoths (376-fl.405)

Hunnic rulers[edit]

Main article: Huns
  • Balambér aka Bülümer (Bulümar, Balamir), conqueror of the Ostrogoths (376–378)
  • Baltazár aka Alyp-bi, king of the Western Huns (378–390), buried on Kuyantau (current Kiev)
  • Uldin aka Ulduz, king of the Western Huns (390 - c. 411)
  • Donatus, King of the Eastern Huns (c. 382 – 412)
  • Charaton aka Aksungur (Aksuvar), (c. 411 - c. 422)
  • Octar aka Oktar (Uptar ?), (c. 425 - c. 430)
  • Rugila aka Ruga (Rua, Roila), Yabgu (prince), then king (432–434)
  • Mundzuk aka Aybat, Yabgu (390–434), King(434)
  • Bleda, King and ruler of Eastern Huns (Ak Bulgar) (434–445)
  • Attila the Hun, Yabgu of Western Huns (Kara Bulgar) (434–445)
  • Ellac aka Ellak, Khagan and ruler of the Sabirs (453–454)
  • Dengizich aka Tengiz (Diggiz), ruler of the Akatziroi, (454–468)
  • Ernakh aka Bel-Kermek (Hernach), ruler of the Bulgars (455–465), and the Akatziroi (469–503)

Rulers of Patria Onoguria[edit]

Main article: Bulgars

According to Zakarius Rhetor and Priscus Rhetor, Patria Onoguria was a vulgar statelet in alliance with Byzantium established in 463 around Azov having been forced west upon the Akatziroi by the Sabirs who in turn were being attacked. Its 7th century period is commonly referred to as Old Great Bulgaria (~600–~690).

Khazar rulers[edit]

Main articles: Khazars and Rus' Khaganate

Khazar Khaganate controlled much of what is today southern and eastern Ukraine until the 10th century.

Rulers of Kyiv and Kievan Rus' (c. 375/800 – 1240/1362)[edit]

Legendary and historical rulers of Kyiv[edit]

Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Bozh (Bož, Boz, Booz, Box), a king of Antes, the east Slavic people 4th century ? 376
Alyp-bi (Baltazár), the son of Balambér aka Bülümer, a khan of the Western Huns who was buried on Kuyantau mountain (current Kyiv) 4th century 378 390
Kyi, Czech, Khoryv and Lubed in der Radziwiłłchronik.jpg Kyi, a legendary founder of Kyiv, a Slavic prince of Kuyavia, most likely eastern Polans 5th–6th centuries 482 ?
Oleg (Helge or Helgi), probably of Danish or Swedish origin, an apocryphal Kyiv voivode, under the overlordship of the Khazar Khaganate 8th century ? ?
Bravlin, probably of Swedish origin,[3] a Varangian voivode in the Rus' Khaganate 8th–9th centuries c. 790 c. 810
Аскольд та Дір.png Askold and Dir (Høskuldr and Dýri),[4] probably of Swedish origin, Varangian konungs, not Rurikids, were rulers (khagans) of Kyiv, not Kievan Rus'  ? - 882 c. 842[5] 882

Rurik Dynasty[edit]

The Rurikids were descendants of Rurik (Hrørekr), a Varangian pagan konung or chieftain from Sweden, who supposedly was of haplogroup N1c1, which is common among Finno-Ugric peoples and not so rare in Baltic region.[6]

All the rulers of Kievan Rus' before the conversion of Vladimir I and all the country to Christianity are Pagan rulers, except Olga of Kiev.

Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Oleg of Novgorod.jpg Oleg the Seer (Old Norse language: Helgi),[7] Varangian kniaz of Holmgård (Novgorod) and Kønugård (Kiev) ?-912 882 912
Igor the Old.jpg Igor I (Old Norse: Ingvar), the son of Rurik (Hrørekr) ?-945 912 945
St Olga by Nesterov in 1892.jpg St.Olga (Old Norse: Helga) (regent), was baptized by Emperor Constantine VII but failed to bring Christianity to Kiev ?-969 945 962
Slav warrior from Solntsev book.jpg Sviatoslav I (Old Norse: Sveinald),[8] the first true ruler of Rus' who destroyed the Khazar Khaganate and united all of the Rus' principalities under the Kiev throne 942–972 945 972
Yaropolk murder.jpg Yaropolk I (Old Norse: Iaropolk),[9] supposedly was baptised into Catholicism, and then was murdered by two Varangians 958 (960?)-980 972 980
St. Volodymyr.jpg Vladimir I the Great (Old Norse: Valdamarr), son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha, his early rule is characterized by a staunch pagan reaction but in 988 he was baptized into Orthodoxy and successfully converted Kievan Rus' to Christianity 958-1015 980 1015
Sviatopolk silver srebrenik.jpg Sviatopolk I the Accursed (Old Norse: Sveinpolk),[10] son of Yaropolk I and a Greek nun 980-1019 1015 1019
Bilibin yaroslav.jpg Yaroslav I the Wise (Old Norse: Jarizleifr), son of Vladimir the Great and Rogneda of Polotsk, Prince of Rostov, Prince of Novgorod, and Grand Prince of Kiev; during his reign Kievan Rus' reached the pinnacle of its power 978-1054 1019 1054
Minskizjaslav.jpg Iziaslav I of Kiev, son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, first time 1024–1078 1054 1068
Usiasłaŭ Połacki (Čaradziej). Усяслаў Полацкі (Чарадзей).jpg Vseslav I of Polotsk, son of Bryachislav of Polotsk and unknown mother, a brief ruler during Iziaslav's official reign 1039–1101 1068 1069
Minskizjaslav.jpg Iziaslav I of Kiev, second time 1024–1078 1069 1073
Izbornik.jpg Sviatoslav II of Kiev (Old Norse: Sveinald Jarizleifsson) (on picture, first from right), son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden 1027–1076 1073 1076
Minskizjaslav.jpg Iziaslav I of Kiev, third time, first King of Rus' (Pope Gregory VII sent him a crown from Rome in 1075) 1024–1078 1076 1078
Vsevolod yaroslavich.jpg Vsevolod I of Kiev (Old Norse: Vissivald Jarizleifsson), son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden 1030–1093 1078 1093
Sviatopolk II of Kiev, son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland 1050–1113 1093 1113
Vladimir Monomakh.jpg Vladimir II Monomakh (Old Norse: Valdamarr Vissivaldsson), son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of Byzantium, he is considered to be the last ruler of the united Kievan Rus' 1053–1125 1113 1125
Mstislav I of Kiev (Tsarskiy titulyarnik).jpg Mstislav I the Great, known as Harald in the Norse Sagas, son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex, after his reign Kievan Rus' fell into recession starting a rapid decline 1076–1132 1125 1132

Decline of Kievan Rus'[edit]

After the Council of Liubech in 1097 Kievan Rus' entered a feudal period and was divided into principalities ruled by the Rurikid family princes who were in a constant power struggle with each other. Major principalities were: Galicia-Volhynia, Kiev, Chernigiv, and Pereyaslavl. In the period of 1240–1362, the three latter ones were forced to accept the Golden Horde overlordship.


Grand Prince of Kiev[edit]
Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Yaropolk II, brother of Mstislav I. 1082-1139 1132 1139
Viacheslav I, brother of Yaropolk II and Mstislav II. First time. 1083-1154 1139 1139
Vsevolod Ol'govich.jpg Vsevolod II, married Maria, sister of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I. ?-1146 1139 1146
CvKnyazIgor.jpg Igor II, brother of Vsevolod II. ?-1147 1146 1146
Ізяслав II Пантелеймон.jpg Iziaslav II, son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden. First time 1097–1154 1146 1149
Dolgorukiy titularnik.jpg Yuri I Dolgorukiy, first time 1099-1157 1149 1151
Viacheslav I, Second time, jointly with Iziaslav II 1083-1154 1151 1154
Ізяслав II Пантелеймон.jpg Iziaslav II, second time, jointly with Viacheslav I. 1097–1154 1151 1154
Rostislav Mstislavich.jpg Rostislav I, brother of Iziaslav II. First time 1110–1167 1154 1154
Izyaslav III.jpg Iziaslav III, grandson of Sviatoslav II. First time. ?–1162 1154 1155
Dolgorukiy titularnik.jpg Yuri I Dolgorukiy, second time. 1099-1157 1155 1157
Izyaslav III.jpg Iziaslav III, second time. ?–1162 1157 1158
Rostislav Mstislavich.jpg Rostislav I, second time. Jointly with Iziaslav III in 1162. 1110–1167 1158 1167
Izyaslav III.jpg Iziaslav III, third time, jointly with Rostislav I. ?–1162 1162 1162
Mstislav Izjaslavich.jpg Mstislav II, son of Iziaslav II and Agnes of Germany. First time. ?–1172 1167 1169
Gleb, son of Yuri Dolgorukiy. First time. ?-1171 1169 1169
Mstislav Izjaslavich.jpg Mstislav II, second time. ?–1172 1170 1170
Gleb, second time. ?-1171 1170 1171
Vladimir III, son of Mstislav I the Great and Liubava Dmitrievna. 1132-1173 1171 1171
Michael I, half-brother of Gleb. ?-1176 1171 1171
Roman I, son of Rostislav I and Agnes of Swabia. First time. ?-1180 1171 1173
Bolshoe Gnezdo.JPG Vsevolod III the Big Nest, brother of Michael I. 1154-1212 1173 1173
Rurik Rostislavich, brother of Roman I. First time. ?-1215 1173 1173
Sviatoslav III, son of Vsevolod II. First time. ?-1194 1174 1174
Yaroslav II, son of Iziaslav II. First time. ?-1180 1174 1175
Roman I, second time. ?-1180 1175 1177
Sviatoslav III, second time. ?-1194 1177 1180
Yaroslav II, second time. ?-1180 1180 1180
Rurik Rostislavich, second time. ?-1215 1180 1182
Sviatoslav III, third time. ?-1194 1182 1194
Rurik Rostislavich, third time. ?-1215 1194 1202
Igor III, son of Yaroslav II. First time. ?-? 1202 1202
Rurik Rostislavich, fourth time, jointly with Roman II and Rostislav II (until 1205). ?-1215 1203 1205
Roman Mstislavich , Roman of Halych, Roman the Great.jpg Roman II the Great, son of Mstislav II. In his first time ruled jointly with Rurik and Rostislav II (until 1205). 1160-1205 1203 1205
Rostislav II, son of Rurik Rostislavich. Ruled jointly with his father 1204-1206 and with Roman II 1204-1205. 1173-1214 1204 1206
Rurik Rostislavich, fifth time, jointly with his son Rostislav II. ?-1215 1206 1206
Vsevolod IV the Red, son of Sviatoslav III. His baptismal name was "Daniil" (Daniel). First time. ?-1212 1206 1207
Rurik Rostislavich, sixth and last time. ?-1215 1207 1210
Vsevolod IV the Red, second time. ?-1212 1210 1212
Igor III, second time. ?-? 1212 1214
Mstislav III, son of Roman I. ?-1223 1214 1223
Vladimir IV, brother of Rostislav II. 1187-1239 1223 1235
Iziaslav IV, a member of Rurik dynasty, descendant of Rurik . 1186-? 1235 1236
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (Spas Nereditsi).jpeg Yaroslav III, son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. First time 1191-1246 1236 1238
Michael of Chernigov 1688.jpg Michael II, son of Vsevolod IV. First time. 1185-1246 1238 1239
Rostislav III, son of Michael II. 1210-1262 1239 1239
Daniil-halitsky.jpg Daniel, son of Roman II the Great. 1201-1264 1239 1240
Michael of Chernigov 1688.jpg Michael II, second time. 1185-1246 1241 1246
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (Spas Nereditsi).jpeg Yaroslav III, second time 1191-1246 1246 1246
Alexander Newski.jpg St. Alexander Nevsky, son of Yaroslav III. 1220-1263 1246 1263
Yaroslav Yaroslavich in Novgorod.jpeg Yaroslav IV, brother of Alexander. 1230-1271 1263 1271
Lev Danylovich of Halych.PNG Lev, son of Daniel. 1228-1301 1271 1301
Volodymyr-Ivan Ivanovich ?-? 1301 ?
Stanislav Ivanovich 1228-1301 ? 1321
Princes of Pereyaslavl[edit]
  • Vsevolod I of Kiev, 1054–1076
  • Rostislav Vsevolodich, died 1093
  • Vladimir II Monomakh, 1076–1078 (first time)
  • Rostislav Vsevolodich, 1078–1093
  • Vladimir II Monomakh, 1094–1113 (second time)
  • Sviatoslav Vladimirovich, died 1114
  • Yaropolk II of Kiev, 1114–1132
  • Vsevolod Mstislavich, 1132 (first time)
  • Iziaslav Mstislavich, 1132 (first time)
  • Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, 1132–1134 (first time)
  • Vsevolod Mstislavich, 1134 (second time)
  • Iziaslav Mstislavich, 1134 (second time)
  • Andrey Vladimirovich, 1135–1141
  • Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, 1142 (second time)
  • Iziaslav II of Kiev, 1143–1145
  • Mstislav Izyaslavich, 1146–1149 (first time)
  • Rostislav Yurevich, 1149–1151
  • Mstislav Izyaslavich, 1151–1155 (second time)
  • Gleb of Kiev, 1155–1169
  • Vladimir Glebovich, 1169–1187
  • Yaroslav Mstislavich, ?-?
  • Vsevolod the Big Nest, ?-1206
  • Vsevolod Chermnyi Svyatoslavich, 1206
  • Rurik Rostislavich, 1206
  • Vladimir IV Rurikovich, 1206–1213
Princes of Chernihiv[edit]

Kings and Princes of Galicia-Volhynia (1199–1349)[edit]

Galicia-Volhynia was a Ruthenian (Ukrainian) state in Galicia and Volhynia. Depending on the title of the ruler it was called either principality or kingdom. The first king, Coloman of Galicia-Lodomeria, was crowned in 1215, although the first nominal king of Galicia was Andrew II of Hungary, the son of Béla III of Hungary, who reigned from 1188 to 1190.

Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Roman Mstislavich , Roman of Halych, Roman the Great.jpg Roman II the Great, Prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), Prince of Volhynia (1170–1188, 1189–1205), Prince of Halych (1188, 1199–1205), and Grand Prince of Kiev (1204–1205) fl.1160–1205 1199 1205
Kalman herceg.jpg Coloman of Galicia-Lodomeria, Hungarian prince Kálmán, Prince of Halych (1214–15), became the first anointed and crowned and King of Galicia-Volhynia (rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae) in 1215 1208–1241 1214 1219
Daniel of Galicia-Volhynia.jpg Daniel I of Galicia, held many titles since early childhood culminating with the crowning by a papal legate, archbishop Opizo, in Dorohychyn in 1253, King of Rus', Grand Prince of Kiev 1201–1264 1205 1264
Lev Danylovich of Halych.PNG Lev I, King of Rus', Prince of Belz (1245–1264), Prince of Peremyshl and Halych (1264–1269) who moved the capital of Galicia from Kholm to Lviv in 1272, Grand Prince of Kiev (1271-1301) 1228–1301 1293 1301
Юрій І Львович.png Yuri I, King of Rus', Prince of Belz (1264–1301) fl.1252–1308 1301 1308
Lev II of Galicia.jpg Andrew II and Lev II, Kings of Rus', princes, joint rule, the last members of the Rurikid dynasty to rule Ukraine ?–1323 1308 1323
Yuri II Boleslav.jpg Yuri II-Boleslaw, natus dux et dominus Russiae, a member of the Piast dynasty (the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland) 1308–1340 1325 1340
Liubartas King Galicia-Volhynia.jpg Liubartas, prince, a member of the Gediminid dynasty, the last Ruthenian-Lithuanian ruler of Galicia-Volhynia, Prince of Volhynia (1323–1384) c. 1300 – 1384 1340 1349

In 1349, Liubartas lost all territories, except for eastern Volhynia, to Casimir III of Poland. In 1366, a Polish-Lithuanian treaty was signed: eastern Volhynia with Lutsk retained under Liubartas' rule (the Grand Duchy of Lithuania), while Galicia, western Volhynia, and western Podolia were annexed by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.

In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1362–1569) and Kingdom of Poland (1569–1667/1793)[edit]

Princes of Kiev

In early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by Gediminas defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kiev at the Battle on the Irpen' River, and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kiev, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kiev was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay a tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Kiev and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky

Voivodes of Kiev

Main article: Kiev Voivodeship

When the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, Kiev and surrounding areas, Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlaskie, as the Kiev Voivodeship, Bratslav Voivodeship, Volhynian Voivodeship, and Podlaskie Voivodeship, were transferred from Lithuania to Poland.

Crimean khans (1441–1783)[edit]

Main article: List of Crimean khans

Crimean Tatars were not of the Ukrainian ethnos. Their Crimean Khanate ruled a large part of modern Ukraine, with a capital at Bakhchisaray.

Meñli I Giray (centre) with the eldest son, future khan Mehmed I Giray (left) and Turkish sultan Bayezid II (right)
İslâm III. Giray
Date of Reign Name Notes
1441–1466 Hacı I Giray
1466–1467 Nur Devlet first reign
1467 Meñli I Giray first reign
1467–1469 Nur Devlet second reign
1469–1475 Meñli I Giray second reign
1475 Hayder
1475–1476 Nur Devlet third reign
1476–1478 dynasty dismissed from power
1478–1515 Meñli I Giray third reign
1515–1523 Mehmed I Giray
1523–1524 Ğazı I Giray
1524–1532 Saadet I Giray
1532 İslâm I Giray
1532–1551 Sahib I Giray
1551–1577 Devlet I Giray
1577–1584 Mehmed II Giray
1584 Saadet II Giray
1584–1588 İslâm II Giray
1588–1596 Ğazı II Giray first reign
1596 Fetih I Giray
1596–1607 Ğazı II Giray second reign
1607–1608 Toqtamış Giray
1608–1610 Selâmet I Giray
1610–1623 Canibek Giray first reign
1623–1628 Mehmed III Giray
1628–1635 Canibek Giray second reign
1635–1637 İnayet Giray
1637–1641 Bahadır I Giray
1641–1644 Mehmed IV Giray first reign
1644–1654 İslâm III Giray
1654–1666 Mehmed IV Giray second reign
1666–1671 Adil Giray
1671–1678 Selim I Giray first reign
1678–1683 Murad Giray
1683–1684 Hacı II Giray
1684–1691 Selim I Giray second reign
1691 Saadet III Giray
1691–1692 Safa Giray
1692–1699 Selim I Giray third reign
1699–1702 Devlet II Giray first reign
1702–1704 Selim I Giray fourth reign
1704–1707 Ğazı III Giray
1707–1708 Qaplan I Giray first reign
1709–1713 Devlet II Giray second reign
1713–1715 Qaplan I Giray second reign
1716–1717 Devlet III Giray
1717–1724 Saadet IV Giray
1724–1730 Meñli II Giray first reign
1730–1736 Qaplan I Giray third reign
1736–1737 Fetih II Giray
1737–1740 Meñli II Giray second reign
1740–1743 Selamet II Giray
1743–1748 Selim II Giray
1748–1756 Arslan Giray first reign
1756–1758 Halim Giray
1758–1764 Qırım Giray first reign
1765–1767 Selim III Giray first reign
1767 Arslan Giray second reign
1767–1768 Maqsud Giray
1768–1769 Qırım Giray second reign
1769–1770 Devlet IV Giray first reign
1770 Qaplan II Giray
1770–1771 Selim III Giray second reign
1771–1775 Sahib II Giray
1775–1777 Devlet IV Giray second reign
1777–1782 Şahin Giray first reign
1782 Bahadır II Giray
1782–1783 Şahin Giray second reign
† The reigns of Canibek Giray in 1624 and of Maqsud Giray in 1771–1772 are not listed. Though these khans were formally appointed by Ottoman sultans they did not reach the throne and did not rule Crimea. In the years mentioned, the authority in the Crimean Khanate was exercised by Mehmed III Giray and Sahib II Giray correspondingly.
Note: The nominal khans Şahbaz Giray (1787–1789) and Baht Giray (1789–1792) mentioned in some works are not listed in this table as they did not rule the Crimean Khanate annexed by Russian Empire in 1783.

Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks (1506–1775)[edit]

A Hetman was a military and civil leader, democratically elected by the Cossacks.

Hetmans and commanders of Ukrainian Cossacks[edit]

Several Cossack regiments were operating in Ukraine at this time that were largely independent of each other, so some of the Hetmans' tenures overlap.

1486 - 1492 Alex K Juri Pac.svg   Yuri Pats   governor of Kyiv; organizer Cossack units.
1488 - 1495 Alex K Bohdan Glinskyi.svg   Bogdan Glinski   Cossack leader, destroyer Ochakov.
1492 - 1505 Alex K Dmytro Putyatych.svg   Dmitry Putyatych  Cossack leader.
1510 - 1524 Alex K No image.svg   Senka Polozovych   governor of Kyiv; Cossack leader.
1514 - 1535 Alex K Ostafiy Dashkevysh.svg   Ostap Dashkevych  Cossack leader.
1516 - 1528 Alex K Predslav Lyancskoronskyi.svg   Przecław Lanckoroński   Cossack leader.
1550 - 1557 Alex K Korybut-Wyshnevetski.svg   Dmytro Vyshnevetsky   founder of the fortress at Minor Khortytsia.
1568 Alex K No image.svg   Birulya governmental   Cossack leader.
1568 Alex K No image.svg   Carp Oil   Cossack leader.
1568 Alex K No image.svg   Andrush   Moldavian boyar Cossack leader.
1568 Alex K No image.svg   Lisun   Cossack leader.
1568 Alex K No image.svg   Yatsko Belous   Cossack leader.
1568 Alex K Samiylo Kishka.svg   Andrew Lyakh   Cossack leader.
1577 - 1578 Alex K No image.svg   Ioan Potcoavă   Cossack leader.
1578 Alex K Lukyan Chornynskyi.svg   Lukyan Chornynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1581 Alex K Ostafiy Hohol.svg   Samuel Zborowski   Cossack leader, hetman.
1584 Alex K No image.svg   Bogdan Mykoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585 Alex K Ruzhynskyi.svg   Michael Ruzhinskogo   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585 Alex K Ruzhynskyi.svg   Kirik Ruzhinskogo   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585 Alex K No image.svg   Zachary Kulaga   Cossack leader, hetman.
1586 Alex K Lukyan Chornynskyi.svg   Lukyan Chornynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1586 Alex K No image.svg   Bogdan Makoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1588 Alex K No image.svg   Potrebatskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1589 Alex K No image.svg   Zachary Kulaga   Cossack leader, hetman.
1594 Alex K No image.svg   Bogdan Mykoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1594 - 1596 Alex K Hryhoriy Loboda.svg   Hryhoriy Loboda   Cossack leader.
1594 - 1596 Alex K Ostafiy Hohol.svg   Severyn Nalyvaiko   Cossack leader.
1596 Alex K No image.svg   Matthew Shaul   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596 Alex K Kryshtof Krempskyi.svg   Krzysztof Krempskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596 Alex K Kryshtof Nechkovskyi.svg   Krzysztof Nechkovskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596 - 1597 Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg   Gnat Vasiljevic   Cossack leader, hetman.
1597 Alex K Tykhin Bajbuza.svg   Tykhin Baybuza   Cossack leader, hetman.
1598 Alex K No image.svg   Florian Giedroyc   Cossack leader.
1598 Alex K No image.svg   Mitlovskyy   Cossack leader.
1602 - 1603 Alex K No image.svg   John Kutskovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1603 Alex K No image.svg   John Oblique   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606 Alex K No image.svg   Gregory Izapovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606 Alex K Ostafiy Hohol.svg   Samuel Zborowski   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606 Alex K No image.svg   Olevchenko Bogdan   Cossack leader, hetman.
1617 Alex K No image.svg   Dmitry Barabash   Cossack leader, hetman.
1618 Alex K No image.svg   Michael Skiba   Cossack leader.
1619 - 1621 Alex K No image.svg   Yatsko Nerodych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1620 Alex K No image.svg   Peter Odynets   Cossack leader.
1624 Sulima herb.svg   Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1625 Sulima herb.svg   Theodore Pyrskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1628 Sulima herb.svg   Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1629 - 1630 Sulima herb.svg   Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1630 Alex K Juri Pac.svg   Taras Fedorovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1632 Alex K No image.svg   Simon Tying   Cossack leader, hetman.
1632 Alex K No image.svg   Andrey Didenko   Cossack leader, hetman.
1633 Alex K Mykhailo Doroshenko.svg   Dorofiy Doroshenko   Cossack leader, acting hetman.
1633 Alex K No image.svg   kettlebell Kanevets   Cossack leader.
1633 - 1635 Sulima herb.svg   Ivan Sulyma   Cossack leader, hetman.
1636 - 1637 Alex K No image.svg   Basil Tomylenko   Cossack leader, hetman.
1637 Alex K No image.svg   Pavel Mikhnovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1638 POL COA Kopacz.svg   James Ostrainyn   Cossack leader, hetman.
1638 Alex K No image.svg   Dmytro Hunia   Cossack leader, hetman.
1639 - 1642 Alex K No image.svg   Carp half-housings   Cossack leader, hetman.
1642 - 1646 Alex K No image.svg   Maxim Gulak   Cossack leader, hetman.

Hetmans of the Cossack state[edit]

Following the Khmelnytsky uprising a new Cossack republic, the Hetmanate, was formed.

# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1 BChmielnicki.jpg Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1596–1657)
Зиновій-Богдан Хмельницький
1648 (Sich) 26 January 1648 6 August 1657 died
2 Yurii Khmelnytsky.png Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
death of his father 6 August 1657 27 August 1657 reconsidered by the Council of Officers
3 Iwan Wyhowski.PNG Alex K Ivan Vygovskyi.svg Ivan Vyhovsky
(????–1664)
Іван Виговський
1657 (Korsun) 27 August 1657
(confirmed: 21 October 1657)
11 September 1659 surrendered title
4 Yurii Khmelnytsky.png Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
1659 (Hermanivka) 11 September 1659
(confirmed: 11 September 1659)
October 1662 surrendered title

Hetmans during the Ruin[edit]

The Ruin (1660–1687) was a time in Ukrainian history when the country fell into disarray and chaos. Afterwards, the Cossack state emerged as a vassal of the Russian Empire. During this period a number of hetmans stayed in power for short periods of time and often controlled only parts of the country. Moreover the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667) split the Cossack Hetmanate along the Dnieper River into Left-bank Ukraine, which enjoyed a degree of autonomy within the Tsardom of Russia; and Right-bank Ukraine which remained part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, at times (1672–1699) occupied by the Ottoman Empire.

Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine
Polish protectorate
Russianй protectorate
16601663 Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Yurii Khmelnytsky 16601663 Alex K No image.svg Yakym Somko
16631665 Alex K Pavlo Teteria.svg Pavlo Teteria 16631668 Alex K Ivan Briuhovetskyi.svg Ivan Briukhovetsky
16651668 Alex K Petro Doroshenko.svg Petro Doroshenko
Unification
16681669 Alex K Petro Doroshenko.svg Petro Doroshenko
Partition
Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine
Osman protectorate
Polish protectorate
Russian protectorate
Swedish protectorate
16691676 Alex K Petro Doroshenko.svg Petro Doroshenko 16691674 Alex K Myhailo Hanenko.svg Mykhailo Khanenko 16691672 Alex K Demian Mnohohrishnyi.svg Demian Mnohohrishny
16781681 Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Yurii Khmelnytsky 16751679 Alex K Ostafiy Hohol.svg Ostap Gogol 16721687 Alex K Ivan Samoilovych.svg Ivan Samoilovych
16811684 Alex K No image.svg Gheorghe Duca 16831684 POL COA Sas II.svg Stefan Kunicki
1685 Alex K Chmelnitskyi.svg Yurii Khmelnytsky 16841689 POL COA Mohyła.svg Andrii Mohyła
16871708 Alex K Ivan Mazepa.svg Ivan Mazepa
Unification
17081722 Alex K Ivan Skoropadskyi.svg Ivan Skoropadsky 17081709 Alex K Ivan Mazepa.svg Ivan Mazepa
17081718 Alex K Pylyp Orlyk.svg Pylyp Orlyk
17181742 Alex K Pylyp Orlyk.svg Pylyp Orlyk 17221724 Alex K Pavlo Polubotok.svg Pavlo Polubotok
17271734 Alex K Danylo Apostol.svg Danylo Apostol
17501764 Alex K Rozumovski family.svg Kirill Razumovsky

In the Russian Empire (1667/1793–1917) and Austria-Hungary (1526/1772–1918)[edit]

After the dissolution of the Cossack Hetmanate, a new Malorossiyan collegium was established in 1764, and the Zaporozhian Host was disbanded in 1775. As a result of the second and third Partitions of Poland in 1793 and 1795, eastern and central parts of Ukraine were incorporated directly into the Russian Empire. Western Ukraine was annexed into the Habsburg Monarchy earlier, in the following order: Carpathian Ruthenia (1526), Galicia (1772), and Bukovina (1775).

The Russian Empire existed until 1917, and the Dual Monarchy, Austria–Hungary, existed until 1918.

Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1921)[edit]

The Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR, 1917–1921) was formed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and lasted until the Peace of Riga between Poland and Soviet Russia in March 1921. The leadership title varied and, despite a rather widespread misconception, none of them had the official title of president.

Chairmen of the Central Council[edit]

The Central Council (Tsentral’na rada) was the representative body governing the UNR.

      Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Hrushevskyi Mykhailo XX.jpg Mykhailo Hrushevskyi
1866–1934
27 March 1917 29 April 1918 Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Hetman of the Ukrainian State[edit]

A very short lived Hetmanate was established by Pavlo Skoropadskyi in 1918.

# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1 Skoropadsky - before 1917.jpg Alex K Ivan Skoropadskyi.svg Pavlo Skoropadskyi
1873–1945
Russian Revolution of 1917 29 April 1918 14 December 1918 Removed from power in an uprising led by the social democrat Symon Petliura

Chairmen of the Directory[edit]

The Directorate of Ukraine was a provisional council of the UNR formed after Skoropadskyi's Hetmanate fell apart. On 22 January 1919, the Act of Unification of the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic was passed. The text of the universal was made by the members of the Directory.

      Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Vynnychenko.jpg Volodymyr Vynnychenko
1880–1951
14 December 1918 11 February 1919 Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party
2 Симон Петлюра.jpg Symon Petliura
1879–1926
11 February 1919 7 May 1921 Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party

West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918–1919)[edit]

The government of the West Ukrainian People's Republic (WUNR) was proclaimed on 19 October 1918. WUNR was united with the Ukrainian People's Republic on 22 January 1919, although it was mostly a symbolic act while the western Ukrainians retained their own Ukrainian Galician Army and government structure. After the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919), Poland took over most of territory of the West Ukrainian People's Republic by July 1919. Since November 1919, the government of the WUNR was in exile.

President of the Ukrainian National Republic[edit]

      Ukrainian People's Labor Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Petrushevych Yevhen.jpg Yevhen Petrushevych
1863–1940
19 October 1918 15 March 1923 Ukrainian People's Labor Party

Carpatho-Ukraine (1939)[edit]

President of the Carpatho-Ukraine[edit]

      Christian People's Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Avgustyn Voloshyn.jpg Avgustyn Voloshyn
1874–1945
15 March 1939 16 March 1939 Christian People's Party

Ukrainian State (1941)[edit]

Prime Minister of the Ukrainian State[edit]

      Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Stecko.jpg Yaroslav Stetsko
1912–1986
30 June 1941 9 July 1941 Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918/1919–1991)[edit]

Ukraine was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 30 December 1922.

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine

Mykola Skrypnyk

First Secretary of the Central Committee

Executive Secretary of the Central Committee

First Secretaries of the Communist Party

General Secretaries of the Central Committee

First Secretaries of the Central Committee

Nikita Khrushchev

Ukraine (1991 – present)[edit]

On 5 July 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR passed a law establishing the post of the President of the Ukrainian SSR. The title was changed to the President of Ukraine upon the proclamation of independence (24 August 1991). The first election of the President of Ukraine was held on 1 December 1991.

Presidents[edit]

      Our Ukraine       Party of Regions       Batkivshchyna       Petro Poroshenko Bloc / UDAR       Independent / Non-partisan

Portrait Presidents Term of office Presidential mandate Affiliation
1 Leonid Kravchuk.jpg Leonid Kravchuk
(b. 1934)
Леонід Кравчук
5 December 1991
Inauguration: 22 August 1992[a]
19 July 1994 1991 — 61.59%
19,643,481
Independent / Non-partisan
2 Kuchmaukraine.jpg Leonid Kuchma
(b. 1938)
Леонід Кучма
19 July 1994 14 November 1999 1994 — 52.3%
14,016,850
Independent / Non-partisan
14 November 1999 23 January 2005 1999 — 57.7%
15,870,722
3 Wiktor Juschtschenko, Präsident der Ukraine, in der Universität Zürich.jpg Viktor Yushchenko
(b. 1954)
Віктор Ющенко
23 January 2005 25 February 2010 2004 — 51.99%
15,115,712
Non-partisan (2004-2005)
Our Ukraine (2005-2010)
4 Viktor Yanukovych Greece 2011 (cropped).jpg Viktor Yanukovych
(b. 1950)
Віктор Янукович
25 February 2010 22 February 2014[b] 2010 — 48.95%
12,481,266
Non-partisan[18]
(Supported by Party of Regions)
Turchynov March 2014 (cropped).jpg Oleksandr Turchynov
(b. 1964)
Олександр Турчинов
(acting)
23 February 2014 7 June 2014 ex officio
(as Chairman of Parliament, Article 112)
Batkivshchyna
5 Petro Porochenko au Conseil de l’Europe Strasbourg 26 juin 2014 04.jpg Petro Poroshenko
(b. 1965)
Петро Порошенко
7 June 2014 Incumbent 2014 — 54.70%
9,857,308
Non-partisan
(Supported by Petro Poroshenko Bloc & UDAR)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Definition of UKRAINIAN, Merriam-Webster
  2. ^ uk:Скіфські царі
  3. ^ Staraya Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg)
  4. ^ Nordiska furstar lade grunden till Ryssland
  5. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts). ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  6. ^ DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes
  7. ^ Sveerne
  8. ^ Leszek Moczulski, Narodziny Międzymorza, p.475, Bellona SA, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 978-83-11-10826-4
  9. ^ Ярополк is modern Ukrainian, Jaropełk is Polish, Jaropluk is Czech, Jaropelkas is Lithuanian, Iaropelkos is Greek, Jaropolk is German and Swedish.
  10. ^ The Old Slavonic is Свѧтопълкъ in the Cyrillic alphabet, the modern Ukrainian is Святополк, Polish is Świętopełk, Czech is Svatopluk, and Slovak is Svätopluk. Reconstructed, his name is Sventopluk. More commonly, his name is given in its Latin and Frankish equivalents: Suentopolcus, Suatopluk, Zventopluk, Zwentibald, Zwentibold, Zuentibold, or Zuentibald.
  11. ^ http://izbornyk.org.ua/dynasty/dyn40.htm
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dimnik, Martin. The Dynasty of Chernigov – 1146–1246. 
  13. ^ Other source suggests that Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich ruled from 1181 ([1]. Retrieved 13 April 2009), but his brother Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich became grand prince of Kiev in 1176 and promoted him to Chernigov; Dimnik, Martin op. cit. p 137.
  14. ^ a b A number of historians claim Igor Svyatoslavich died in 1202 ([2]. Retrieved 13 April 2009); he most probably died in the spring of 1201, because most chronicles place the news of his death as the first entry for the year; Dimnik, Martin op. cit p. 237.
  15. ^ a b Some historians claim Gleb Svyatoslavich died in 1219 ([3]. Retrieved 13 April 2009); he was last mentioned under 1215 and he died between 1215 and 1220; Dimnik, Martin op. cit p. 291.
  16. ^ Under the year 1261, the chronicles report that prince Vasilko Romanovich of Volodymyr-Volynskyi gave away his daughter Olga as wife to Andrey Vsevolodovich of Chernigov. Based on this report, some historians claim that Andrey Vsevolodovich was the prince of Chernigov between 1245 and 1261 ([4]. Retrieved 13 April 2009). However, the chronicler's identification of Andrey as a prince of Chernigov merely signified that he was an Olgovich (a member of the dynasty of Chernigov); Dimnik, Martin op. cit p. 380.
  17. ^ The Lyubetskiy sinodik speaks of a certain "Lavrenty Vsevolod Yaropolchi"; R. V. Zotov suggests that Vsevolod succeeded Mikhail Vsevolodovich to Chernigov from 1246 to 1263(see also: [5]. Retrieved 13 April 2009); the chronicles, however, do not support Zotov's assertions; Dimnik, Martin op. cit p. 380.
  18. ^ Янукович припинив членство у Партії регіонів : Новини УНIАН