List of Unitarians, Universalists, and Unitarian Universalists

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See also History of Unitarianism

A number of notable people have considered themselves Unitarians, Universalists, and following the merger of these denominations in the United States and Canada in 1961, Unitarian Universalists. Additionally, there are persons who, because of their writings or reputation, are considered to have held Unitarian or Universalist beliefs. Individuals who held unitarian (nontrinitarian) beliefs but were not affiliated with Unitarian organizations are often referred to as "small 'u'" unitarians. The same principle can be applied to those who believed in universal salvation but were not members of Universalist organizations. This article, therefore, makes the distinction between capitalized "Unitarians" and "Universalists" and lowercase "unitarians" and "universalists".

The Unitarians and Universalists are groups that existed long before the creation of Unitarian Universalism.

Early Unitarians did not hold Universalist beliefs, and early Universalists did not hold Unitarian beliefs. But beginning in the nineteenth century the theologies of the two groups started becoming more similar.

Additionally, their eventual merger as the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) did not eliminate divergent Unitarian and Universalist congregations, especially outside the US. Even within the US, some congregations still keep only one of the two names, "Unitarian" or "Universalist". However, with only a few exceptions, all belong to the UUA—even those that maintain dual affiliation (e.g., Unitarian and Quaker). Transcendentalism was a movement that diverged from contemporary American Unitarianism but has been embraced by later Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists.

In Ireland and Northern Ireland, Unitarian churches are officially called "Non-Subscribing Presbyterian", but are informally known as "Unitarian" and are affiliated with the Unitarian churches of the rest of the world.

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  • György Kepes (1906–2001) – visual artist[3]
  • Naomi King (born 1970) – Unitarian minister, daughter of author Stephen King[53]
  • Thomas Starr King (1824–1864) – minister who during his career served both in Universalist and in Unitarian churches[4][10]
  • James R. Killian (1904–1988) – president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology[3]
  • W.M. Kiplinger (1891–1967) – publisher of the Kiplinger Letters[3]
  • Abner Kneeland (1774–1844) – Universalist minister and denominational leader who, after leaving the denomination to become a leader in the freethought movement, was convicted and jailed for blasphemy.[5]
  • Richard Knight (1768–1844) – friend, colleague and follower of Joseph Priestley, developed the first method to make platinum malleable. Stored Priestley's library during his escape to America.[54]

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See also[edit]

Footnotes, citations and references[edit]

  1. ^ Biographical Information for Abbot, Francis Ellingwood. Family Papers, 1815-1940, hosted at the website of Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School, and maintained by Frances O'Donnell, October 12, 2005 . Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  2. ^ Abigail Adams
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs Notable American Unitarians, 1936-1961, a project of the First Parish and the First Church in Cambridge (Unitarian Universalist), hosted at the website of Harvard Square Library. Project advisors: Gloria Korsman, Andover-Harvard Theological Library; Conrad Edick Wright, Massachusetts Historical Society; and Conrad Wright, Harvard Divinity School. (Archived July 3, 2007)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Some famous Unitarians include presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Paul Revere, President William Howard Taft, and Frank Lloyd Wright... Important figures from this period in Unitarian history include John Biddle, Francis David, Michael Servetus, King John Sigismund and Faustus Socinus... The influential Unitarians from this era included William Ellery Channing, Theodore Parker, Joseph Priestly [sic], and Thomas Starr King, who was also a Universalist." [1], uduuf.org. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Recent Scholarship in American Universalism: A Bibliographical Essay, Alan Seaburg, Church History, Vol. 41, No. 4. (Dec., 1972), pp. 513-523. . Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  6. ^ "Delineated in detail are formative influences such as her... religious environment (Quaker and Unitarian)..." Suffrage for All, Review of Susan B. Anthony: Rebel, Crusader, Humanitarian by Alma Lutz. Review author: Hazel Browne Williams, The Phylon Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2. (2nd Qtr., 1959), p. 205. . Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  7. ^ Kohn, Alfie (March 20, 1987). "Crusader still leads way on abortion rights". USA Today. 
  8. ^ Marteka, Peter (October 31, 2005). "An 'Unfinished Crusade'". The Hartford Courant. 
  9. ^ "Ballou, the son of a poor Calvinist Baptist preacher, was converted to Universalism and began preaching the new "heresy" on a Calvinistic basis in 1791… His first sermon on a Unitarian and Arian base was preached in 1795. Within ten years, through the power of his argumentation, and against the opposition of the prominent Universalist John Murray, Ballou had converted the Universalist ministry to Unitarianism."Hosea Ballou, Preacher of Universal Salvation, Ernest Cassara, Church History, Vol. 26, No. 4. (Dec., 1957), p. 382. . Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Some famous Universalists include Clara Barton, Olympia Brown, Thomas Starr King, Horace Greeley, George Pullman, Mary Livermore, and Benjamin Rush. ...Universalist beliefs have been proclaimed for thousands of years, starting with Origen in 200 CE and continuing through to James Relly in the sixteen hundreds... Universalists including Hosea Ballou, John Murray, and Benjamin Rush helped to spread and develop their faith's teachings throughout the denomination's early years." Universalism, UUA.org, August 1, 2007. . Retrieved August 27, 2007.[dead link]
  11. ^ Seaburg, Alan. P. T. Barnum. Unitarian Universalist Historical Society. . Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  12. ^ The Jubilee Singers
  13. ^ a b "The Struggle for Racial Justice describes the key roles played by Unitarian and Universalist women... These women included Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, and Julia Ward Howe, who wrote 'The Battle Hymn of the Republic.'" Exhibit "Standing Before Us: Unitarian Universalist Women and Social Reform" On Display at Women's Rights National Historical Park, Women's Rights National Historical Park news release, Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Contact: Vivien Rose. . Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  14. ^ Millspaugh John. 5.15.11 uuworld http://www.uuworld.org/ideas/articles/183480.shtml Accessed 8/10/13
  15. ^ "Bergh used his wealth and prestige to raise public awareness of the suffering of animals and to enlist support from powerful New York businessmen, politicians, and religious leaders in the founding of the ASPCA. Among these was his minister, Henry Whitney Bellows of the First Congregational Church of New York City (now the Unitarian Church of All Souls)" http://www25-temp.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/henrybergh.html
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h "Some Unitarian Universalists of whom you may already have heard include Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Newman, Christopher Reeve, May Sarton, Pete Seeger, and Kurt Vonnegut... Unitarian Universalists James Reeb and Viola Liuzzo were killed because of their participation in this protest..." Unitarian Universalism, UUA.org, March 1, 2007. . Retrieved August 28, 2007.[dead link]
  17. ^ Tim Berners-Lee, The World Wide Web and the "Web of Life"
  18. ^ Gwen Foss (2003). A Who's who of U.U.s: A Concise Biographical Compendium of Prominent, Famous and Noteworthy Unitarians, Universalists and UUs. Gwen Foss. 
  19. ^ "...he was director of the American Unitarian Association (1942-48) and in 1949 began the first of five years as a director of the Unitarian Service Committee (1949-54). Chairman, Unitarian Development Fund Campaign (1959-62)." Hall of Fame: Percival Flack Brundage, Fisher College of Business at The Ohio State University, 1994-2004. (Archived.) Retrieved August 26, 2007.
  20. ^ UUA: The John A. Buehrens Ministerial Scholarships (2 Scholarships)
  21. ^ a b c Vision & Values in a Post-9/11 World: A curriculum on Civil Liberties, Patriotism, and the U.S. Role Abroad for Unitarian Universalist Congregations, Developed by Pamela Sparr on behalf of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations, Spring 2002. . Retrieved August 28, 2007.[dead link]
  22. ^ Ruston, Alan. "Neville Chamberlain". Unitarian Universalist Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  23. ^ "Andrew Carnegie and Lousie Whitfield were married in her home by the Rev. Dr. Charles H. Eaton, minster of the bride's family Universalist Church of the Divine Paternity in New York City." Biography of Louise Carnegie http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/Louise_Carnegie/Louise_Carnegie_Free_Library_Advocate.html
  24. ^ David Nasaw, Andrew Carnegie, (Penguin, 2007) pg. 296 books.google.com/books?id=ni0EsmebjYwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s ISBN 0-14-311244-9, ISBN 978-0-14-311244-0
  25. ^ Channing favored organized Unitarianism early in his career, but later distanced himself from Unitarianism as a sect, which he believed had become too orthodox, and identified himself as an "independent Christian." Channing and Transcendentalism, Arthur I. Ladu, American Literature, Vol. 11, No. 2. (May, 1939), pp. 129-137. . Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  26. ^ Chauncy, Charles. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 29, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  27. ^ Clark, Andrew Inglis (1848 - 1907) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online
  28. ^ Unitarian Universalist Astronaut Laurel Clark Remembered with Flowers, Bagpipes, and Warm Recollections
  29. ^ Kent Conrad on the issues
  30. ^ Jordan, John Woolf (1912). Genealogical and Personal History of Fayette County Pennsylvania, Volume 1. Fayette County, PA: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. 
  31. ^ Morris Dees (1991). A season for justice: the life and times of civil rights lawyer Morris Dees. Scribner. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-684-19189-8. 
  32. ^ Charles Dickens
  33. ^ Keohane, John. "Paul Douglas". Unitarian Universalist Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  34. ^ a b [2]
  35. ^ Martin, Jonathan (April 8, 2008). "Obama's mother known here as "uncommon"". The Seattle Times. 
  36. ^ Emerton, Ephraim (1911). Unitarian Thought. New York: Macmillan Co. OCLC 1403642. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  37. ^ "The Religious Affiliations of U.S. Presidents". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2013-05-23. 
  38. ^ "For 22 years he served as a parish minister of Unitarian churches in the Pacific Northwest." About the Author, from the official website of Robert Fulghum, 2006. . Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  39. ^ French, Kimberly. Radiant Genius & Fiery Heart, UU World, Summer 2010 issue, pp. 36-41
  40. ^ Elizabeth Gaskell (1810 - 1865) - Find A Grave Memorial
  41. ^ Greta Gerwig, UU Film Star, by Cynthia Littleton, UUWorld, August 15, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2014
  42. ^ Eleanor Elizabeth Gordon, article by Peter Hughes
  43. ^ Mike Gravel's Unitarian Universalism, by Doug Muder, UUWorld, December 10, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  44. ^ [3] PDF
  45. ^ Q&A with Gary Gygax, Part I
  46. ^ UUA Directory 1973. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations.
  47. ^ http://www.allsoulskc.org/sermons/020728.html Archived February 12, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Wu, Duncan (2007). "Hazlitt, William (1737–1820)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press accessed 25 Nov 2011.
  49. ^ a b Davis D. Joyce (2007-05-30). Alternative Oklahoma: Contrarian Views of the Sooner State. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-8061-3819-0. 
  50. ^ Nick Kotz (2005). Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., And The Laws That Changed America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-618-08825-6. 
  51. ^ "More than one Republican apologist fairly pointed out that the unitarian Jefferson was no greater an infidel than the unitarian Adams... Although [Jefferson] was elected to an Anglican parish vestry, no record exists of his having served in that capacity. He was famous for not attending church and did so semiregularly only during his presidency and near the end of his life. To friends, he referred to himself variously as a 'Theist,' 'Deist,' 'Unitarian,' 'Rational Christian,' and 'Epicurean'; 'I am a sect unto myself, as far as I know,' he wrote." America's Founding Faiths, by Forrest Church, UU World magazine, Vol. XXI, Nol 4, Winter 2007.
  52. ^ [4]
  53. ^ Stephen King#Personal life
  54. ^ Hunt, L.B. (February 1985). "Richard Knight and the Production of Malleable Platinum the story of a forgotten Chemist" (PDF). Platinum Metals Review 29 (01): 48. Retrieved 2011-01-27. "pgs 29-35" 
  55. ^ "In Herman Melville's Religious Journey (1998), Walter Donald Kring detailed his discovery of letters indicating that Melville had been a member of the Unitarian Church of All Souls in New York City." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Melville#Death
  56. ^ Fairman, Charles (1939). Mr. Justice Miller and the Supreme Court, 1862-1890. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 1-58477-267-0. 
  57. ^ uuworld.org : unitarian universalist elected to u.s. house
  58. ^ http://www.uua.org/uuagovernance/officers/president/
  59. ^ Kohn, Rachael. "ABC Radio National." New and Newer Religions: Unitarianism and Eckankar. Dr Rachael Kohn, 28 June 2009. Web. 11 Aug. 2013. <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/spiritofthings/new-and-newer-religions-unitarianism-and-eckankar/3055854#transcript>.
  60. ^ "The presiding judge, Isaac Parker, was himself a Unitarian." http://www.uua.org/re/tapestry/adults/river/workshop9/workshopplan/stories/178594.shtml
  61. ^ "On February 24, 1860, the Boston Unitarian minister and transcendentalist, Theodore Parker, wrote Professor Desor from Rome..." Darwin and the Transcendentalists, John B. Wilson, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 26, No. 2. (Apr. - June, 1965), p. 286. . Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  62. ^ "Randy Pausch, Computer Science Professor at Carnegie Mellon University, died on July 25 after a two-year struggle with pancreatic cancer. A Unitarian Universalist who first came to this faith as a member of the First Unitarian Church of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Pausch was 47 years old. Celebrated in his field for co-founding the pioneering Carnegie Mellon Entertainment Technology Center and for creating the innovative educational software tool known as "Alice", Pausch earned his greatest worldwide fame for his "The Last Lecture", which was subsequently published by Hyperion Books.In Memoriam: Randy Pausch, UUA.org
  63. ^ "Unitarian Universalist Melissa Harris-Perry is a distinguished academic and a commentator on MSNBC. She has written the book, "Barbershops, Bibles, and BET: Everyday Talk and Black Political Thought," and delivered the Ware Lecture at the 2009 General Assembly of the UUA." October 31, 2012 http://www.uua.org/beliefs/history/6186.shtml Retrieved August 11, 2013
  64. ^ "Some famous modern-day Unitarian Universalists include Tim Berners-Lee, Melissa Harris-Perry, Christopher Reeve, May Sarton, Randy Pausch, Pete Seeger, Joanne Woodward, and Kurt Vonnegut." October 31, 2012 http://www.uua.org/beliefs/history/6186.shtml Retrieved August 11, 2013
  65. ^ Famous Unitarian-Universalists, Famous Unitarians
  66. ^ "James Pierpont, author of 'Jingle-Bells' and the son of AUA co-founder, John Pierpont Sr." http://www.uua.org/beliefs/history/6903.shtml
  67. ^ "Unitarian Universalist... Christopher Reeve... was today remembered by UUA President William G. Sinkford... Sinkford said, '...Christopher bore witness in both word and deed to the healing power of his Unitarian Universalist faith. I am so thankful that he found a religious home with us and a faithful minister in the Rev. Frank Hall of the Westport (Connecticut) Unitarian Church.'" In Memoriam: Christopher Reeve, Unitarian Universalist, UUA.org, Oct. 12, 2004. . Retrieved August 27, 2007.
  68. ^ Abraham, Martin, John and Dru by Mark Ritchie, excerpted from sermon delivered January 2008 at First Universalist Church of Minneapolis
  69. ^ [5]Mary Augusta Safford Article by Celeste DeRoche
  70. ^ Ellery Schempp's remarks at the Oct. 17 Arlington St. Church event: "Ahead of the Wave: UU Defense of Civil Liberties", delivered 17 October 2002, published 2007 at UUA.org archives . Retrieved 12 March 2009.
  71. ^ High-profile advocate for human rights, by Kimberly French, UUWorld, Winter 2006 11.1.06
  72. ^ "The Serlings joined the UU Community Church of Santa Monica, California..." * Looking back: 'Twilight Zone' writer challenged prejudice, by Kimberly French, UU World magazine, Vol. XXI, Nol 4, Winter 2007.
  73. ^ "Shaw was the son of Sarah and Francis Shaw, two radical Unitarians who were among the first to embrace Transcendentalism, feminism, and abolitionism." http://www.uuworld.org/ideas/articles/186477.shtml
  74. ^ "Being liberal in his religious views, he was in reality a Universalist." http://www.genealogybug.net/oh_biographies/schumacher.shtml
  75. ^ "The Quaker Oats company, for example, should have been called the Universalist Oats, for it was started by Ferdinand Schumacher, an Akron, Ohio, Universalist who got rich selling oatmeal to the Union army during the Civil War." http://www.uuworld.org/ideas/articles/2745.shtml
  76. ^ http://www.uua.org/administration/wsbio.html "Biographical sketch: The Reverend William G. Sinkford"
  77. ^ # ^ http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060190b.htm
  78. ^ Stark called himself "a Unitarian who does not believe in a supreme being" and has been identified as an atheist. Rep. Stark applauded for atheist outlook: Believed to be first congressman to declare nontheism, Associated Press, March 13, 2007 . Retrieved June 15, 2007.
  79. ^ Newmyer, Kent (1986). Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story: Statesman of the Old Republic. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0807841648. 
  80. ^ http://www-math.mit.edu/people/struik-obituary.html Archived September 9, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ http://www.judybolton.com/obituary.html Obituary for Margaret Sutton Hunting
  82. ^ "Clementia Taylor". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2012-12-22. 
  83. ^ Vonnegut said "I am an atheist (or at best a Unitarian who winds up in churches quite a lot)."Haught, James A. (1996). 2,000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-067-4. 
  84. ^ "Bring O Past Your Honor: Congregation Histories : Minnesota". "W. D. Washburn was a chief founder of the church [First Universalist Church of Minneapolis] when it was formally incorporated in 1859, and a faithful member for fifty years. (From the Washburn family also early members of the church) came the present day Pillsbury and General Mills companies" 
  85. ^ "I am a Muslim and I worship in mosques when I am in Pakistan. I also worship in Unitarian Churches when I'm in the US..." * Global Citizen, by Dawud Wharnsby, Scout UK magazine, June/July 2010.
  86. ^ "uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/alfredwhite.html White, a lifelong member of the church [The First Unitarian Church of Brooklyn]"
  87. ^ "Some famous modern-day Unitarian Universalists include Tim Berners-Lee, Melissa Harris-Perry, Christopher Reeve, May Sarton, Randy Pausch, Pete Seeger, Joanne Woodward, and Kurt Vonnegut." October 2012 http://www.uua.org/beliefs/history/6186.shtml Accessed August 11, 2013
  88. ^ "Frank Lloyd Wright's contact with All Souls Church may have begun in December 1884 when his father had preached there. The All Souls Church Fourth Annual, dated January 6, 1887, was the first to list Wright as a member..." [All Souls is a Unitarian church in Chicago, Illinois] Frank Lloyd Wright's Unity Temple and Architecture for Liberal Religion in Chicago, 1885-1909, Joseph Siry, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 73, No. 2. (Jun., 1991), pp. 257-282. . Retrieved August 26, 2007.
  89. ^ "A devoted lifelong Universalist, today the peace tower at the Universalist National Memorial Church in Washington D.C. is named in Young’s honor." Biographical information on Owen D. Young. http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/Young/Home.html

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