List of United States Army National Guard Observation Squadrons

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Douglas O-38 102d Observation Squadron, New York National Guard, 1933. The 102d is the oldest and senior squadron in the Air National Guard, dating to April 1908.

United States Army National Guard units began forming Aerial Observation units before World War I. When the United States entered the war in April 1917, about 100 National Guard pilots joined the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps (Later Air Service, United States Army).[1]

After the demobilization of the World War I Air Service in 1919, in 1920, the Militia Bureau and the Air Service agreed on forming postwar National Guard aviation units. On 17 January 1921 the 109th Observation Squadron of the Minnesota National Guard became the first postwar air unit to receive federal recognition. They flew a wide variety of aircraft during the inter-war period. These included the Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny", Consolidated PT-1 "Trusty", Consolidated PT-3, Northrop BT-1, Douglas O-2 and Consolidated O-17 Courier during 1923-1931; the Douglas O-38 during 1931-1935; and the Douglas O-43 and North American O-47 between 1935 and 1942.[1][2]

These 29 squadrons (18 of them having a World War I lineage and histories) formed by the Army before World War II remain active Air National Guard units today and are the direct predecessors of today's current units.[3]

Squadrons[edit]

Unit State Organized Federal
Recognition*
Federalized /
Inactivated
Comments
101st Observation Squadron Massachusetts 22 August 1917 25 January 1923 25 November 1940 Initially World War I 101st Aero Squadron. Deployed to France, was aircraft maintenance unit. demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1923, 26th Division, MA National Guard. Ordered to active service on 25 Nov 1940; allotted to ANG, on 29 Jul 1946; now 101st Intelligence Squadron.[2][4][5]
102d Observation Squadron New York 23 August 1917 17 November 1921 15 October 1940 Origins begin in April 1908 as 1st Aero Company, New York National Guard. Disbanded 1917. World War I 102d Aero Squadron formed from unit personnel. Deployed to France, was primarily a transportation and aircraft maintenance unit. demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1921, 27th Division, NY National Guard. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 102d Rescue Squadron. This squadron is recognized as the ANG's oldest unit.[2][5][6]
103d Observation Squadron Pennsylvania 27 June 1924 27 June 1924 17 February 1941 28th Division, PA National Guard. Ordered to active service on 17 Feb 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 103d Fighter Squadron, inactivated 2010.[2][7]
104th Observation Squadron Maryland 29 June 1921 29 June 1921 3 February 1941 29th Division, MD National Guard. Ordered to active service on 3 Feb 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 104th Fighter Squadron [2][8]
107th Observation Squadron Michigan 27 August 1917 7 May 1926 15 October 1940 Initially World War I 107th Aero Squadron. Deployed to France, assembled, serviced and repaired aircraft. demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1926, 32d Division, MI National Guard. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 107th Fighter Squadron [2][5][9]
108th Observation Squadron Illinois 27 August 1917 1 July 1927 3 February 1941 Initially World War I 108th Aero Squadron. Deployed to France, repaired and maintained aircraft. demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1927, 33d Division, IL National Guard. Ordered to active service on 3 Feb 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; ;now 108th Air Refueling Squadron [2][5][10]
109th Observation Squadron Minnesota 27 August 1917 17 January 1921 10 February 1941 Initially World War I 109th Aero Squadron, deployed to France, primarily a transportation unit on Western Front, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1921, 34th Division, MN National Guard. Ordered to active service on 10 Feb 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 109th Airlift Squadron [2][5][11]
110th Observation Squadron Missouri 14 August 1917 23 June 1923 23 December 1940 Initially World War I 110th Aero Squadron, assigned to Kelly Field, Texas, as a repair squadron, later re-designated as 804th Aero Squadron, "Squadron K, Kelly Field"; demobilized 1918. Re-formed 1923, 35th Division, MO National Guard. Ordered to active service on 23 Dec 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 110th Bombardment Squadron [2][5][12]
111th Observation Squadron Texas 14 August 1917 29 June 1923 25 December 1940 Initially World War I 111th Aero Squadron, operated as a supply unit at Kelly Field, Texas, later re-designated as 632d Aero Squadron, demobilized 1919. Re-formed 1923, 36th Division, TX National Guard. Ordered to active service on 25 Dec 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 111th Reconnaissance Squadron [2][5][13]
112th Observation Squadron Ohio 18 August 1917 20 June 1927 25 November 1940 Initially World War I 112th Aero Squadron, remained in United States, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1927, 37th Division, OH National Guard. Ordered to active service on 25 Nov 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 112th Fighter Squadron [2][5][14]
113th Observation Squadron Indiana 26 August 1917 1 August 1921 17 January 1941 Initially World War I 113th Aero Squadron, remained in United States, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1921, 38th Division, IN National Guard. Ordered to active service on 17 Jan 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 113th Air Support Operations Squadron [2][5][15]
114th Observation Squadron
106th Observation Squadron
Alabama 27 August 1917 21 January 1922 25 November 1940 Initially World War I 106th Aero Squadron, deployed to France, repaired and maintained aircraft, demobilized 1919; reformed as 114th Observation Squadron; consolidated (1936) with 135th Squadron (organized 21 Jan 1922); served from 1923 with 39th Division to 1924 and thereafter with 31st Division, AL National Guard. Ordered to active service on 25 Nov 1940; re-designated: 100th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) on 9 May 1944; allotted to ANG on 24 May 1946; now 106th Air Refueling Squadron [2][5][16]
115th Observation Squadron California 28 August 1917 16 June 1924 3 March 1941 Initially World War I 115th Aero Squadron. Deployed to France, Constructed facilities and engaged in supply and related base support activities, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1924, 40th Division, CA National Guard. Ordered to active service on 3 March 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 111th Airlift Squadron [2][5][17]
116th Observation Squadron Washington 29 August 1917 6 August 1924 16 September 1940 Initially World War I 116th Aero Squadron, deployed to France. Performed transportation and supply missions on the Western Front, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1924, 41st Division, WA National Guard. Ordered to active service on 16 September 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 116th Air Refueling Squadron.[2][5][18]
118th Observation Squadron Connecticut 31 August 1917 1 November 1923 24 February 1941 Initially World War I 118th Aero Squadron, deployed to France. Constructed facilities, repaired aircraft and equipment, and served as a transportation and supply missions on the Western Front, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1923, 43d Division, CT National Guard. Ordered to active service on 16 September 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 118th Airlift Squadron.[2][5][19]
119th Observation Squadron New Jersey 8 June 1917 30 January 1930 18 October 1942 Initially World War I 5th Aviation School Squadron (later 119th Aero Squadron), remained in the United States, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1930, 44th Division, NJ National Guard. Inactivated 18 October 1942. Reactivated 1 March 1943, re-designated 490th Fighter Squadron allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 119th Fighter Squadron [2][5][20]
120th Observation Squadron Colorado 28 August 1917 27 June 1923 6 January 1941 Initially World War I 120th Aero Squadron, deployed to England. primarily aircraft maintenance unit, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1923, 45th Division, CO National Guard. Ordered to active service on 6 January 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 120th Fighter Squadron [2][5][21]
121st Observation Squadron District of Columbia 10 July 1940 10 April 1941 1 September 1941 DC National Guard. Ordered to active service on 1 Sep 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 121st Fighter Squadron [2][22]
122d Observation Squadron Louisiana 30 July 1940 2 March 1941 1 October 1941 LA National Guard, Ordered to active service on 1 October 1941; re-designated 885th Bombardment Squadron, 12 May 1944. allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 122d Fighter Squadron.[2][23]
123d Observation Squadron Oregon 30 July 1940 18 April 1941 15 September 1941 OR National Guard, Ordered to active service on 18 April 1941; re-designated 35th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron, 11 August 1943. allotted to ANG on 24 May 1946; now 123d Fighter Squadron[2]
124th Observation Squadron Iowa 30 July 1940 25 February 1941 15 September 1941 IA National Guard, Ordered to active service on 15 September 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 124th Fighter Squadron[2][24]
125th Observation Squadron Oklahoma 30 July 1940 15 February 1941 15 September 1941 OK National Guard, Ordered to active service on 15 September 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 125th Fighter Squadron[2][25]
126th Observation Squadron Wisconsin 30 July 1940 12 November 1940 2 June 1941 WI National Guard, ; Ordered to active service on 15 September 1941; re-designated 34th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron on 11 Aug 1943; allotted to ANG on 24 May 1946; now 126th Air Refueling Squadron[2][26]
127th Observation Squadron Kansas 30 July 1940 4 August 1941 6 October 1941 KS National Guard, Ordered to active service on 6 October 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 127th Command and Control Squadron[2][27]
128th Observation Squadron Georgia 1 February 1918 1 May 1941 15 September 1941 Initially World War I 840th Aero Squadron, deployed to France. repaired and rebuilt damaged aircraft on the Western Front, demobilized 1919; Re-formed 1940, GA National Guard. Ordered to active service on 15 September 1941; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946;; now 128th Airborne Command and Control Squadron [2][5][26]
136th Observation Squadron
105th Observation Squadron
Tennessee 27 August 1917 4 December 1921 18 October 1942 Initially World War I 105th Aero Squadron, deployed to France. operated as a supply unit, demobilized 1919; reformed as 105th Observation Squadron; consolidated (1936) with 136th Squadron (organized 4 Dec 1921), 30th Division, TN National Guard; Inactivated on 18 October 1942; Re-activated on 1 March 1943 as 105th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bombardment); allotted to ANG on 24 May 1946; now 105th Airlift Squadron [2][5][28]
152d Observation Squadron Rhode Island 21 August 1939 13 October 1939 25 November 1940 RI National Guard, Ordered to active service on 25 November 1940; re-designated: 37th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 15 June 1943. allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now Rhode Island ANG 143d Airlift Squadron [2][29]
153d Observation Squadron Mississippi 18 August 1939 27 September 1939 15 October 1940 MS National Guard, Ordered to active service on 15 October 1940; allotted to ANG, on 24 May 1946; now 153d Air Refueling Squadron [2][30]
154th Observation Squadron Arkansas 8 December 1917 24 October 1925 16 September 1940 Initially World War I 154th Aero Squadron, deployed first to England, then France. Repaired and maintained aircraft on the Western Front. demobilized 1919; reformed as 154th Observation Squadron 1925, Aviation Corps, AR National Guard; Ordered to active service on 16 Sep 1940; allotted to ANG on 24 May 1946; now 154th Training Squadron [2][5][31]

* Note: The "Federal Recognition" date is the effective date the unit was recognized for National Guard Service. Demobilized World War I Air Service units were re-established and re-designated effective that date.

During World War II, these units were federalized and were re-equipped with more modem aircraft. As part of the Army Air Corps, the units were transformed from observation organizations into reconnaissance, liaison, fighter, and bombardment squadrons. They served in every major combat theater during the war. The most significant wartime contribution of National Guard aviators was to train and lead the large numbers of volunteer airmen who had entered the AAF. That role was epitomized by Lt Col Addison E. Baker, a Guardsman from Akron, Ohio. On 1 August 1943, Baker commanded the VIII Bomber Command's 93d Bombardment Group on a daring but ill-fated low-level attack against enemy oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. Baker was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic leadership.[1][3][32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ a b c Rosenfeld, Susan and Gross, Charles J (2007), Air National Guard at 60: A History. Air National Guard history program AFD-080527-040
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Clay, Steven E. (2011). US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941 (PDF). 3 The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops 1919-1941. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press. ISBN 9780984190140. LCCN 2010022326. OCLC 637712205. Retrieved Oct 16, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. 
  4. ^ The 102nd Fighter Wing". Philippe Colin. 2008-01-22. Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the First World War, Volume 3, Part 3, Center of Military History, United States Army, 1949 (1988 Reprint)
  6. ^ New York Air National Guard, First Aero Company: Official History
  7. ^ 111th Fighter Wing history
  8. ^ 104th Fighter Squadron lineage and history
  9. ^ Order of Battle : 107th FS Michigan Air National Guard
  10. ^ Early 108th Observation Squadron history
  11. ^ 109th Observation Squadron accessed December 2012.
  12. ^ 110th Bomb Squadron lineage and history
  13. ^ Watson, W.E. Jr., ed. 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron 27 September 1942. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History (AFHRC), c. 1945.
  14. ^ 112th Fighter Squadron lineage and history
  15. ^ 113th Fighter Squadron lineage and history
  16. ^ 106th Air Refueling Squadron Lineage and History
  17. ^ 146th Airlift Wing website
  18. ^ 141st Air Refueling Wing website history page
  19. ^ 118th Airlift Squadron history
  20. ^ 119th Fighter Squadron lineage and history
  21. ^ 140th Fighter Wing factsheet
  22. ^ 121st Fighter Squadron lineage and history
  23. ^ 122d Fighter Squadron history
  24. ^ 142d FW home page
  25. ^ 125th Fighter Squadron history
  26. ^ a b 126th Air Refueling Squadron Lineage and History
  27. ^ 184th Intelligence Wing Site
  28. ^ History of the 118th Airlift Wing
  29. ^ 143d Airlift Wing Factsheet
  30. ^ 186th Air Refueling Wing History and Lineage
  31. ^ 189th Airlift Wing fact sheet
  32. ^ ANG Heritage: Missions, Wars and Operations