List of Chiefs of Naval Operations educated at the United States Naval Academy

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Flag of the Chief of Naval Operations

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the highest-ranking active duty member of the United States Navy and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CNO reports directly to the Secretary of the Navy for the command, utilization of resources and operating efficiency of the Navy. Of the 29 CNOs, 27 were graduates of the United States Naval Academy (USNA). The Academy is an undergraduate college in Annapolis, Maryland with the mission of educating and commissioning officers for the Navy and Marine Corps. The Academy is often is referred to as Annapolis, while sports media refer to the Academy as "Navy" and the students as "Midshipmen"; this usage is officially endorsed.[1] During the latter half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th, the United States Naval Academy was the primary source of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps officers, with the Class of 1881 being the first to provide officers to the Marine Corps. Graduates of the Academy are also given the option of entering the United States Army or United States Air Force. Most Midshipmen are admitted through the congressional appointment system.[2] The curriculum emphasizes various fields of engineering.[3]

This list is drawn from graduates of the Naval Academy who became CNOs. The Academy was founded in 1845 and graduated its first class in 1846. The first alumnus to graduate and go on to become a CNO was William S. Benson, who graduated from the Class of 1877. The current CNO, Jonathan Greenert, is also an Academy graduate. Four graduates subsequently became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, three became ambassadors, three were recipients of the Navy Cross, and one was a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Over 990 noted scholars from a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 45 Rhodes Scholars and 16 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include 1 President of the United States, 2 Nobel Prize recipients, 52 astronauts and 73 Medal of Honor recipients.b[›]

Chiefs of Naval Operations[edit]

"Class year" refers to the alumni's class year, which usually is the same year they graduated. However, in times of war, classes often graduate early. For example, the Class of 1942 actually graduated in 1941. This class became known as the "Pearl Harbor" class."
Name Class year Notability References
Benson, William S.William S. Benson 1877 Admiral; first Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) (1915–1919); defined the functions of the new CNO position and strengthened the Navy a[›][4][5]
Coontz, RobertRobert Coontz 1885 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1919–1923); Governor of Guam (1912–1913) a[›][6][7]
Eberle, Edward WalterEdward Walter Eberle 1885 Admiral; Superintendent of the Academy (1915–1919); Chief of Naval Operations (1923–1927) a[›][8][9]
Hughes, Charles FrederickCharles Frederick Hughes 1888 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1927–1930); served with the American battleship squadron that operated with the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands through World War I a[›][10][11]
Pratt, William V.William V. Pratt 1889 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1930–1933); instructor at the Academy (1900–1902) and (1905–1908) a[›][12][13]
Standley, William HarrisonWilliam Harrison Standley 1895 Admiral; Signed the London Naval Treaty of 1930 on behalf of the United States; Chief of Naval Operations (1933–1937); United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1942–1944) a[›][14][15]
Leahy, William D.William D. Leahy 1897 First Fleet admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1937–1939), during World War II; became the first fleet admiral and crafted a future thought leadership; served as Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, which was the role model for the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Governor of Puerto Rico (1939–1940) ambassador to the Vichy French a[›][16][17]
King, ErnestErnest King 1901 Fleet Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations in World War II (1942–1945); Navy Cross recipient a[›][18][19]
Stark, Harold RainsfordHarold Rainsford Stark 1903 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1939–1942); veteran of World War I and World War II a[›][20][21]
Nimitz, ChesterChester Nimitz 1905 Fleet Admiral; held the dual command of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet ("CinCPac" pronounced "sink-pack"), for US naval forces and Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CinCPOA), for US and Allied air, land, and sea forces during World War II; Chief of Naval Operations (1945–1947) a[›][22][23]
Denfeld, Louis E.Louis E. Denfeld 1912 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1947–1949); fired for his role in the "Revolt of the Admirals" a[›][24][25]
Carney, RobertRobert Carney 1916 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1953–1955); Navy Cross recipient a[›][26][27]
Fechteler, WilliamWilliam Fechteler 1916 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1951–1953) during the Korean War a[›][28][29]
Sherman, ForrestForrest Sherman 1918 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1949–1951); Navy Cross recipient a[›][30][31]
Burke, ArleighArleigh Burke 1923 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1955–1961); carrier and destroyer commander during World War II; Korean War veteran; Arleigh Burke-class of destroyers was named after him a[›][32][33]
Anderson, Jr., George WhelanGeorge Whelan Anderson, Jr. 1927 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1961–1963), in charge of the blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis; ambassador to Portugal (1963–1966) c[›]a[›][34][35]
McDonald, David L.David L. McDonald 1928 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1963–1967) during the eary Vietnam War a[›][36][37]
Moorer, Thomas HinmanThomas Hinman Moorer 1933 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1967–1970); chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1970–1974) d[›]a[›][38][39]
Holloway III, James L.James L. Holloway III 1943 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1974–1978); combat veteran of World War II, Korea, and Vietnam; established the Nuclear Powered Carrier Program; son of Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr. a[›][40][41]
Zumwalt, Jr., Elmo R.Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr. 1943 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1970–1974) during Vietnam War a[›][42][43]
Hayward, Thomas B.Thomas B. Hayward 1948 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1978–1982); recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross during the Korean War a[›][44][45]
Watkins, James D.James D. Watkins 1949 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1982–1986); Secretary of Energy (1989–1993); chairman of United States Commission on Ocean Policy that crafted Oceans Act of 2000 a[›]e[›][46][47]
Trost, CarlisleCarlisle Trost 1953 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1986–1990); submarine officer; graduated first in his class; Olmstead Scholar a[›][48][49][50]
Kelso, Frank B.Frank B. Kelso 1956 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1990–1994); Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic; submarine officer; Secretary of the Navy (acting) (1993) a[›][51][52]
Johnson, Jay L.Jay L. Johnson 1968 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (1996–2000); aviator a[›][53][54]
Mullen, MichaelMichael Mullen 1968 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (2005–2007); chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2007–2011) d[›]a[›][55][56]
Roughead, GaryGary Roughead 1973 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (2007–2011); Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) a[›][57][58]
Greenert, Jonathan W.Jonathan W. Greenert 1975 Admiral; Chief of Naval Operations (2011–present); Submarine officer (SS) [59]
William Benson
Ernest J. King
Elmo Zumwalt
CDR James L. Hollowell III, seated in his Douglas A4D Skyhawk attack aircraft, while serving as commanding officer of Attack Squadron 83 (VA-83) on USS Essex (CVA-9)
Carlisle Trost
Michael Mullen

References[edit]

General

^ a: "Chief of Naval Operations". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
^ b: "Notable Graduates". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
^ c: "United States Ambassadors". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
^ d: "Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
^ e: "Cabinet Members". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
^ f: "Astronauts". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 

Inline citations
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  4. ^ "William S. Benson Class of 1877". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  5. ^ "Admiral William S. Benson, U.S.N.". Knights of Columbus. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  6. ^ "Robert E. Coontz Class of 1885". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  7. ^ Cunningham, Lawrence J.; Janice J. Beaty (2001). A History of Guam. Honolulu, HI: The Bess Press. p. 199. ISBN 1-57306-068-2. 
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  9. ^ "More Army". TIME. 1924-02-04. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  10. ^ "Charles F. Hughes Class of 1888". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
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  12. ^ "William V. Pratt Class of 1889". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
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  16. ^ "William Daniel Leahy, Fleet Admiral United States Navy". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
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  18. ^ "Ernest J. King Class of 1901". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  19. ^ Buell, Thomas B. (1995). Master of Sea Power: A Biography of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-092-4. 
  20. ^ "Harold R. Stark Class of 1903". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  21. ^ "Harold Raynsford Stark Admiral, United States Navy". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  22. ^ "Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Class of 1905". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  23. ^ Potter, E. B. (1976). Nimitz. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-87021-492-6. 
  24. ^ "Admiral Louis E. Denfeld U.S. Navy". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  25. ^ "Revolt of the Admirals". TIME. 1949-10-17. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  26. ^ "Robert B. Carney Class of 1916". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  27. ^ Narvaez, Alfonso A. (1990-06-27). "Adm. Robert B. Carney, 95, Dies; Former Chief of Naval Operations". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  28. ^ "William M. Fechteler Class of 1916". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  29. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (2001). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: New Guinea and the Marianas. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. pp. 48, 64, 68. ISBN 0-7628-5431-6. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  30. ^ "Forrest P. Sherman Class of 1918". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  31. ^ "And Then There Was One". TIME. 1921-08-13. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  32. ^ "Arleigh A. Burke Class of 1923". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  33. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (1996-01-02). "Arleigh A. Burke Dies at 94; Naval Hero of World War II". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  34. ^ "George Whelan Anderson, Jr. Admiral, United States Navy". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  35. ^ "Laura Coughlin, Steven Edminster". The New York Times. 1999-09-12. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  36. ^ "David L. McDonald Class of 1928". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  37. ^ "David Lamar McDonald, 91, Former Senior Naval Officer". TIME. 1997-12-23. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  38. ^ "Thomas H. Moorer Class of 1933". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  39. ^ "Adm. Moorer set standards in Navy". The Washington Times. 2004-02-06. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  40. ^ "James L. Holloway Class of 1943". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  41. ^ Schneller, Robert John (2008). Blue & Gold and Black. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press. pp. 136–138. ISBN 1-60344-000-3. 
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  44. ^ "Thomas B. Hayward Class of 1948". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
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  46. ^ "James D. Watkins Class of 1949". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
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  48. ^ "Admiral Carlisle A. H. Trost Class of 1953". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
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  51. ^ "Frank B. Kelso Class of 1956". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
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  53. ^ "Jay L. Johnson Class of 1968". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
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  55. ^ "Michael G. Mullen of 1968". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  56. ^ "Pace leaving as Joint Chiefs chairman". CNN. 2007-06-08. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  57. ^ "Gary Roughead Class of 1973". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
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  59. ^ http://www.navy.mil/navydata/bios/navybio.asp?bioID=130