List of United States Presidents on currency

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George Washington and Calvin Coolidge on the 1926 Sesquicentennial of American Independence commemorative half dollar

This is a complete list of United States Presidents by currency appearances. The President of the United States has appeared on official banknotes, coins for circulation and commemorative coins in the United States, the Confederate States of America, the Philippine Islands, the Commonwealth of the Philippines and around the world. -->

Contents

United States[edit]

Note: Series dates listed for United States paper money represents a specific issue or set of issues. Different series may represent minor or major design changes, or no design change (series listed on the same line). Only a variety of a President's portrait used on paper money is noted next to the series date. For an explanation of each design:

Presidents listed in order of service.

George Washington[edit]

Washington on State Quarter obverse

Coins for circulation[edit]

quarter dollars[edit]
dollars[edit]
  • 2007 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2007

Commemorative coins[edit]

  • 1900 commemorative silver Lafayette Dollar
1999 Washington $5 commemorative gold coin
  • 1926 commemorative half dollar - 150th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence
  • 1982 commemorative half dollar - 250th anniversary of Washington's birth
  • 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative series
    • Half dollar
    • Silver dollar
    • $5 gold piece
  • 1999 $5 gold commemorative piece - 200th anniversary of Washington's death; an alternate design not chosen for the 1932 Washington quarter
  • 2008 $10 Gold Coin, First Spouse Program, Dolley Madison, (reverse)

Banknotes[edit]

George Washington - 25¢ Fractional Currency
  • Fractional currency
    • 10¢ and 50¢ first issues
    • 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, and 50¢ second issue
    • 3¢, and 10¢ third issue
    • 25¢ forth issue
  • United States Note
    • $1 Series of 1869
    • $1 Series of 1874, 1875 A—E, 1878
    • $1 Series of 1880
    • $1 Series of 1917
    • $1 Series of 1923
George Washington - Series of 1928 $1 bill
  • Silver certificate
    • $1 Series of 1896 "Educational Series" (portrait on back)
    • $1 Series of 1923
    • $1 Series of 1928
    • $1 Series of 1934, A—E
    • $1 Series 1935, A—H
    • $1 Series 1957, A—B
    • $2 Series of 1899
George Washington - Series of 1905 $20 bill
  • Gold Certificate
    • $20 Series of 1905 (with reversed left-facing instead of right-facing portrait)
    • $20 Series of 1906 (with reversed left-facing instead of right-facing portrait)
    • $20 Series of 1922 (with reversed left-facing instead of right-facing portrait)
  • Federal Reserve Bank Note
    • $1 Series of 1918
  • Federal Reserve Note
    • All $1 Federal Reserve Notes since Series 1963

John Adams[edit]

Coin for circulation

  • 2007 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2007.

Banknotes

Thomas Jefferson[edit]

Jefferson on the new nickel

Coins for circulation[edit]

five cents[edit]
  • 1938—1942, 1946-2003 (copper-nickel) nickel with Monticello on the reverse
  • 1942-1945 (25% silver) nickel; wartime composition. The mint mark for these types are located above the Monticello. It helps distinguish between the 1942 types.
  • 2004 nickel Westward Journey Series
  • 2005 nickel Westward Journey Series
    • American bison (similar to pre-Jefferson buffalo nickel reverse)
    • "Ocean in view! O! The Joy!" (quote by William Clark)
  • 2006—present nickel "Return to Monticello" with a forward-facing Jefferson and the Monticello returns on the reverse.
quarter dollar[edit]
dollar[edit]
  • 2007 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2007.

Commemorative coins[edit]

  • 1903 commemorative gold dollar - issued for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
  • 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative coin series
    • Half dollar
    • Silver dollar
    • $5 gold piece
  • 1993 commemorative silver dollar - 200th anniversary of Jefferson's presidency
Jefferson on 5 cent fractional postage note

Banknotes[edit]

Thomas Jefferson - Series of 1869 $2 bill
  • United States Note
    • $2 Series of 1869
    • $2 Series of 1874, 1875, 1878
    • $2 Series of 1880
    • $2 Series of 1917
    • $2 Series of 1928, A—G
    • $2 Series 1953, A—C
    • $2 Series 1963, A
Thomas Jefferson - Series of 1918 $2 bill

James Madison[edit]

James Madison $5 commemorative gold coin

Coin for circulation

  • 2007 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2007.

Commemorative coins

  • 1993 Bill of Rights commemorative coin series
    • Half dollar
    • Silver dollar
    • $5 gold piece

Banknotes

James Madison - Series of 1934 $5000 bill
  • United States Note
    • $5000 1878 (no series date)
  • Gold Certificate
    • $5000 Series of 1870 and 1875
    • $5000 1882 [DEPARTMENT SERIES]
    • $5000 Series of 1888
    • $5000 Series of 1882
    • $5000 Series of 1928
  • Federal Reserve Note
    • $5000 Series of 1914
    • All $5000 small size Federal Reserve Notes

James Monroe[edit]

James Monroe holds the flag behind Washington.

Coins for circulation

Commemorative coin

John Quincy Adams[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2008 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2008.

Commemorative coin

John Quincy Adams - Series of 1869 $500 bill

Banknotes

Andrew Jackson[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2008 Dollar (obverse), (released August 14, 2008) 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2008.
Andrew Jackson - Series of 1907 $5 bill

Banknotes

  • United States Note
    • $5 Series of 1869
    • $5 Series of 1875, 1878
    • $5 Series of 1880
    • $5 Series of 1907
    • $10 Series of 1923
    • $10,000 1878 (no series date)
Andrew Jackson - 1882 $10,000 bill
  • Gold Certificate
    • $20 Series of 1928
    • $10,000 Series of 1870 and 1875
    • $10,000 1882 [DEPARTMENT SERIES]
    • $10,000 Series of 1888
    • $10,000 Series of 1900
Andrew Jackson - Series of 1929 $20 bill
  • Federal Reserve Bank Note
    • $10 Series of 1915
    • $10 Series of 1918
    • $20 Series of 1929
  • National Bank Note
    • $20 Series of 1929
  • Federal Reserve Note
    • $10 Series of 1914
    • All $20 small size Federal Reserve Notes
      • Series of 1928—1995
      • Series 1996—2003 (with redesigned enlarged portrait)
      • Series 2004—2006 (with redesigned enlarged portrait)

Martin Van Buren[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2008 Dollar (obverse), (released November 13, 2008) 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2008.

William H. Harrison[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2009 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2009.

John Tyler[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2009 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2009.

James K. Polk[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2009 Dollar (obverse), (released on August 20, 2009) 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2009.

Zachary Taylor[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2009 Dollar (obverse), (released November 19, 2009) 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2009.

Millard Fillmore[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2010 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2010.

Franklin Pierce[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2010 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2010.

James Buchanan[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2010 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2010.

Abraham Lincoln[edit]

Lincoln on U.S. one cent

Coins for circulation[edit]

one cent[edit]
quarter dollar[edit]
dollar[edit]
  • 2010 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2010.

Commemorative coins[edit]

Abraham Lincoln commemorative half dollar
  • 1918 commemorative half dollar - Illinois 100th statehood anniversary
  • 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative coin series
    • Half dollar
    • Silver dollar
    • $5 gold piece
  • 2009 Silver dollar commemorating Lincoln's 200th anniversary of birth (Gettysburg Address) [2]

Banknotes[edit]

Abraham Lincoln - 50¢ Fractional currency
Abraham Lincoln - Series of 1880 $100 bill
  • United States Note
    • $5 Series of 1928, A—F
    • $5 Series 1953, A—C
    • $5 Series 1963
    • $10 Act of 1862 and 1863
    • $100 Series of 1869
    • $100 Series of 1875, 1878
    • $100 Series of 1880
  • Gold Certificate
    • $500 Series of 1882
    • $500 Series of 1922
Abraham Lincoln - Series of 1923 $5 bill
Abraham Lincoln - Series 2003 $5 bill
  • Federal Reserve Note
    • $5 Series of 1914
    • All small size $5 Federal Reserve Notes
      • Series of 1928—Series 1995
      • Series 1996—2003A (with redesigned enlarged portrait)

Andrew Johnson[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2011 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2011.

Ulysses S. Grant[edit]

Grant commemorative dollar coin

Coins for circulation

  • 2011 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2011.

Commemorative coins

  • 1922 commemorative half dollar - 100th anniversary of Grant's birth
  • 1922 commemorative gold dollar - 100th anniversary of Grant's birth

Banknotes

Ulysses S. Grant - Series of 1886 $5 bill
  • Silver certificate
    • $1 Series of 1899 (with small left-facing instead of right-facing portrait)
    • $5 1886 DEPARTMENT SERIES
    • $5 Series of 1891
    • $5 Series of 1896 "Educational Series" (portrait on back)
  • Gold Certificate
    • $50 Series of 1913
    • $50 Series of 1922
  • Federal Reserve Bank Note
    • $50 Series of 1918 issued only by the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank
    • $50 Series of 1929
  • National Bank Note
    • $50 Series of 1929
  • Federal Reserve Note
    • $50 Series of 1914
    • All $50 small size Federal Reserve Notes
      • Series of 1928—Series 1995
      • Series 1996—2003 (with redesigned larger portrait)
      • Series 2004A (with redesigned larger portrait)

Rutherford B. Hayes[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2011 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2011.

James A. Garfield[edit]

James A. Garfield - $5 National Bank Note

Coins for circulation

  • 2011 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2011.

Banknotes

Chester A. Arthur[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2012 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2012.

Grover Cleveland[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2012 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2012.
  • 2012 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2012.
$1000 Gold Certificate (1934) depicting Grover Cleveland.

Banknotes

Benjamin Harrison[edit]

Benjamin Harrison - $5 National Bank Note

Coins for circulation

  • 2012 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2012.

Banknotes

William McKinley[edit]

Commemorative coins

  • 1903 commemorative gold dollar - issued for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
  • 1916 and 1917 commemorative dollar - commemorate McKinley's death
William McKinley - $10 National Bank Note

Banknotes

Coins for circulation

  • 2013 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2013.

Theodore Roosevelt[edit]

Mount Rushmore commemorative half dollar

Coins for circulation

Commemorative coins

  • 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative coin series
    • Half dollar
    • Silver dollar
    • $5 gold piece

William Howard Taft[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2013 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2013.

Woodrow Wilson[edit]

Woodrow Wilson - $100,000 bill

Banknotes

Coins for circulation

  • 2013 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2013.

Warren G. Harding[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2014 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2014.

Calvin Coolidge[edit]

Coolidge w/Washington on commemorative half dollar

Commemorative coin

  • 1926 commemorative half dollar - 150th anniversary of the signing of the
    Declaration of Independence
  • 2014 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2014.

Herbert Hoover[edit]

Commemorative coin

  • 2014 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2014.

Franklin D. Roosevelt[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 1946—1964 (90% silver) dime
  • 1965–present (copper-nickel) dime

Commemorative coin

$5 Franklin D. Roosevelt commemorative gold coin
  • 1997 $5 gold commemorative coin
  • 2014 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents issued in 2014.

Harry S. Truman[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2015 Dollar (obverse), 1st of four U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2015.

Dwight D. Eisenhower[edit]

Coins for circulation

Eisenhower dollar coin

(The reverse only changed for two years, 1975 and 1976, to celebrate the U.S. bicentennary.)

  • 2015 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of four U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2015.

Commemorative coin

John F. Kennedy[edit]

Kennedy half dollar

Coins for circulation

  • 1964 (90% silver) half dollar (silver proofs from 1992–present also have this composition)
  • 1965-1970 half dollar (40% silver)
  • 1971–present half dollar (copper-nickel) The reverse only changed one year, 1976, to celebrate the U.S. bicentennary.
  • 2015 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of four U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2015.

Lyndon B. Johnson[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2015 Dollar (obverse), 4th of four U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2015.

Richard Nixon[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2016 Dollar (obverse), 1st of at least three U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2016.

Gerald Ford[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2016 Dollar (obverse), 2nd of at least three U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2016.

Ronald Reagan[edit]

Coins for circulation

  • 2016 Dollar (obverse), 3rd of at least three U.S. Presidents to be issued in 2016.

Presidential dollar coin series[edit]

*Note: These Presidents will only be honored if their death is two or more years before the intended issue date of the coin. If no currently living President dies before the issuing of the Ronald Reagan coin in late 2016, then the program will end.

Confederate States of America[edit]

1861 $1,000 CSA banknote depicting Calhoun and Jackson.

Andrew Jackson[edit]

George Washington[edit]

  • $50 1861 (Washington at left, and allegories at right and center)
  • $50 July 25, 1861, 1862 (Washington at center and allegory at left)
  • $100 July 25, 1861, 1862

State issues [5]

  • $1 Louisiana, 1864
  • $2 Tallahassee, Florida, 1861
  • $3 Tallahassee, Florida, 1861
  • $5 Treasury Warrant note for military service, Texas, 1862
  • $20 Virginia, 1861
  • $100 Virginia, 1862

Philippine Islands, Commonwealth of the Philippines, Republic of the Philippines[edit]

William McKinley[edit]

  • 5 Peso Series of 1903 and 1910 Silver Certificate
  • 5 Peso Series of 1916, and 1921 Philippine National Bank Circulating Note
  • 5 Peso Series of 1937 Philippine National Bank Circulating Note (with Commonwealth Seal in red)
  • 5 Peso Series of 1918 and 1924 Treasury Certificate (large portrait)
  • 5 Peso Series of 1937 Philippine National Bank Circulating Note (with Commonwealth Seal in red)
  • 5 Peso Series of 1929, 1936, 1941, and "Victory" Series No. 66 Treasury Certificate (with small portrait at left coincide with Admiral George Dewey, starting 1936 it had the seal of the Commonwealth in red and in the "Victory" Series No. 66 in blue)

Ronald Reagan[edit]

  • 25 Piso 1982, silver coin, (portrait with President Marcos), KM#235
  • 25 Piso 1986, silver coin, commemorating President Aquino's visit to Washington, KM#246
  • 2500 Piso 1986, gold coin, commemorating President Aquino's visit to Washington, KM#247
  • 1000 Dinara 2013,CU Coin, Commemorating his presidency Republic of Sealand

Franklin D. Roosevelt[edit]

  • 1 Peso 1936, silver coin, Establishment of Commonwealth (portrait with President Quezon), KM#177

George Washington[edit]

  • 10 Peso Series of 1903 and 1912 Silver Certificate
  • 10 Peso Series of 1916 and 1921 Philippine National Bank Circulating Note
  • 5 Peso Series of 1937 Philippine National Bank Circulating Note (with Commonwealth Seal in red)
  • 10 Peso Series of 1918 and 1924 Treasury Certificate (with small portrait similar to modern U.S. $1 bill)
  • 10 Peso Series of 1929, 1936, 1941, and "Victory" Series No. 66 Treasury Certificate (with right-facing portrait similar to 1999 $5 commemorative gold coin, starting 1936 it had the seal of Commonwealth in red and in the "Victory" Series No. 66 in blue)

U.S. Presidential appearances on other coins and currency around the world[edit]

The Bahamas[edit]

In 1991, a 12-coin silver five-dollar series was issued in the Bahamas commemorating the 500th anniversary of European discovery of the Americas. Three of those coins showed images of U.S. presidents, with the coat of arms of the Bahamas on the obverse side.

Thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln

  • $5 1991, silver, with Abolition of Slavery KM#145

Theodore Roosevelt

Cook Islands[edit]

Abraham Lincoln

Thomas Jefferson

  • $50, 1993, gold, KM#175

George Washington

  • $50 1993, gold, KM#173

Cuba[edit]

Abraham Lincoln

  • 1 Peso, 1993 1 peso, copper, commemorative, shows U.S.A (lower 48) and broken chains in background, Cuban shield on obverse. KM#509

Isle of Man[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • 1 Crown, 1994

George Washington

  • 1 Crown, 1976 copper-nickel (KM#37) and a silver (KM#37a) commemorative, Bicentenary of American Independence, with Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse.
  • In 1989, a four coin 1 crown set was issued in both copper-nickel and silver featuring the Bicentenary of George Washington’s Presidential Inauguration.
    • 1 Crown, with James Monroe holding the flag – Crossing the Delaware 1776
      • copper-nickel KM#246, silver KM#246a
    • 1 Crown, (large portrait)
      • copper-nickel KM#247, silver KM#247a
    • 1 Crown, (small portrait surrounded by a wreath containing eight stars and an eagle)
      • copper-nickel KM#248, silver KM#248a
    • 1 Crown, taking the oath of office
      • copper-nickel KM#249, silver KM#249a

Eleven Presidents on one coin

  • 1987, 4 coin proof set, commemorating the Bicentenary of America’s Constitution features the Statue of Liberty surrounded by these U.S. Presidents in clockwise order; Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Washington, James Monroe, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan
    • 1/2 Crown, gold, KM187
    • 1 Crown, copper-nickel, KM#176
    • 5 Crown, silver, 65.1mm, KM#177
    • 10 Crowns, silver, 75mm, KM#188

Liberia[edit]

These are all commemoratives issued in Liberia featuring images of U.S. Presidents with a Liberian arms symbol on the obverse side;

George H. W. Bush

  • 1989 inaugural series
    • $10 silver KM#57
    • $250 gold KM#58

George W. Bush

Bill Clinton

  • 1993 inaugural series
    • $5 silver KM#67
    • $10 silver KM#68
    • $50 silver KM#69
    • $100 silver KM#70
    • $250 gold KM#71

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • $10 1994, silver (25th anniversary of his death) KM#157

William H. Harrison

  • $5 2000

John F. Kennedy

  • 1988 series 25th anniversary of death
    • $10 silver KM#54
    • $250 gold KM#52
  • 1993 series 30th anniversary of death
    • $5 silver, KM#103
    • $10 silver, KM#104
    • $250 gold, KM#105
  • $10 1999, silver In Memory of John F. Kennedy, Jr., conjoined busts similar to U.S. half dollar KM#424

Richard Nixon

  • 1996 series with Chairman Mao Zedong
    • $1 copper-nickel, KM#255
    • $5 silver, KM#261
    • $10 silver, KM#262

Ronald Reagan

  • 1998 series with Abraham Lincoln statue
    • $1 copper-nickel, KM#386
    • $10 silver, KM#387
    • $100 gold, KM#388

Franklin D. Roosevelt

  • 1995 portrait series
    • $1 copper-nickel, KM#141
    • $10 silver, KM#146
    • $100 gold, KM#151
  • 1995 series, Cairo Conference, includes Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek
    • $1 copper-nickel, KM#164
    • $10 silver, KM#165
    • $100 gold, KM#166

Harry S Truman

  • 1995 series
    • $1 copper-nickel, KM#143
    • $10 silver, KM#148
    • $100 gold, KM#153

Marshall Islands[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • 1990 series, saluting in uniform
    • $5 copper-nickel, KM#38
    • $50 silver, KM#39

John F. Kennedy

  • $50 1995, silver, taking oath of office, KM#275

Niue[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • 1990 series, in uniform
    • $5 copper-nickel, KM#29
    • $50 silver, KM#30
    • $200 gold, KM#45

John F. Kennedy

  • 1988 series, “Ich bin ein Berliner” quote
    • $5 copper-nickel, KM#17
    • $50 silver, KM#18
    • $100 silver, KM#19
    • $250 gold, KM#20
  • $25 1994 (KM#79), 1997 (4 types, KM#82, 96, 97, 98), gold, taking oath of office
  • $50 1993, gold, Apollo, KM#65
  • $50 1993, gold, KM#66

Franklin D. Roosevelt

  • 1990 series “A date which will live in infamy” quote
    • $5 copper-nickel, KM#35
    • $50 silver, KM#36
    • $200 gold, KM#52

Paraguay[edit]

John F. Kennedy

  • 1500 Guaranies, 1974, gold, KM#126
  • 3000 Guaranies, 1974, gold, KM#138
  • 4500 Guaranies, 1974, gold, KM#146

Abraham Lincoln

  • 3000 Guaranies, 1974, gold, KM#131

Turks and Caicos Islands[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • 5 Crowns, 1994, copper-nickel, 50th Anniversary – Normandy Landing, KM#176

Franklin Roosevelt

George Washington

  • 1976 series, facing King George III – U.S. Bicentennial
    • 20 Crowns, silver, KM#13
    • 50 Crowns, gold, KM#15

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Al-Fujairah Richard Nixon

  • 2 Riyals, 1969 (AH1388), 1970 (AH1389), silver, KM#2
  • 25 Riyals, 1969 (AH1388), 1970 (AH1389), gold, KM#7

Ras al-Khaimah Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • 10 Riyals, 1970, silver, memorial, KM#31

Sharjah John F. Kennedy

  • 5 Rupees, 1965, silver, memorial, KM#1

Western Samoa[edit]

Franklin D. Roosevelt 1981 series, sitting in wheelchair

  • 1 Tala, copper-nickel, KM#47
  • 10 Tala, silver, KM#48

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Friedberg, Arthur L.; Ira S. Friedberg (2005). Red Book: A Guide Book Of United States Paper Money. Atlanta: Whitman. ISBN 0-7948-1786-6. 
  • Hudgeons, Marc; Tom Hudgeons (2005). Official 2006 Blackbook Price Guide to United States Paper Money. New York: Random House. 
  • Hughes, Roderick (2004). Official Know-It-All Guide. Hollywood: Fredrick Fell Publishers. ISBN 0-88391-109-4. 
  • Krause, Chester; Robert F. Lemke (1998). Standard Catalog of United States Paper Money (17th ed.). Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-653-8. 
  • Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (1999). 2000 Standard Catalog of World Coins. Colin R. Bruce II (senior editor) (27th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 087341750X. 

External links[edit]