List of United States Senators from Maryland

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This is a List of United States Senators from Maryland. Maryland ratified the Constitution on April 28, 1788, becoming the seventh state to do so.[1] To provide for continuity of government, the framers divided Senators into staggered classes that serve six-year terms, and Maryland's Senators are in the first and third classes.[2] Before the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, which allowed for direct election of Senators, Maryland's Senators were chosen by the Maryland General Assembly. Until the assembly appointed George L. Wellington of Cumberland in 1897, Senators in class 3 were chosen from the Eastern Shore while Senators in class 1 were chosen from the remainder of the state.

Class 1[edit]

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for one session of the U.S. Congress in the first election of 1788 and whose seats in recent years are contested in 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012.

# Senator Party Years Congress Term Electoral history
1 Charlescarrollofcarrollton.jpg Charles Carroll Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1789 –
November 30, 1792
1 1 Elected in 1789
2 2 Re-elected in 1791

Resigned to remain in the Maryland Senate
Vacant November 30, 1792 –
January 10, 1793
2 Richardpotts.jpg Richard Potts Pro-
Administration
January 10, 1793 –
October 24, 1796
2
(Continued)
Elected to finish Carroll's term

Resigned
3
4
Vacant October 24, 1796 –
November 30, 1796
3 Johneagerhoward.jpg John Eager Howard Federalist November 30, 1796 –
March 3, 1803
4
(Continued)
Elected to finish Potts's term
5 3 Re-elected in 1796

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
6
7
4 SSmith.jpg Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1815
8 4 Elected in 1803
9
10
11 5 Re-elected in 1809

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
12
13
Vacant March 4, 1815 –
February 4, 1816
14 6 Legislature failed to elect
5 Robertharper.jpg Robert Goodloe Harper Federalist February 5, 1816 –
December 6, 1816
Elected late in 1815

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vacant December 6, 1816 –
December 20, 1816
6 Alexanderhanson.jpg Alexander Contee Hanson Federalist December 20, 1816 –
April 23, 1819
14
(Continued)
Elected to finish Harper's term

Died
15
16
Vacant April 23, 1819 –
December 21, 1819
7 Williampinkney (1).jpg William Pinkney Democratic-Republican December 21, 1819 –
February 25, 1822
16
(Continued)
Elected to finish Hanson's term
17 7 Re-elected in 1821

Died
Vacant February 25, 1822 –
December 17, 1822
8 SSmith.jpg Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican December 17, 1822 –
March 3, 1833
17
(Continued)
Elected to finish Pinkney's term
Crawford
Republican
18
Jacksonian 19
20 8 Re-elected in 1827
21
22
9 Joseph Kent of Maryland.jpg Joseph Kent Anti-
Jacksonian
March 4, 1833 –
November 24, 1837
23 9 Elected in 1833

Died
24
Whig 25
Vacant November 24, 1837 –
January 4, 1838
10 William Duhurst Merrick Whig January 4, 1838 –
March 3, 1845
25
(Continued)
Elected to finish Kent's term
26 10 Re-elected in 1839
27
28
11 Reverdy Johnson.jpg Reverdy Johnson Whig March 4, 1845 –
March 7, 1849
29 11 Elected in 1845

Resigned to become U.S. Attorney General
30
31
Vacant March 7, 1849 –
December 6, 1849
12 David Stewart (Maryland).jpg David Stewart Whig December 6, 1849 –
January 12, 1850
Appointed to continue Johnson's term

Retired when successor elected
13 Thomas Pratt, Brady photo portrait, circa 1848-1860, sitting.jpg Thomas Pratt Whig January 12, 1850 –
March 3, 1857
Elected to finish Johnson's term
32 12 Re-elected in 1851
33
34
14 Senator Anthony Kennedy, standing.jpg Anthony Kennedy American March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1863
35 13 Elected in 1857
36
37
15 Reverdy Johnson.jpg Reverdy Johnson Unionist/
Democratic
March 4, 1863 –
July 10, 1868
38 14 Elected in 1863

Resigned to become Ambassador to England
39
40
Vacant July 10, 1868 –
July 13, 1868
16 William Pinkney Whyte 1865-1880 Maryland politician.jpg William Pinkney Whyte Democratic July 13, 1868 –
March 3, 1869
40
(Continued)
Appointed to finish Johnson's term

Retired
17 Williamthamilton.jpg William Thomas Hamilton Democratic March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1875
41 15 Elected in 1869

Retired to run for Governor
42
43
18 William Pinkney Whyte 1865-1880 Maryland politician.jpg William Pinkney Whyte Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1881
44 16 Elected in 1875

Lost re-election
45
46
19 Arthur Pue Gorman photo portrait left profile.jpg Arthur Pue Gorman Democratic March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1899
47 17 Elected in 1881
48
49
50 18 Re-elected in 1887
51
52
53 19 Elected in 1893

Lost re-election
54
55
20 Louis e mccomas.jpg Louis E. McComas Republican March 4, 1899 –
March 3, 1905
56 20 Elected in 1899

Retired to become judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals
57
58
21 Isidor Rayner standing photograph portrait.jpg Isidor Rayner Democratic March 4, 1905 –
November 25, 1912
59 21 Elected in 1905
60
61
62 22 Re-elected in 1911

Died
Vacant November 25, 1912 –
November 29, 1912
22 William Purnell Jackson, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg William P. Jackson Republican November 29, 1912 –
January 28, 1914
62
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Rayner's term

Retired when successor elected
63
23 Blair lee I.jpg Blair Lee Democratic January 28, 1914 –
March 3, 1917
Elected to finish Rayner's term

Lost re-election
64
24 Joseph France, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg Joseph I. France Republican March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1923
65 23 Elected in 1916

Lost re-election
66
67
25 William Cabell Bruce, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg William Cabell Bruce Democratic March 4, 1923 –
March 3, 1929
68 24 Elected in 1922

Lost re-election
69
70
26 Phillips Lee Goldsborough photo portrait.jpg Phillips Lee Goldsborough Republican March 4, 1929 –
January 3, 1935
71 25 Elected in 1928

Retired to run for Governor
72
73
27 Georgelpradcliffe.jpg George L. P. Radcliffe Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1947
74 26 Elected in 1934
75
76
77 27 Re-elected in 1940

Lost renomination
78
79
28 Governor herbert oconor of maryland.jpg Herbert O'Conor Democratic January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
80 28 Elected in 1946

Retired
81
82
29 Jamesglennbeall.jpg James Glenn Beall Republican January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1965
83 29 Elected in 1952
84
85
86 30 Re-elected in 1958

Lost re-election
87
88
30 Joseph d tydings.jpg Joseph Tydings Democratic January 3, 1965 –
January 3, 1971
89 31 Elected in 1964

Lost re-election
90
91
31 Jglennbealljr.jpg John Glenn Beall Republican January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1977
92 32 Elected in 1970

Lost re-election
93
94
32 Paul Sarbanes.jpg Paul Sarbanes Democratic January 3, 1977 –
January 3, 2007
95 33 Elected in 1976
96
97
98 34 Re-elected in 1982
99
100
101 35 Re-elected in 1988
102
103
104 36 Re-elected in 1994
105
106
107 37 Re-elected in 2000

Retired
108
109
33 Ben Cardin portrait.jpg Benjamin L. Cardin Democratic January 3, 2007 –
Present
110 38 Elected in 2006
111
112
113 39 Re-elected in 2012
114
115

Class 3[edit]

Class 3 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for three sessions of the U.S. Congress in the first election of 1788 and whose seats in recent years are contested in 1998, 2004, 2010, and 2016.

# Senator Party Years Congress Term Electoral history
1 John Henry Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1789 –
December 10, 1797
1 1 Elected in 1789
2
3
4 2 Re-elected in 1795

Resigned to become Governor of Maryland
5
2 James Lloyd Federalist December 11, 1797 –
December 1, 1800
Elected to finish Henry's term

Resigned
6
Vacant December 1, 1800 –
December 12, 1800
3 William Hindman.jpg William Hindman Federalist December 12, 1800 –
November 19, 1801
6
(Continued)
Elected to finish Lloyd's term
7 3 Appointed to fill the vacancy after the Legislature failed to elect

Retired when successor elected
4 Robertwrightofmaryland.jpg Robert Wright Democratic-Republican November 19, 1801 –
November 12, 1806
Elected to finish term

Resigned to become Governor of Maryland
8
9
Vacant November 12, 1806 –
November 25, 1806
5 Philip Reed portrait.jpg Philip Reed Democratic-Republican November 25, 1806 –
March 3, 1813
9
(Continued)
Elected to finish Wright's term
10 4 Re-elected in 1806

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
11
12
Vacant March 3, 1813 –
May 21, 1813
Legislature failed to elect
6 Robert Henry Goldsborough Federalist May 21, 1813 –
March 3, 1819
13 5 Elected in 1813 to finish term

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
14
15
7 Edwardlloydofmaryland.jpg Edward Lloyd Democratic-Republican March 4, 1819 –
January 14, 1826
16 6 Elected in 1819
17
Crawford Republican 18
Jacksonian 19 7 Re-elected in 1825

Resigned
Vacant January 14, 1826 –
January 24, 1826
8 Ezekielfchambers.jpg Ezekiel F. Chambers National Republican January 24, 1826 –
December 20, 1834
19
(Continued)
Elected to finish Lloyd's term
20
21
22 8 Re-elected in 1831

Resigned to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals
23
Vacant December 20, 1834 –
January 13, 1835
9 Robert Henry Goldsborough Anti-
Jacksonian
January 13, 1835 –
October 5, 1836
23
(Continued)
Elected to finish Chambers's term

Died
24
Vacant October 5, 1836 –
December 31, 1836
10 John S. Spence Anti-
Jacksonian
December 31, 1836 –
October 24, 1840
24
(Continued)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Whig 25 9 Re-elected in 1837

Died
26
Vacant October 24, 1840 –
January 5, 1841
11 John Leeds Kerr profile.jpg John Leeds Kerr Whig January 5, 1841 –
March 3, 1843
26
(Continued)
Elected to finish Spence's term

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
27
12 James Alfred Pearce, standing.jpg James Pearce Whig March 4, 1843 –
December 20, 1862
28 10 Elected in 1843
29
30
31 11 Re-elected in 1849
32
33
34 12 Re-elected in 1855
Democratic 35
36
37 13 Re-elected in 1861

Died
Vacant December 20, 1862 –
December 29, 1862
13 Thomas Holliday Hicks - photo portrait standing.jpg Thomas Holliday Hicks Unionist December 29, 1862 –
February 14, 1865
37
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Pearce's term

Elected to finish Pearce's term

Died
38
Vacant February 14, 1865 –
March 9, 1865
38
39
14 John Angel James Creswell, sitting.jpg John Creswell Unionist March 9, 1865 –
March 3, 1867
39
(Continued)
Elected to finish Hicks's term
Vacant March 4, 1867 –
March 7, 1868
40 14 Senator-elect Philip F. Thomas failed to qualify
15 George Vickers of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg George Vickers Democratic March 7, 1868 –
March 3, 1873
40
(Continued)
Elected to finish Thomas's term

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
41
42
16 George Dennis of Maryland, sitting.jpg George R. Dennis Democratic March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1879
43 15 Elected in 1873

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
44
45
17 James Black Groome, sitting.jpg James Black Groome Democratic March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1885
46 16 Elected in 1879

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
47
48
18 WILSON, Ephraim King, (1821 - 1891).jpg Ephraim Wilson Democratic March 4, 1885 –
February 24, 1891
49 17 Elected in 1884

Died
50
51
Vacant February 24, 1891 –
November 19, 1891
51
(Continued)
52 18
19 Charlesgibson.jpg Charles Hopper Gibson Democratic November 19, 1891 –
March 3, 1897
52
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Wilson's term

Elected to finish Wilson's term
53
54
20 Georgelwellington.jpg George L. Wellington Republican March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
55 19 Elected in 1896

Retired
56
57
21 Arthur Pue Gorman photo portrait left profile.jpg Arthur Pue Gorman Democratic March 4, 1903 –
June 4, 1906
58 20 Elected in 1902

Died
59
Vacant June 4, 1906 –
June 8, 1906
22 William Pinkney Whyte 1865-1880 Maryland politician.jpg William Pinkney Whyte Democratic June 8, 1906 –
March 17, 1908
59
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Gorman's term

Elected to finish Gorman's term

Died
60
Vacant March 17, 1908 –
March 25, 1908
23 John Walter Smith, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg John Walter Smith Democratic March 25, 1908 –
March 3, 1921
60
(Continued)
Elected to finish Whyte's term
61 21 Re-elected in 1909
62
63
64 22 Re-elected in 1914

Lost re-election
65
66
24 Ovington Weller, photo portrait, facing left.jpg Ovington Weller Republican March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1927
67 23 Elected in 1920

Lost re-election
68
69
25 Millardetydings.jpg Millard E. Tydings Democratic March 4, 1927 –
January 3, 1951
70 24 Elected in 1926
71
72
73 25 Re-elected in 1932
74
75
76 26 Re-elected in 1938
77
78
79 27 Re-elected in 1944

Lost re-election
80
81
26 Johnmbutler.jpg John Marshall Butler Republican January 3, 1951 –
January 2, 1963
82 28 Elected in 1950
83
84
85 29 Re-elected in 1956

Retired
86
87
27 Danielbrewster.jpg Daniel B. Brewster Democratic January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1969
88 30 Elected in 1962

Lost re-election
89
90
28 Charlesmathiasjr.jpg Charles Mathias Republican January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1987
91 31 Elected in 1968
92
93
94 32 Re-elected in 1974
95
96
97 33 Re-elected in 1980

Retired
98
99
29 Barbara Mikulski.jpg Barbara Mikulski Democratic January 3, 1987 –
Present
100 34 Elected in 1986
101
102
103 35 Re-elected in 1992
104
105
106 36 Re-elected in 1998
107
108
109 37 Re-elected in 2004
110
111
112 38 Re-elected in 2010
113
114

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Maryland Historical Chronology, 1700-1799". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  2. ^ "The Senate and the United States Constitution". United States senate Historical Office. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 

See also[edit]