List of United States Senators from Massachusetts

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This is a chronological listing of the United States Senators from Massachusetts. United States Senators are popularly elected, for a six-year term, beginning January 3. Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1. Before 1914, they were chosen by the Massachusetts General Court, and before 1935, their terms began March 4. The current Senators are Democrats Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey.

Mid-term vacancy appointment processes[edit]

Through the 20th century, mid-term vacancies were filled with the governor's appointee, with the appointment expiring at the next biennial state election. In 2004, the Democratic-controlled state legislature changed the vacancy-filling process, mandating that a special election occur, which removed the Governor's appointment power. This statute was enacted over the veto by the Governor, Mitt Romney. The leadership of the Massachusetts legislature at the time was concerned that the Republican governor Mitt Romney would appoint a Republican if Democratic Senator John Kerry were elected President of the United States in the 2004 election.[1][2][3][4] Generally, the law requires a special election within 145 to 160 days from the date of the filing of a Senate resignation. The law contemplates resignations that become effective some period of time after the filing of the resignation, so long as the election occurs after effective date of the resignation.[5]

While terminally ill with brain cancer, Ted Kennedy requested that the Massachusetts legislature change the law to allow an interim appointment. Kennedy died shortly thereafter, and the legislature quickly passed a bill providing for an interim appointment.[6] On September 24, 2009, Governor Patrick signed the bill and appointed Paul G. Kirk, who had previously served as one of Kennedy's congressional aides and as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Kirk stated he would not run in the special election.[7]

List of Senators[edit]

Class 1
Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for only one U.S. Congress in the first election of 1788/1789, and then the seat was contested again for the 2nd, 5th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. Those seats in recent years have been contested in 1994, 2000, 2006, 2012, and 2018, with a special election taking place in 2010.

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Class 2
Class 2 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for the first two United States Congresses in the first election of 1788/1789, and then the seat was contested again for the 3rd, 6th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. Those seats in recent years are contested in 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014, with a special election taking place in 2013.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1 TristramDalton.jpg
Tristram Dalton
Pro-
Admin.
March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1791
Elected in 1789

Lost re-election
1 1st Congress 1 Elected in 1789 March 4, 1789 –
June 1, 1796
Pro-
Admin.
Caleb strong.jpg
Caleb Strong
1
2 George Cabot.jpg
George Cabot
Pro-
Admin.
March 4, 1791 –
June 9, 1796
Elected in 1790

Resigned
2 2nd Congress
3rd Congress 2 Re-elected in 1793

Resigned
Federalist 4th Congress Federalist
Vacant June 9, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant Vacant June 1, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant
3 Goodhue.jpg
Benjamin Goodhue
Federalist June 11, 1796 –
November 8, 1800
Elected to finish Cabot's term Elected to finish Strong's term

Retired to run for the U.S. House of Representatives
June 11, 1796 –
March 3, 1799
Federalist TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Theodore Sedgwick
2
Also elected to full term in 1796

Resigned
3 5th Congress
6th Congress 3 Elected in 1799

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War
March 4, 1799 –
May 30, 1800
Federalist Samuel Dexter.jpg
Samuel Dexter
3
6th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant May 31, 1800 –
June 5, 1800
Vacant
6th Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Dexter's term

Resigned
June 6, 1800 –
March 2, 1803
Federalist DFoster.jpg
Dwight Foster
4
Vacant November 8, 1800 –
November 14, 1800
Vacant 6th Congress
(Continued)
4 JonathanMason.jpg
Jonathan Mason
Federalist November 14, 1800 –
March 3, 1803
Elected to finish Goodhue's term 6th Congress
(Continued)
7th Congress
7th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant March 2, 1803 –
March 4, 1803
Vacant
5 John Quincy Adams.jpg
John Quincy Adams
Federalist March 4, 1803 –
June 8, 1808
Elected in 1802

Resigned
4 8th Congress Elected to finish Foster's term March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1811
Federalist Timothy-Pickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering
5
9th Congress 4 Re-elected in 1804

Lost re-election
10th Congress
6 JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
Federalist June 9, 1808 –
May 1, 1813
Elected to finish Adams's term 10th Congress
(Continued)
Re-elected in 1809

Resigned
5 11th Congress
12th Congress 5 The State Senate deadlocked in the 1810 election March 4, 1811 –
June 28, 1811
Vacant
12th Congress
(Continued)
Elected after the spring 1811 state elections gave Democratic-Republicans control of the body. June 29, 1811 –
March 3, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
JosephBradleyVarnum.jpg
Joseph Bradley Varnum
6
13th Congress
Vacant May 1, 1813 –
May 5, 1813
Vacant 13th Congress
(Continued)
7 ChristopherGore.jpg
Christopher Gore
Federalist May 5, 1813 –
May 30, 1816
Appointed to finish Lloyd's term 13th Congress
(Continued)
Elected to full term in 1815

Resigned
6 14th Congress
Vacant June 1, 1816 –
June 11, 1816
Vacant 14th Congress
(Continued)
8 Eli P. Ashmun Federalist June 12, 1816 –
May 10, 1818
Elected to finish Gore's term

Resigned
14th Congress
(Continued)
15th Congress 6 Elected in 1817

Resigned
March 4, 1817 –
May 30, 1822
Federalist Harrisongrayotis.jpg
Harrison Gray Otis
7
Vacant May 11, 1818 –
June 4, 1818
Vacant
9 PrentissMellen.jpg
Prentiss Mellen
Federalist June 5, 1818 –
May 15, 1820
Elected to finish Ashmun's term

Resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine
15th Congress
(Continued)
16th Congress
Vacant May 16, 1820 –
June 11, 1820
Vacant
10 ElijahMills.jpg
Elijah H. Mills
Federalist June 12, 1820 –
March 3, 1827
Elected to finish Mellen's term 16th Congress
(Continued)
Re-elected in 1820

Lost re-election in 1826
7 17th Congress
17th Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Otis's term June 5, 1822 –
May 23, 1826
Federalist JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
8
Adams-Clay
Federalist
18th Congress 7 Re-elected in 1822

Resigned
Adams-Clay
Federalist
Anti-
Jacksonian
19th Congress Anti-
Jacksonian
19th Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Lloyd's term May 31, 1826 –
March 3, 1835
Anti-
Jacksonian
Nathaniel Silsbee.png
Nathaniel Silsbee
9
Vacant March 4, 1827 –
June 8, 1827
Vacant 8 20th Congress Adams
11 Black Dan.jpg
Daniel Webster
Adams June 8, 1827 –
February 22, 1841
Elected late in 1827 20th Congress
(Continued)
21st Congress 8 Re-elected in 1828

Retired
Anti-
Jacksonian
Anti-
Jacksonian
22nd Congress
Re-elected in 1833 9 23rd Congress
24th Congress 9 Elected in 1835

Resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts
March 4, 1835 –
January 5, 1841
Anti-
Jacksonian
John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg
John Davis
10
Whig 25th Congress Whig
Re-elected in 1839

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State
10 26th Congress
26th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant January 5, 1841 –
January 13, 1841
Vacant
26th Congress
(Continued)
Appointed to finish Davis's term January 13, 1841 –
March 16, 1845
Whig IsaacBates.jpg
Isaac C. Bates
11
12 RufusChoate.jpg
Rufus Choate
Whig February 23, 1841 –
March 3, 1845
Elected to finish Webster's term

Retired
26th Congress
(Continued)
27th Congress 10 Elected to full term in 1841

Died
28th Congress
13 DanielWebster.jpg
Daniel Webster
Whig March 4, 1845 –
July 22, 1850
Elected in 1845

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State again
11 29th Congress
29th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant March 16, 1845 –
March 24, 1845
Vacant
29th Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Bates's term March 24, 1845 –
March 3, 1853
Whig John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg
John Davis
12
30th Congress 11 Re-elected in 1847

Retired
31st Congress
Vacant July 23, 1850 –
July 29, 1850
Vacant 31st Congress
(Continued)
14 RobertCharlesWinthrop.jpg
Robert Charles Winthrop
Whig July 30, 1850 –
February 1, 1851
Appointed to continue Webster's term

Lost election to finish Webster's term
31st Congress
(Continued)
15 RRantoul.jpg
Robert Rantoul, Jr.
Democratic February 1, 1851 –
March 3, 1851
Elected to finish Webster's term

Retired
31st Congress
(Continued)
Vacant March 4, 1851 –
April 24, 1851
In 1851, Democrats gained control of the Massachusetts General Court in coalition with the Free Soilers. However, the legislature deadlocked on who should succeed Daniel Webster. Democrats refused to vote for Charles Sumner (the Free Soilers' choice). Sumner was eventually elected late. 12 32nd Congress
16 CSumner.jpg
Charles Sumner
Free Soil April 24, 1851 –
March 11, 1874
32nd Congress
(Continued)
33rd Congress 12 Elected

Resigned
March 4, 1853 –
June 1, 1854
Whig Edward Everett.jpg
Edward Everett
13
33rd Congress
(Continued)
Vacant June 1, 1854 –
June 3, 1854
Vacant
33rd Congress
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Everett's term

Successor was elected
June 3, 1854 –
January 31, 1855
Whig JuliusRockwell.jpg
Julius Rockwell
14
33rd Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Everett's term January 31, 1855 –
March 3, 1873
Free Soil Henry Wilson, US Vice President, photo portrait seated.jpg
Henry Wilson
15
Opposition 34th Congress Know-nothing
34th Congress
(Continued)
Opposition
Republican Re-elected in 1857 13 35th Congress Republican
36th Congress 13 Re-elected in 1859
37th Congress
Re-elected in 1863 14 38th Congress
39th Congress 14 Re-elected in 1865
40th Congress
Re-elected in 1869

Died
15 41st Congress
42nd Congress 15 Re-elected in 1871

Resigned to become U.S. Vice President
43rd Congress Vacant March 3, 1873 –
March 17, 1873
Vacant
43rd Congress
(Continued)
Elected to finish Wilson's term March 17, 1873 –
March 3, 1877
Republican George Boutwell, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
George S. Boutwell
16
Vacant March 12, 1874 –
April 16, 1874
Vacant 43rd Congress
(Continued)
17 William B. Washburn - Brady-Handy.jpg
William B. Washburn
Republican April 17, 1874 –
March 3, 1875
Elected to finish Sumner's term

Retired
43rd Congress
(Continued)
18 HLDawes.jpg
Henry L. Dawes
Republican March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1893
Elected in 1875 16 44th Congress
45th Congress 16 Elected in 1877 March 4, 1877 –
September 30, 1904
Republican George Frisbie Hoar - Brady-Handy.jpg
George Frisbie Hoar
17
46th Congress
Re-elected in 1881 17 47th Congress
48th Congress 17 Re-elected in 1883
49th Congress
Re-elected in 1887

Retired
18 50th Congress
51st Congress 18 Re-elected in 1889
52nd Congress
19 HenryCabotLodgeSr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican March 4, 1893 –
November 9, 1924
Elected in 1893 19 53rd Congress
54th Congress 19 Re-elected in 1895
55th Congress
Re-elected in 1898 20 56th Congress
57th Congress 20 Re-elected in 1901

Died
58th Congress
58th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant September 30, 1904 –
October 12, 1904
Vacant
58th Congress
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Hoar's term

Elected to finish Hoar's term
October 12, 1904 –
March 3, 1913
Republican Winthrop Murray Crane.jpg
Winthrop M. Crane
18
Re-elected in 1904 21 59th Congress
60th Congress 21 Re-elected in 1907

Retired
61st Congress
Re-elected in 1910 22 62nd Congress
63rd Congress 22 Elected in 1912

Lost re-election
March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1919
Republican John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
John W. Weeks
19
64th Congress
Re-elected in 1916 23 65th Congress
66th Congress 23 Elected in 1918

Lost re-election
March 4, 1919 –
March 3, 1925
Democratic David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
20
67th Congress
Re-elected in 1922

Died
24 68th Congress
Vacant November 10, 1924 –
November 12, 1924
Vacant
20 William Butler.jpg
William M. Butler
Republican November 13, 1924 –
December 6, 1926
Appointed to continue Lodge's term

Lost election to finish Lodge's term
68th Congress
(Continued)
69th Congress 24 Elected in 1924

Retired
March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1931
Republican Frederick Huntington Gillett.png
Frederick H. Gillett
21
21 David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
Democratic December 6, 1926 –
January 3, 1947
Elected to finish Lodge's term
70th Congress
Re-elected in 1928 25 71st Congress
72nd Congress 25 Elected in 1930

Retired
March 4, 1931 –
January 3, 1937
Democratic MarcusACoolidge.jpg
Marcus A. Coolidge
22
73rd Congress
Re-elected in 1934 26 74th Congress
75th Congress 26 Elected in 1936 January 3, 1937 –
February 3, 1944
Republican HenryCabotLodgeJr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
23
76th Congress
Re-elected in 1940

Lost re-election
27 77th Congress
78th Congress 27 Re-elected in 1942

Resigned to return to active duty in the U.S. Army
78th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant February 4, 1944 –
February 7, 1944
Vacant
78th Congress
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Lodge's term

Did not run for election to finish the term and resigned early
February 8, 1944 –
December 19, 1944
Republican CharlesSinclairWeeks.jpg
Sinclair Weeks
24
78th Congress
(Continued)
Vacant December 20, 1944 –
January 3, 1945
Vacant
79th Congress Elected to finish Lodge's term January 3, 1945 –
January 3, 1967
Republican LeverettSaltonstall.jpg
Leverett Saltonstall
25
22 HenryCabotLodgeJr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Republican January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
Elected in 1946

Lost re-election
28 80th Congress
81st Congress 28 Re-elected in 1948
82nd Congress
23 John F Kennedy.jpg
John F. Kennedy
Democratic January 3, 1953 –
December 22, 1960
Elected in 1952 29 83rd Congress
84th Congress 29 Re-elected in 1954
85th Congress
Re-elected in 1958

Resigned to become U.S. President
30 86th Congress
Vacant December 23, 1960 –
December 27, 1960
Vacant
24 SmithBen(D-MA).jpg
Benjamin Smith
Democratic December 27, 1960 –
November 7, 1962
Appointed to continue John Kennedy's term

Did not run for election to finish the term
86th Congress
(Continued)
87th Congress 30 Re-elected in 1960

Retired
25 TedKennedy(D-MA).jpg
Ted Kennedy
Democratic November 7, 1962 –
August 25, 2009
Elected to finish his brother's term
88th Congress
Re-elected in 1964 31 89th Congress
90th Congress 31 Elected in 1966 January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1979
Republican Edward Brooke.jpg
Edward Brooke
26
91st Congress
Re-elected in 1970 32 92nd Congress
93rd Congress 32 Re-elected in 1972

Lost re-election
94th Congress
Re-elected in 1976 33 95th Congress
96th Congress 33 Elected in 1978

Retired, then resigned early to give successor preferential seniority
January 3, 1979 –
January 2, 1985
Democratic Senator Paul Tsongas.jpg
Paul Tsongas
27
97th Congress
Re-elected in 1982 34 98th Congress
98th Congress
(Continued)
Appointed early to finish Tsongas's term, having already been elected to the next term January 2, 1985 –
February 1, 2013
Democratic John Kerry headshot with US flag.jpg
John Kerry
28
99th Congress 34 Elected in 1984
100th Congress
Re-elected in 1988 35 101st Congress
102nd Congress 35 Re-elected in 1990
103rd Congress
Re-elected in 1994 36 104th Congress
105th Congress 36 Re-elected in 1996
106th Congress
Re-elected in 2000 37 107th Congress
108th Congress 37 Re-elected in 2002
109th Congress
Re-elected in 2006

Died
38 110th Congress
111th Congress 38 Re-elected in 2008

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State
Vacant August 26, 2009 –
September 24, 2009
Vacant
26 Paul Kirk Official Photo.jpg
Paul G. Kirk
Democratic September 24, 2009 –
February 4, 2010
Appointed to continue Ted Kennedy's term

Did not run for election to finish the term
27 Sbrownofficial.jpg
Scott Brown
Republican February 4, 2010 –
January 3, 2013
Elected to finish Ted Kennedy's term

Lost re-election
111th Congress
(Continued)
112th Congress
28 Elizabeth Warren--Official 113th Congressional Portrait--.jpg
Elizabeth Warren
Democratic January 3, 2013 –
Present
Elected in 2012 39 113th Congress
113th Congress
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Kerry's term

Did not run for election to finish the term[8]
February 1, 2013 –
July 16, 2013
Democratic Mo Cowan, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Mo Cowan
29
Elected to finish Kerry's term July 16, 2013 –
Present
Democratic Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Ed Markey
30
114th Congress 39 TBD in the 2014 election
115th Congress
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 1 Class 2

References[edit]

  1. ^ Belluck, Pam (June 25, 2004). "Massachusetts Politicians Fight Over a Kerry Victory". New York times. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  2. ^ Zezima, Katie (July 2, 2004). "National Briefing: Massachusetts: Senate Approves Interim-Appointment Bill". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  3. ^ Greenberger, Scott S. (July 31, 2004). "Romney veto overridden: Governor can no longer fill vacancies in the US Senate". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ Anderson, Rob (July 16, 2004). "Devil in the Details: After Kerry, The Deluge". The American Prospect. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  5. ^ "Chapter 236 of the Acts of 2004". Acts of 2004 (Session Laws). The General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. July 30, 2004. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  6. ^ Viser, Matt (September 23, 2009). "Legislature gives final approval to bill to fill Kennedy seat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 23, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Paul Kirk officially appointed state’s interim senator". September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009. 
  8. ^ Battenfeld, Joe; Chabot, Hillary; Cassidy, Chris (January 30, 2013). "Gov names adviser Mo Cowan to interim Senate post". Boston Herald. Retrieved January 30, 2013.