List of University of Pennsylvania people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Partial list of notable faculty, alumni and scholars of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, United States.

Faculty[edit]

Alumni[edit]

Academia[edit]

Founders and leaders of academic institutions[edit]

College educators and scholars[edit]

Other educators[edit]

Arts, media, and entertainment[edit]

Athletics[edit]

College football Hall of Famers[edit]

Head coaches[edit]

NFL champions[edit]

Olympic medalists[edit]

Sports executives and owners[edit]

Other athletes[edit]

Business[edit]

For a more comprehensive list of notable alumni in the business world, see *Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. (Note: Not all of the following individuals attended the Wharton School, but may be alumni of other schools within the University of Pennsylvania).

Exploration[edit]

Government, politics and law[edit]

Colonial America delegates[edit]

Members of the Continental Congress[edit]

U.S. government[edit]

Presidents and Vice Presidents of the United States[edit]
Members of the United States Cabinet[edit]
U.S. Senators[edit]
Members of the U.S. House of Representatives[edit]
U.S. Supreme Court Justices[edit]
U.S. Ambassadors[edit]

State government[edit]

Governors[edit]

City government[edit]

Mayors[edit]

Other U.S. state and local officials[edit]

Foreign prime ministers, presidents, vice presidents and other heads of state[edit]

Other foreign officials[edit]

Lawyers, advisors and civil rights leaders[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Military[edit]

Medal of Honor recipients[edit]

Air Force officials[edit]

  • Harris Hull: Decorated Brigadier General of the United States Air Force during World War II
  • George G. Lundberg: Brigadier General of the United States Air Force during World War II, and 1917 Economics graduate
  • David G. Young III: United States Air Force Brigadier General

Army officials[edit]

Coast Guard officials[edit]

Marine Corps officials[edit]

Merchant Marine officials[edit]

Navy officials[edit]

Philosophy/theology/religion[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

Other[edit]

Notorious[edit]

Nobel Laureates[edit]

Physics[edit]

  • George E. Smith - 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics
    • "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
  • Raymond Davis - 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics
    • for "pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos."
  • John Robert Schrieffer - 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics (first Penn faculty member to win)
    • for the "theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory."
  • Robert Hofstadter - 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics
    • "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons."

Chemistry[edit]

  • Ei-ichi Negishi - 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • for "palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"
  • Irwin Rose - 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."
  • Alan MacDiarmid - 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers."
  • Hideki Shirakawa - 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers."
  • Alan J. Heeger - 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers."
  • Ahmed H. Zewail - 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy."
  • Christian B. Anfinsen - 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"
  • Vincent du Vigneaud - 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone."

Medicine[edit]

  • Harald zur Hausen - 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
  • Stanley B. Prusiner - 1997 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection."
  • Michael S. Brown - 1985 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • for his discovery "concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
  • Baruch Samuel Blumberg - 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases."
  • Gerald Edelman - 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • for the discovery "concerning the chemical structure of antibodies."
  • Haldan Keffer Hartline - 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • for the discovery "concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye."
  • Ragnar Granit - 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for describing the different types of light-sensitive cells in the eye and how light interacts with them."
  • Richard Kuhn - 1938 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins."
  • Otto Fritz Meyerhof - 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    • "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle."

Economics[edit]

  • Thomas J. Sargent - 2011 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
  • Oliver E. Williamson - 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
  • Edmund S. Phelps - 2006 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy."
  • Edward C. Prescott - 2004 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for his part in contributing to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles."
  • Lawrence Robert Klein - 1980 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for the creation of economic models and their application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies."
  • Simon Smith Kuznets - 1971 Nobel Prize in Economics
    • "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development."

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Linda Simensky, C'85." University of Pennsylvania
  2. ^ "Jim Finn". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Lewis Heisler Ball". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "Ephraim Bateman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "William Wyatt Bibb". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "William Bingham". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  7. ^ "Clayton Douglass Buck". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "Joseph Maull Carey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "Henry H. Chambers". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  10. ^ "Joseph Sill Clark". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "Simon Barclay Conover". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  12. ^ "George Robertson Dennis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  13. ^ "Philemon Dickinson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  14. ^ "James Henderson Duff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  15. ^ "Henry A. Du Pont". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "Jonathan Elmer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  17. ^ "William Grayson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  18. ^ "William Hindman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  19. ^ "Ted Kaufman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  20. ^ "Henry Latimer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  21. ^ "Lewis Fields Linn". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  22. ^ "John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  23. ^ "George Wharton Pepper". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "Caesar Augustus Rodney". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "Arlen Specter". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  26. ^ "John Selby Spence". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  27. ^ "Robert John Walker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  28. ^ "Joseph Rodman West". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  29. ^ "Ephraim Leister Acker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  30. ^ "Robert Adams, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  31. ^ "Wilbur L. Adams". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  32. ^ "John Archer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  33. ^ "James Armstrong". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "L. Heisler Ball". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  35. ^ "Ephraim Bateman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  36. ^ "John Milton Bernhisel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  37. ^ "George A. Bicknell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  38. ^ "Richard Biddle". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  39. ^ "Andrew Biemiller". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  40. ^ "Benjamin Markley Boyer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  41. ^ "Samuel Carey Bradshaw". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  42. ^ Charles Browne, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 1, 2007.
  43. ^ "George Franklin Brumm". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  44. ^ "Hiram R. Burton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  45. ^ "John Cadwalader". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  46. ^ "Lambert Cadwalader". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  47. ^ "Greene Washington Caldwell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  48. ^ "E. Wallace Chadwick". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  49. ^ "Earl Chudoff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  50. ^ "George Bosworth Churchill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  51. ^ "John Claiborne". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  52. ^ "John Daniel Clardy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  53. ^ "Isaiah Dunn Clawson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  54. ^ "John Clopton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  55. ^ "William Wilfred Cobey, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  56. ^ "Lewis Condict". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  57. ^ "Joel Cook". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  58. ^ "Thomas Buchecker Cooper". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  59. ^ "William Radford Coyle". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  60. ^ "George William Crump". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  61. ^ "Willard S. Curtin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  62. ^ "J. Burrwood Daly". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  63. ^ "William Darlington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  64. ^ "Philemon Dickerson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  65. ^ "Charles Djou". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  66. ^ "Frank Joseph Gerard Dorsey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  67. ^ "Charles F. Dougherty". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  68. ^ "George Eckert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  69. ^ "Norman Eddy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  70. ^ "Joshua Eilberg". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  71. ^ "Lucius Elmer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  72. ^ "Phillip Sheridan English". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  73. ^ "Thomas Dunn English". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  74. ^ "Chaka Fattah". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  75. ^ "Clare G. Fenerty". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  76. ^ "John Floyd". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  77. ^ "Harold E. Ford, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  78. ^ "Vito John Fossella, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  79. ^ "Oliver W. Frey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  80. ^ "Benjamin Gilman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  81. ^ "Benjamin Golder". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  82. ^ "George Scott Graham". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  83. ^ "William Henry Harrison". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  84. ^ "Charles Eaton Haynes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  85. ^ "James C. Healey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  86. ^ "William Hindman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  87. ^ "George Holcombe". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  88. ^ "Joseph Hopkinson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  89. ^ Charles Robert Howell, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 10, 2007.
  90. ^ "John William Jones". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  91. ^ "Owen Jones". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  92. ^ "Albert Walter Johnson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  93. ^ "Joseph Jorgensen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  94. ^ "William Kennedy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  95. ^ "Everett Kent". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  96. ^ "Karl C. King". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  97. ^ "William Huntington Kirkpatrick". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  98. ^ "Thomas Kittera". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  99. ^ "John A. Lafore, Jr". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  100. ^ "Henry Latimer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  101. ^ "Caleb R. Layton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  102. ^ "James Leech". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  103. ^ "William Eckart Lehman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  104. ^ "George Leiper". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  105. ^ "John Thomas Lenahan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  106. ^ "Samuel Lilly". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  107. ^ "Lloyd Lowndes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  108. ^ "James McDevitt Magee". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  109. ^ "Levi Maish". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  110. ^ "Francis Mallory". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  111. ^ "John Hartwell Marable". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  112. ^ "Robert Marion". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  113. ^ "Alexander Keith Marshall". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  114. ^ "Samuel McConnell, Jr". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  115. ^ "George Deardorff McCreary". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  116. ^ "Joseph McDade". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  117. ^ "Robert C. McEwen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  118. ^ "Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  119. ^ "John Miller". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  120. ^ "James Milnor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  121. ^ "George Edward Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  122. ^ "John Moffet". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  123. ^ "Samuel Moore". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  124. ^ "Edward Joy Morris". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  125. ^ "Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  126. ^ "Edward de Veaux Morrell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  127. ^ "John W. Murphy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  128. ^ "Leonard Myers". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  129. ^ "William Augustus Newell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  130. ^ "Edson Olds". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  131. ^ "Archibald Olpp". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  132. ^ "Cyrus Maffet Palmer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  133. ^ "John M. Patton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  134. ^ "Levi Pawling". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  135. ^ "John H. Pugh". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  136. ^ "Robert R. Reed". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  137. ^ "Jacob Richards". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  138. ^ "Lewis Riggs". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  139. ^ "Caesar Augustus Rodney". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  140. ^ "Albert Rutherford". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  141. ^ "Leon Sacks". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  142. ^ "Benjamin Say". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  143. ^ "Pius Schwert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  144. ^ "David Scott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  145. ^ "Hardie Scott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  146. ^ "John Roger Kirkpatrick Scott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  147. ^ "Joshua Seney". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  148. ^ "John Sergeant". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  149. ^ "Adam Seybert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  150. ^ "Henry Marchmore Shaw". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  151. ^ "William B. Shepard". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  152. ^ "John E. Sheridan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  153. ^ "William Simonton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  154. ^ "Edward J. Stack". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  155. ^ "James Strawbridge". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  156. ^ "Joel Sutherland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  157. ^ "John Augustus Swope". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  158. ^ "William Terrell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  159. ^ "Martin Thayer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  160. ^ "John Chew Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  161. ^ "John Parnell Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  162. ^ "Hedge Thompson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  163. ^ "Philip A. Traynor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  164. ^ "William Troutman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  165. ^ "Charles Turpin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  166. ^ "Jonathan Updegraff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  167. ^ "Joseph Vigorito". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  168. ^ "George Wallhauser". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  169. ^ "John H. Ware, III". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  170. ^ "John Goddard Watmough". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  171. ^ "James D. Weaver". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  172. ^ "Hugh Williamson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  173. ^ "William H. Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  174. ^ "Charles A. Wolverton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  175. ^ "Gunning Bedford, Sr.". National Governors Association. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  176. ^ "William Wyatt Bibb". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  177. ^ "C. Douglass Buck". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  178. ^ "Joseph M. Carey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  179. ^ "Joshua Clayton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  180. ^ "Philemon Dickerson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  181. ^ "James H. Duff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  182. ^ "John Floyd". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  183. ^ "Charles Goldsborough". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  184. ^ "Jon M. Huntsman, Jr.". National Governors Association. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  185. ^ "Lloyd Lowndes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  186. ^ "John G. McCullough". Find a Grave. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  187. ^ "Wayne Mixson". NNDB Soylent Communications. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  188. ^ "William Augustus Newell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  189. ^ "William Paca". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  190. ^ "John M. Patton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  191. ^ "Hulett C. Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  192. ^ "Robert J. Walker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  193. ^ "James Wilkinson". Find A Grave. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  194. ^ Grimes, William. "Sybil R. Moses, Prosecutor and Longtime New Jersey Judge, Dies at 69", The New York Times, January 24, 2009. Accessed October 20, 2009.
  195. ^ "Paul Rosenberg." University of Pennsylvania
  196. ^ Butler FK (2004). "Closed-circuit oxygen diving in the U.S. Navy". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 3–20. PMID 15233156. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  197. ^ Pension Protection Fund
  198. ^ United Kingdom Trade & Investment
  199. ^ [1] High Flier in Real Estate Is Sentenced for $17 Million Theft, New York Times, September 20, 2010