List of unofficial Presidents of the Philippines

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Philippine historians and other figures have identified the following people as having held the presidency of a government intended to represent the Philippines, but their terms of office are not counted by the Philippine government as part of the presidential succession.

History[edit]

Andrés Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the de facto first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: Republica Tagala). Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas he coined a Tagalog name, Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation).[1][2][3][4][5]

Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sakay and Miguel Malvar y Carpio should also be included.[6] Miguel Malvar y Carpio continued Emilio Aguinaldo's leadership of the First Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902. Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government.[7][8]

Emilio Aguinaldo is officially recognized as the first President of the Philippines, but this is based on his term of office during the Malolos Republic, later known as the First Philippine Republic. Prior to this Aguinaldo had held the presidency of several revolutionary governments which are not counted in the succession of Philippine republics.

List[edit]

# President
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Head of Government Vice President Term Era
A Gat Andres Bonifacio.jpg Andrés Bonifacio
(1863–1897)
[9][10][11][12]
August 24, 1896[L 1] March 22, 1897[L 2]
or
May 10, 1897[L 3]
Katipunan himself
(The Tagalog Republic did not provide for a Prime Minister)
Gregoria de Jesús - Tagalog Republic (Bonifacio)
B Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898).jpg Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869–1964)
March 22, 1897[L 4] November 1, 1897[L 5] Katipunan - later abolished
(Magdalo faction)
himself
(The Tejeros Convention did not provide for a Prime Minister)
Mariano Trías - Tejeros revolutionary government
B November 2, 1897[L 6] December 15, 1897[L 7] Katipunan - later abolished
(Magdalo faction)
himself
(The Republic of Biak-na-Bato did not provide for a Prime Minister)
- Republic of Biak-na-Bato
B May 24, 1898[L 8] June 23, 1898[L 9] Katipunan - later abolished
(Magdalo faction)
Apolinario Mabini none
(The dictatorial government did not provide for a Vice President)
- First Dictatorship
B June 23, 1898[L 10] January 23, 1899[L 11] Katipunan - later abolished
(Magdalo faction)
none
(The revolutionary government did not provide for a Vice President)
- Pre-Malolos revolutionary government
C Miguel malvar PG.jpg Miguel Malvar
(1865–1911)
[13]
April 1, 1901[L 12] April 16, 1902[L 13] none
(Formerly Katipunan)
himself none
(The 1899 constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
- First Republic
(Malolos Republic)
D Sakay.jpg Macario Sakay
(1870–1907)
[14][15][16]
May 6, 1902[L 14] July 14, 1906[L 15] none
(Formerly Katipunan)
himself
(The Tagalog Republic did not provide for a Prime Minister)
Francisco Carreón - Tagalog Republic (Sakay)
E Jose P. Laurel.jpg José P. Laurel
(1891–1959)
[L 16]
October 14, 1943 August 17, 1945 Kalibapi Jorge B. Vargas none
(The 1943 constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
- Second Philippine Republic
  Kalibapi (Japanese-sponsored)
Notes
  1. ^ Term began when Bonifacio declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic.
  2. ^ Term ended after the Tejeros Convention.
  3. ^ Executed for treason by Aguinaldo's government; Bonifacio did not recognize its validity and still acted as president.
  4. ^ Term was established at the Tejeros Convention; Aguinaldo took his oath of office the day after (March 23), but did not fully assume the office until late April 1897.
  5. ^ Term ended with the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
  6. ^ Term began after the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
  7. ^ Term ended when Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
  8. ^ Term began when Aguinaldo declared a dictatorial government of the Philippines.[dead link]
  9. ^ Term ended with the declaration of a revolutionary government replacing the dictatorship.[dead link]
  10. ^ Term began with the declaration of a revolutionary government replacing the dictatorship.[dead link]
  11. ^ Term ended with the inauguration of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.
  12. ^ Term began when Malvar assumed the presidency after the capture of Aguinaldo.
  13. ^ Term ended when Malvar surrendered in Batangas.
  14. ^ Term began when Sakay declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic (in the tradition of Bonifacio instead of Aguinaldo).
  15. ^ Term ended when Sakay surrendered as part of an amnesty; he was executed a year later.
  16. ^ Some sources exclude Jose P Laurel because held office during the time of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.

Timeline[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, pp. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing Guerrero & Encarnacion Villegas);
    ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, pp. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government";
    ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, pp. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).
  2. ^ Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139.
  3. ^ Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007), Bonifacio for (first) president, GMA News .
  4. ^ *Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998), Reform and Revolution, Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People 5, Asia Publishing Company Limited, ISBN 962-258-228-1 .
  5. ^ *Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnación, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramón (1996), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12 .
  6. ^ Ambeth Ocampo (May 11, 2010). "Bonifacio, First President of the Philippines?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  7. ^ manilatimes.net, Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar
  8. ^ Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995), Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?, Philippine History Group of Los Ángeles, retrieved 2007-04-08 
  9. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12. 
  10. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1. 
  11. ^ Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad M. (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: a contrived controversy. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-278-4. 
  12. ^ Severino, Howie (2007-11-27). "Bonifacio for (first) president". gmanews.tv. GMA Network. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  13. ^ Cruz, Maricel V. (2008-02-02). "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar". www.manilatimes.net. Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  14. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960]. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing Inc. ISBN 971-10-2415-2. 
  15. ^ Flores, Paul (1995-08-12). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  16. ^ Tan, Michael (2007-09-21). "September's heroes". www.inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 

See also[edit]