List of Utagawa school members

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This page contains a list of the members of the Utagawa school of Japanese artists, whose members designed paintings and woodblock prints in the ukiyo-e style from the late Edo period to the end of the Meiji period.

Naming[edit]

The art-names of the artists were not produced through a consistent scheme.

The artists of the second generation generally formed their art-names by taking the first kanji of their teacher’s name, and adding a different second kanji (e.g. Toyoharu, whose student was Toyohiro). Beginning with the third generation, the names were mainly created by starting with the second kanji of the teacher’s name, and adding another one to it (e.g. Toyokuni and his student Kunisada). However, in some cases during this stage the first kanji of the teacher's name was still used for the creation of name (e.g. Toyokuni and Toyoshige). Another, rare, variant was the use of the second kanji of the teacher’s name as the second kanji of the pupil’s name (e.g. Toyohiro and Naohiro).

Occasionally the same art-name would be re-used by different, un-related artists at different times (e.g. Kunichika or Kunihisa). Equally possible was the use of homonymic names - ones which sound the same, but are written with different kanji (e.g. Hiromasa (広昌) and Hiromasa (広政)).

After an event which left a teacher’s name unused, such as their death, retreat from artistic life, or a change in the art-name they used, the former name was often given to a preferred student. Therefore, some names continued to be used, with numbering to distinguish the various holders (e.g. Kuniteru I, II and III). Sometimes these numbers were used by the artists themselves, and sometimes they have been added much later, by people studying the field.

An especially confusing case is the sequence of holders of the name 'Toyokuni'. After Toyokuni I's death, the name initially was taken over by his student and adoptive son Toyoshige I. It was not used again until Kunisada I started using it in 1844.[1] Kunisada I actually styled himself 'Toyokuni II', ignoring the fact that Toyoshige had already been the second user of the name; he is now uniformly known as 'Toyokuni III', however. His prior art-name, Kunisada, he gave to his son-in-law and adoptive son Kunimasa III, who became now Kunisada II from 1850 onwards. After Kunisada I's death, from about 1870 onwards Kunisada II called himself Toyokuni III (although we now label him Toyokuni IV - the numbering clash caused by Kunisada I's adoption of the name "Toyokuni II" continued to cause confusion), and he handed over the name Kunisada to Kunimasa IV (who thus became Kunisada III). The latter never used the name Toyokuni (although it sometimes alleged that he did so).[2] The literature now indicates the following consecutive holders of these names (with the names they used given in sequence for each one, and using modern numbering for the users of the name 'Toyokuni'):

  • Toyokuni I
  • Toyoshige I / Toyokuni II
  • Kunisada I / Toyokuni III
  • Kunimasa III / Kunisada II / Toyokuni IV
  • Kunimasa IV / Kunisada III / Kōchōrō / Hōsai

Some names used by Utagawa-school artists were also used by artists from other schools (e.g. Toyonobu, Shigenobu, Kunihiro e.a.), so the art-name alone is not sufficient for identification; the school name has to be added for an exact designation.

Table explanation[edit]

Founder: Utagawa Toyoharu I (歌川 豊春; 1735-1814)

The left column contains the names of Toyoharu I's students; below and to the right are the names of their students. This pattern is repeated in turn, for their students. For example, Toyohiro in the first column is the teacher of the artists Hirochika through Toyokuma in the second column, and Hiroshige I in the second column is the teacher of the artists Hirokage through Shigeyoshi in the third column; etc.

If known, lifetime dates are given; if those are not known, the period of artistic activity is given. No data will indicate that the names are listed in literature but no datable artwork has yet been found.

The list also includes the names of several female artists; their names are specially marked. In general they were daughters who were taught to draw by their fathers, and were occasionally allowed to design cartouche images for their fathers' works, which they then signed with her own names.

This list is not totally complete: artists of the fifth generation are only partially listed, and artists of the sixth generation are omitted entirely.

About half of the listed names cannot be found in Western literature; the list originates from a Japanese Internet-based project, the Ukiyo-e-shi sōran (浮世絵師総覧, 'Comprehensive Bibliography of Ukiyo-e Artists').[3]

Table[edit]

2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generation
Toyoharu II (豊春 二代)
fl. 1804-1848
Toyohide (豊秀)
fl. c.1806-1832
Tsukihide (月秀)
fl. 1808
Toyohiro (豊広)
1773- 1830
Hirochika I (広近)
fl. 1820-30
Hirochika II (広近 二代)
1835-?
Hirokane (広兼)
fl. c.1805-10
Hiromaru (広丸)
signed Toba Hiromaru (鳥羽 広丸)
fl. c. 1810-15
Hiromasa (広昌)
Hiromasa (広政)
Hironobu (広演)
Hiroshige I (広重)
also used Utashige (歌重)
1797-1858
Hirokage (広景)
fl. c.1855-65
Shigefusa (重房)
fl. c.1855-70
Shigeharu (重春)
fl. 1864/65
Shigehisa (重久)
fl. c. 1850
Shigekatsu (重勝)
fl. c. 1825-50
Shigekiyo (重清)
fl. 1855-90
Shigemaru (重丸)
fl. 1850-54
also student of Kunimaru
Shigemasa (重昌)
fl. c.1850-60
Shigemasa (重政)
also Hiromasa (広政)
later Hiroshige III (広重 三代)
also used Utashige (歌重)
1842-1894
Shōsai Ikkei (昇斎一景)
fl. c.1870-75
Shigenobu (重宣)
later Hiroshige II (広重 二代), then Risshō I (喜斎)
1826-69
Kisai Risshō II (喜斎立祥 二代)
fl. 1865-70
Shigetsugu (重次)
fl. end Edo period
Hiroshige IV (広重 四代)
1848-1925
Shigenobu (重延)
fl. end 1860s
Shigetoshi (重歳)
fl. 1854-60
Shiko[4]
Shigeyoshi[4]
Hirotsune (広恒)
fl. beginning 19th century
Naohiro (直広)
fl. 1789-1801
Toyokiyo (豊清)
also signed as Kinzō (金蔵)
1799-1820
Toyokuma (豊熊)
fl. c. 1830
Toyohisa I (豊久)
fl. c.1801-1818
Hisanao (久直)
Hisanobu (久信)
signed with Hyakusai (百斎)
fl. 1800-15
Toyohisa II (豊久 二代)
fl. c.1818-c. 1844
Toyokatsu (豊勝)
fl. c.1804 -1830
Toyokuni I (豊国)
1769-1825
Kunichika (国近)
Kunichika (国周)
Kuninobu (国延)
Kunifumi (国文)
Kunifusa I (国総)
fl. 1810-13
Kunifusa (国房)
fl. beginning 19th century
Kunihana (国花)
female
Kunihide (国英)
fl. 1820-44
Kunihiki[4]
Kunihiko (国彦)
Kunihiro (国広)
fl. 1816-35
Kunihira (国平)
fl. c. 1830
Kunihisa (国久)
fl. 1800-1820
female
also student of Toyokuni II
Kunikame (国歌)
1810-71
female
Kunikage (国景)
fl. c. 1830-40
also student of Toyokuni II
Kunikane (国兼)
fl. c. 1830
Kunikatsu (国勝)
fl. 1820-30
Katsuhide (勝秀)
Katsumasa (勝政)
Katsunobu (勝信)
Katsushige (勝重)
Katsuyoshi (勝芳)
Kunikiyo I (国清)
fl. beginning 19th century
Kunimaru (国丸)
signed also with Bunji (文治)
1793-1829
Terundo (輝人)
Toshimaru (年丸)
Kunimasa I (国政)
1773-1810
Kunimasa II (国政 二代)
later Kunimune II (国宗 二代)
1792-1857
Kunimitsu I (国満)
fl. c.1800-30
Kunimitsu II (国満)
 ?-1859
Kunimitsu (国光)
fl. beginning 19th century
Kunimune I (国宗)
fl. c. 1820-30
Kuninaga (国長)
1790-1827
Kuninao I (国直)
1793-1854
Naohisa (直久)
fl. c. 1850
Naomasa (直政)
fl. 1850s
Masahisa (政久)
Kuninobu I (国信)
fl. 1814-44
Nobufusa (信房)
fl. 1830-64
Nobuhide I (信秀)
Nobuhide II (信秀 二代)
Nobukazu (信一 )
Nobukiyo (信清)
Nobusada (信貞)
Nobuyoki (信与喜)
Kunisada I (国貞)
later Toyokuni III (豊国 三代)
1786-1865
Daiyū (大右)
fl. c. 1850
Kino (きの)
fl. 1855
Kuniaki I (国明)
fl. 1850-60
Kuniaki II (国明 二代)
1835-88
Kunichika (国周)
later schoolname Toyohara (豊原)
1835-1900
Toyohara Chikaharu (周春)
1848 -?
Toyohara Chikahide (周秀)
Utagawa Chikamaro (周麿)
later (Kawanabe) Kyōsai
Toyohara Chikamasa (周政)
Toyohara Chikamasa (周正)
fl. Meiji
Yōsshū Chikanobu (周延)
1838-1912
Morikawa Chikashige (周重)
signed also with Otojirō (音次郎)
fl. 1869-82
Toyohara Chikasato (周?)
fl. 1887-96
Toyohara Chikayoshi (周義)
fl. 1867-90
Toyohara Chikayoshi (周嘉)
Gyokutei (玉亭)
before Yoshimine (芳峰)
fl. Meiji
Nobukazu (延一)
1872-1944
Utagawa Kuniteru III (国輝 三代)
fl. 1880s
Kunifuku (国福)
fl. 1854-64
Kunifusa II (国房 二代)
1834-83
Kuniharu (国晴)
fl. 1855-83
Kunihisa (国寿)
Kunihisa II (国久 二代)
1832-91
Kunimine (国峰)
1861-1944
Kunihisa III (国久 三代)
Kunikake (国魁)
Kunikazu (国員)
fl. 1850s
Kunikiyo II (国清 二代)
 ?- 1887
Kunimaro I (国麿)
signed also Maromaru (麿丸)
fl. 1850-75
Kunimaro II (国麿 二代)
fl. c. 1860
Kunimasa III (国政 三代)
later Kunisada II (国貞 二代)
later Toyokuni IV (豊国 四代)
1823-80
Kunitsuna II (国綱 二代)
before Kuniteru II (国輝 二代)
1830-74
Kuniyuki (国雪)
Kuniyuki (国幸)
fl. c. 1870
Masahisa (政久)
fl. end 19th century
Toyonobu (豊宣)
1859-86
Kunimasa IV (国政 四代)
later Kunisada III (国貞 三代)
later Kōchōrō (香蝶楼)
later Hōsai (豊斎)
1818-1920
also student of Kunisada II
Kokunimasa (小国政)
1874-1944
Kunimasa V (国政 五代)
Kunimune (国梅)
fl. 1880s
Kunitora II (国虎 二代)
?-1896
Masanobu (政信)
fl. 1882-87
Kunimasu (国益)
fl. c. 1850
Kunimichi II (国道 二代, also written 国路)
fl. c. 1850
Kunimine (国峯  二代)
fl. beginning Meiji
Kunimitsu II (国光 二代)
Kunimori II (国盛 二代)
fl. c. 1850
Kunimura (国邑)
fl. c. 1850
Kuninobu II (国信 二代)
fl. c. 1860
Kunisato (国郷)
?-1858
Kunishige (国茂)
fl. end Edo period
Kunishige (国重)
fl. c. 1850-70
Kunishige (国繁)
Kunitaka (国孝)
signed also Ichigyokusai (一玉斎)
fl. 1859-63
Kunitama (国玉)
fl. 1850s
Kuniteru I (国輝)
also Sadashige (貞重)
also Kunimitsu (国光)
fl. 1820-60
Teruhisa (輝久)
Terukuni (輝国)
Kuniteru II (国輝 二代, also written 国てる)
since 1855 Kunihiko II (国彦 二代)
1830-74
Kunitoki II (国時 二代)
fl. 1860s
Kunitoku (国得)
fl. c. 1855
Kunitomi II (国富 二代)
fl. c. 1860
Kunitomo II (国朝 二代)
fl. 1850
Kunitoshi (国歳)
fl. 1868-1912
Kunitoshi (国利, also written 邦年)
1847-99
Kunitoshi (国年)
Kunitsugu II (国次 二代)
Kuniyoshi (国美)
fl. c. 1850
Kuniyuki II (国幸 二代)
fl. 1852
Sadaaki (貞章)
Sadachika (貞周)
Sadafusa (貞房)
fl. 1830-50
Fusatane (房種)
also signed Ōsai (櫻斎)
fl. 1830-80
Sadaharu (貞晴, also written 貞春)
fl. c. 1825
Sadahide (貞秀)
1807-73
Sadahiko (貞彦)
fl. c. 1850
Sadahiro / Hirosada (貞広 / 広貞)
also known as Konishi Hirosada (小西 広貞)
also student of Sadamasu/Kunimasu
fl. 1830-54
Sadahiro II (貞広 二代)
1840-1910
Sadahisa (貞久)
Sadakage I (貞景, also written 貞影)
fl. 1820-44
Kagematsu (景松, also written 影松)
fl. c. 1840-50
Kagetoshi (景年)
fl. c. 1830-40
Sadakage II (貞景 二代)
fl. 1850-81
Sadakame-jo(貞歌女)
female
Meirindō Kakuju-jo (明林堂鶴寿女)
fl. 1861-63
female
Sadakane (貞兼)
fl. 1815-42
Sadakatsu (貞勝)
Sadakiyo (貞清)
fl. 1830
Sadakoma (貞駒)
fl 1860s
Sadakuma (貞熊)
Sadakuni (貞国)
Sadamasa (貞雅)
Sadamasa (貞政)
fl. c. 1850
Sadamasu / Kunimasu (貞升/国升)
signed also with Yukimasu (行升)
fl. c.1830-54
Nobukatsu (信勝)
fl. end Edo period
Sadayoshi (貞芳)
also student of Kunisada I
fl. 1837-50
Hasegawa Sadanobu I (長谷川 貞信)
1807-79
Sadamaru (貞丸)
Sadamasu (貞益)
fl. c. 1850
Sadamine[5]
fl. c.1830-44
Sadamine[5]
fl. c.1830-50s
Sadamori (貞盛)
Sadamura (貞邑)
fl. c. 1850
Sadamoto (貞雅)
Sadamura (貞邑, also written 貞村)
fl. c. 1850
Sadanao (貞猶 )
Sadanobu (貞延)
Sadanobu (貞宣)
fl. c. 1850
Sadanobu (貞信)
fl. 1820-30
Sadanobu II (貞信 二代)
fl. Meiji
Sadaoka (貞岡)
Sadashige (貞繁)
fl. 1820 and 1850[6]
Sadataka (貞孝)
Sadatake (貞武)
Sadatomo (貞知)
fl. 1850
Sadatora (貞虎)
fl. 1820-44
Sadatoshi (貞利)
Sadatoshi (貞年)
fl. c. 1850
Sadatsugu (貞次)
fl. 1830s
Sadatsuna (貞綱)
fl. 1830s
Sadayoshi (貞美)
fl. c. 1850
Sadayuki (貞幸)
fl. 1830-40
Takahiro (孝広)
Toyoshige III (豊重 三代)
 ?-1931
Yasu (安)
fl. c. 1850
Kunishige (国繁)
fl. 1815
Kunitame (国為)
Kunitane (国種)
fl. c. 1830
Taneharu (種春)
Tanekage (種景)
Tanekiyo (種清)
Tanemasa (種政)
Tanenobu (種信)
Taneshige (種繁)
Kunitaka (国孝)
Kunitake (国武)
Takemitsu (武光)
Takeshige (武重)
Taketora (武虎)
Kunitaki (国瀧)
Kunitaku (国宅)
Kuniteru (国照)
1808-76
also student of Kuninao
Kunitetsu (国鐵)
Kunitome-jo (国登女)
female
Kunito (国登)
Kunitoki I (国時)
Kunitoku (国登久)
Kunitora I (国虎)
1789 ?-1860 ?
Kunitsugu (国次)
1800-1861
Kunitsugu (国継)
fl. 1820-30
Kunitsuna (国綱)
1805-68
also student of Kunisada I
Kunitsune (国常)
Kuniwaka (国若)
Kuniyasu I (国安)
1794-1832
Yasuharu (安春)
Yasuhide (安秀)
fl. 1829-30
Yasukiyo (安清)
Yasumine (安峯)
1791-1842
Yasunobu (安信)
fl. 1830s
Yasushige (安重)
Yasutsune (安常)
Kuniyasu II (国安 二代)
fl. 1830-44
Kuniyoshi (国芳)
1798-1861
Harusada II (春貞 二代)
also known as Yasukawa Harusada II (保川春貞 二代)
1830-87
Kyōsai (暁斎)
1831-89
founded own school
Yono (世の)
Yoshiaki (芳明)
Yoshichika (芳近)
?-1868
Yoshiei (芳栄)
?-1869
Yoshifusa-jo I (芳房女)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshifusa II (芳房 二代)
1837-1860
Yoshifuji (芳藤, also written よし藤)
?-1886
Fujiyoshi (藤よし)
fl. 1867
Yoshigiku (芳菊)
Yoshigiri (芳桐)
Yoshiharu (芳春, also written 芳晴)
also signed Ikusaburō (幾三郎)
1828-1888
Harutomi (春富)
Harunaka (春中)
Yoshihide (芳秀)
1832-1902
Yoshihide (芳栄)
Yoshihiko (芳彦)
Yoshihisa (芳久)
fl. c. 1862-63
Yoshihiro (芳広)
?-1884
Yoshiiku (芳幾)
1833-1904
Ikuhide (幾英)
also Kobayasi Ikuhide (小林 幾英)
fl. 1880-1898
Yoshijo (芳女)
fl. end Edo period
Yoshikabu (芳蕪)
Yoshikado (芳廉)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshikatsu (芳勝)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshikage (芳影)
Yoshikage (芳景)
?-1892
Kagetora (景虎)
Kagehisa (景久)
Yoshikane (芳兼)
1832-1881
Yoshikata (芳形)
1841-1864
Yoshikazu (芳員)
fl. 1850-60
Yoshikiyo (芳清)
Yoshikono (?) (芳??)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshikuni (芳州)
fl. beginning Meiji
Yoshikuni (芳国)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshimasu (芳升)
Yoshimaro (芳麿)
Yoshimaru I (芳丸)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshimaru II (芳丸 二代)
1844-1907
Yoshimasa (芳政)
fl. c. 1830-60
Yoshimi (芳見)
Yoshimitsu (芳満)
1837-1910
Yoshimura (芳村, also written 芳邨)
1846-?
Yoshimori I (芳盛)
1830-85
Yoshimori II (芳盛 二代)
before Kuniharu 国晴
1854-?
Yoshimoto (芳基)
Yoshimune I (芳宗)
1817-80
Yoshimune II (芳宗 二代)
1863-1941
Yoshinaka (芳仲)
Yoshinao (芳直)
fl. 1854-56
Yoshinobu (芳延)
1838-1890
Yoshinobu (芳信)
fl. 1860s
Yoshisada (芳貞)
signed also with Kiyonobu (清貞)
fl. Meiji
Yoshisato (芳里)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshisato (芳郷)
Yoshisen (芳仙)
Yoshishige (芳重, also written 吉重)
fl. c. 1840-55
Yoshitada (芳忠)
fl. c. 1850
Yoshitama-jo (芳玉女)
signed also with Shimizu (清水)
1836-70
female
Yoshitame (芳為)
Yoshitani (芳谷)
Yoshitaka (芳鷹)
fl. 1850s
Yoshitaki (芳瀧, also written 芳滝)
1841-99
Yoshitatsu (芳辰)
Yoshiteru (芳照)
fl. 1850-90
Yoshiteru (芳輝)
1808-91
Yoshitomi (芳富)
fl. beginning Meiji period
Yoshitora (芳虎)
fl. 1830-1870
Toratane (虎種)
fl. Meiji
Torashige (虎重)
fl. Meiji
Yoshitori-jo (芳鳥女)
signed also with Kuniyoshi musume (国芳女), musume Tori (女登里) and Tori-jō (登理女)
1797-1861
female
Yoshitoshi (芳年)
1839-92
founded own school
Yoshitoyo I (芳豊)
1830-66?
also student of Kunisada I
Yoshitoyo II (芳豊 二代)
1844-1907
Yoshitsuna (芳綱)
fl. end Edo period
Yoshitsuru I (芳鶴, also written 芳霍)
1789-1846
Yoshitsuru II (芳鶴 二代)
Yoshitsuya I (芳艶)
1822-66
Kazutoyo (一豊)
Tsuyanaga (艶長)
fl. 1863
Tsuyatoyo (艶豊)
Tsuyamasa (艶政)
Yoshitsuya II (芳艶 二代)
fl. 1870s
Yoshiume (芳梅)
1819-79
Yoshiyuki (芳雪, also written 蕙雪)
?-c. 1861
Yoshizane (芳真)
Kuniyuki I (国幸)
Kunizō (国蔵)
Toyoshige I (豊重)
probably before Kunishige (国重)
later Toyokuni II (豊国 二代)
1777?-1835
Kuniharu (国春)
1803-39
Kuniharu (国晴)
Kunihiro (国弘)
fl. c. 1825-40
Kunikazu (国一)
Kunimichi I (国道)
Kunimori I (国盛)
fl. c.1820-40
Kunimoya (国靄, also written 国鶴)
fl. 1830s
Kunimura (国邑)
Kuninao II (国直 二代)
fl. Meiji
Kunioki (国興)
Kunishi (国誌)
 ?-c. 1850
Kunitada (国忠)
Kunitomi I (国富)
fl. 1820-44
Tominobu (富信)
fl. c. 1840-45
Kunitomo (国朝)
fl. 1830s
Kunitomo (国與)
Kunitsuru I (国靏)
1807-78
Kunimatsu (国松)
also Toyoshige III (豊重 三世) and Fukudō Kunimatsu (福堂 国松)
1855-1944
Kunitsuru II (国靏 二代)
1852-1919
Toyoshige II (国重 二代)
fl. 1840-50
Toyotoshi (豊年)
fl. c. 1830
Kunishige II
fl. 1818?-44
Kunimasu (国益)
fl. 1823-25
Toyomaro (豊麿)
fl. end 18th century
Toyomaru I (豊丸)
before Katsukawa Shunrō II
fl. 1785-97
Toyonobu (豊信)
fl. 1770-80
 
Teachers unknown:
Fusakiyo (房清)
fl. 1846
Hidemaru (秀丸)
Naotsuna (直綱)
fl. c. 1840
Kagemasu (景升)
fl. Meiji
Kintarō (金太郎)
fl. c. 1880
Kuniama?? (国天雷)
fl. 1890s
Kunihama (国濱)
fl. beginning 19th century
Kunihide (国英)
fl. c. 1890
Kunikazu (国一)
also Otake Kunikazu (尾竹国一)
fl. 1887
Kuniyasu (国保)
also Sekisai Kuniyasu (石斎国保)
fl. 1880-90
Ryūshi (竜子)
also known as Chikusai Ryūshi (竹斎 竜子)
fl. 1815
Suekatsu (季勝)
fl. beginning 19th century
Toyokage (豊景)
Toyonaga (豊長)
fl. beginning 19th century
Yasuzō (保蔵)
fl. c. 1840
Yoshimaru (美丸)
also Kitao Shigemasa II (北尾 重政 二世) and Kitagawa Yoshimaro (喜多川 美麿)
fl. c. 1810-40

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Laurance, 'Kunisada', pg. 97
  2. ^ Laurance, 'Kunisada III', pg. 97
  3. ^ Ukiyo-e-shi sōran (浮世絵師総覧), 'Comprehensive Bibliography of Ukiyo-e Artists' (Japanese)
  4. ^ a b c Schwan, p. 247, name not confirmed by other references
  5. ^ a b Newland, S. 527, name not confirmed by other references
  6. ^ probably these are two different artists

References[edit]

  • Richard Lane: Images from the Floating World. Fribourg, 1978, ISBN 0-88168-889-4
  • Amy Reigle Newland (Hrsg.): The Hotei Encyclopedia of Japanese Woodblock Prints. 2 vol., Amsterdam, 2005, ISBN 90-74822-65-7
  • Laurance P. Roberts: A Dictionary of Japanese Artists, Weatherhill, Tokyo and New York, 1976 and 1990, ISBN 0-8348-0235-X
  • Friedrich B. Schwan: Handbuch Japanischer Holzschnitt. Hintergründe, Techniken, Themen und Motive. Iudicium, München 2003, ISBN 3-89129-749-1 (German)