List of valide sultans
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The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire presented below does not include the complete list of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans. Valide Sultan was the title of the mother of the reigning sultan. The mothers who died before her sons' accession to throne, never assumed the title of Valide Sultan (like Devlet Khātûn, Gül-Bahār Khātûn, Hürrem (Khurram) Haseki, Hatice (Khadija) Muazzez, Emine (Aminā) Mihr-î-Şâh, Râbi'a Sharmi, Tîr-î-Müjgan, Gülcemal, and Gülistan Münire). On the other hand there were step mothers who were not the biological mother but still assumed the title of Valide Sultans (like Amina Gul-Bahar, Fülane Haseki and Rahîme Piristû (Perestû)).
- unknown: Hayme Hatun - Wife of Ertuğrul Gazi, mother of Osman I, Turkish.
- 1324: Mal (Bala) Khātûn - Wife of Osman I, mother of Orhan I, Turkish. She was the daughter of the Anatolian Turkish Bey, Ömer Bey, although there had been some speculations that she was the daughter of Sheik Edebali.
- 1359-unknown: Nilüfer Khātûn - Wife of Orhan I, mother of Murad I. She was possibly of Greek descent.
- 1389-unknown: Gül-Çiçek Khātûn - Wife of Murad I, mother of Bayezid I. She was an ethnic Greek.
- Devlet Khātûn mother of Mehmed I wife of Bayezid I Turkish from Kütahya, Germiyanoğulları Beyliği
- 1421-1449: Emine (Aminā) Khātûn - The third wife of Mehmed I, mother of Murad II. She was the daughter of Nasreddin Mehmed Bey, the fifth ruler of Dulkadiroğulları State, and her marriage served as an alliance between the Ottomans and this buffer state.
- 1432-unknown: Hüma Khātûn - Wife of Murad II, mother of Mehmed II. She was born in Devrekani county of Kastamonu province, daughter of Tacettin İbrahim Bey. (Huma means "a girl/woman from Hum")
- 1481-1492 : Amina Gul-Bahar (also known as Kül-Bahār Khātûn or Gülbahar Hatun) - Wife of Mehmed II, mother of Bayezid II. She was an Albanian or Serbian.
- 1453-1510 : Gül-Bahār Sultan; Ayşe Khātûn I - Gül-Bahār Sultan was the biological mother of Selim I, wife of Bayezid II; while Ayishā Khātûn, another wife of Bayezid II from Elbistan of the Dulkadiroğulları Beyliği, was the stepmother of Selim I.
- 1520-1534: Ayşe Hafsa (Ayishā Hâfize) Sultan; Ayishā Khātûn II - Ayşe Hafsa (Ayishā Hâfize) Sultan was the wife of Selim I and the biological mother of Suleiman I; while Ayishā Khātûn II, the daughter of Meñli I Giray of the Crimean Khanate and most probably of Crimean Tatars descent, was the stepmother of Suleiman I and the biological mother of Beyhan and Shah Sultans.
- 1574-1583 Afife Nur-Bânû - Wife of Selim II, mother of Murad III. She was born Cecilia Venier-Baffo, and was of noble Venetian birth.
- 1594-1603 : Safiye - Wife of Murad III, mother of Mehmed III. She was born Sofia Baffo, and like her predecessor (and cousin), was of noble Venetian birth.
- 1603-1603 : Handan - Wife of Mehmed III, mother of Ahmed I and Mustafa I. She was an ethnic Greek, originally named Helena or Jelena.
- 1617-1621 : Mâh-Firûze Hatice (Khadija) - Wife of Ahmed I, mother of Osman II. She was an ethnic Serb, originally named Marija or Mariza.
- 1623-1648 : Mâh-Peyker Kösem - Another wife of Ahmed I, mother of Murad IV and Ibrahim I. Of Greek Bosnian descent, she was originally named Anastasia.
- 1648-1683: Turhan Hatice - Wife of Ibrahim I, mother of Mehmed IV. She was of Ruthenian descent. Her original name was Nadya.
- 1687-1689: Saliha Dilashub (or Saliha Dilâşub) - Another wife of Ibrahim I, mother of Suleiman II. She was of Serbian descent. Her original name was Katarina.
- 1695-1715: Mâh-Pârā Ummatullah (Emetullah) Râbi'a Gül-Nûş - Wife of Mehmed IV, mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III. Originally named Evmania Voria, she was ethnically Greek and she came from Crete, then under The Most Serene Republic of Venice rule.
- 1730-1739 : Saliha Sabkati - Wife of Mustafa II, mother of Mahmud I. She was Serbian descent. Her original name was Jelizabeta.
- 1754-1756 : Shehsuvar - Another wife of Mustafa II, mother of Osman III. She was of Serbian descent. Her original name was Velinka.
- 1789-1807: Mihr-î-Şah - Wife of Mustafa III, mother of Selim III. She was of Genoese descent. Her original name was Agnes
- 1807-1808: Ayse Seniyeperver (also known as Aishā Sina Pervar or Ayşe Seniyeperver) - Wife of Abdul Hamid I, mother of Mustafa IV. She was of Bulgarian descent. Her original name was Sonija.
- 1808-1817 : Nakş-î-Dil Haseki - Another wife of Abdul Hamid I, and adoptive mother of Mahmud II. (There have been speculations that she was a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine. See Aimée du Buc de Rivéry)
- 1839-1852 : Bezm-î-Âlem (or Bazim-î Alam) - The first wife of Mahmud II, mother of Abdülmecid I. She was of Russian Jewish or Georgian Jewish descent
- 1861-1876 : Pertav-Nihâl (Pertevniyal) - Wife of Mahmud II, mother of Abdülaziz. She was of Romanian descent.
- 1876-1876 : Shevkefza - Wife of Abdülmecid I, mother of Murad V. She was of Mingrelian descent.
- 1876-1904 : Rahîme Piristû (Perestû) - Wife of Abdülmecid I, adoptive mother of Abdul Hamid II). She was of Circassian descent.
- Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman Dynasty
- List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
- Line of succession to the Ottoman throne
- List of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans (including the mothers who didn't assume the title Valide Sultan)
- Ottoman Emperors family tree
- Ottoman family tree (more detailed)
- Tuğra-Sultan's Signature
- List of Ottoman Grand Viziers
- List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire
- List of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas
- The Fall of Constantinople, Steven Runciman, Cambridge University Press, p.36
- The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, Heath W. Lowry, 2003 SUNY Press, p.153
- History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, Cambridge University Press, p.24
- Christine Isom-Verhaaren, Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006
- Ali Kemal Meram, "Padişah anaları", 1977 p. 399 (Turkish)
- Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.106. Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-56619-847-X
- Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.290. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X
- Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.287. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X