Valide sultan

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Valide Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire
Former political post
BustOfAyseHafsaSultan ManisaTurkey.jpg
A bust of Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, who was the Valide Sultan from 1520 to 1534.
First officeholder Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Last officeholder Rahime Perestu Sultan
Style Valide Sultan Efendi
Official residence Topkapı Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace
Yıldız Palace
Office began 1522
Office ended 1904
Current pretender Position abolished

Valide sultan (Ottoman Turkish: والده سلطان, literally "mother sultan") was the title held by the queen mother of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.[1] The title was first used in the 16th century for Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, consort of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent, superseding the previous title of mehd-i ülya ("cradle of the great").[1] The Turkish pronunciation of the word Valide is [vaː.liˈde].

The position was perhaps the most important position in the Ottoman Empire after the sultan himself. As the mother to the sultan, by Islamic tradition ("A mother's right is God's right"),[2] the valide sultan would have a significant influence on the affairs of the empire. She had great power in the court and her own rooms (always adjacent to her sons) and state staff.[1] In particular during the 17th century, in a period known as the "Sultanate of Women", a series of incompetent or child sultans raised the role of the valide sultan to new heights.[3]

The Sultanate of Women began with Hürrem Sultan (1502–1558) and was continued by Nurbanu Sultan (1525–1583), mother of Murad III. As valide sultan in 1574–1583, Nurbanu was the de facto co-ruler, and managed the government together with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha. The most powerful and well-known of all valide sultans and haseki sultans in the history of the Ottoman Empire were Hürrem Sultan, Nurbanu Sultan and Kösem Sultan (1589–1651).

Harem women who were slaves were never formally married to the sultans. Nevertheless, their children were considered fully legitimate under Islamic law if recognized by the father.[4]

Reconstructed scene of a Valide Sultan and her attendants in her apartments at Topkapı Palace.
Kösem Sultan (1589–1651) who was murdered in 1651 through the plotting of Turhan Hatice Sultan.

The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire presented below does not include the complete list of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans. Valide Sultan was the title of the mother of the reigning sultan. The mothers who died before her sons' accession to throne, never assumed the title of Valide Sultan (like Devlet Khātûn, Gül-Bahār Khātûn, Hürrem (Khurram) Haseki, Hatice (Khadija) Muazzez, Emine (Aminā) Mihr-î-Şâh, Râbi'a Sharmi, Tîr-î-Müjgan, Gül-Cemâl, and Gülistan Münire). On the other hand there were step mothers who were not the biological mother but still assumed the title of Valide Sultans (like Nakş-î-Dil (Naksh-î-Dil) Haseki, and Rahîme Piristû (Perestû)).

List of Valide Sultans[edit]

The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire:

A more simplified list of the valide sultans and the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans (including the adoptive/step-mothers who did assume the title Valide Sultan)[edit]

  1. Khālîma (Halime) Khānum
  2. Malhun (Māl) Khātûn
  3. Nilüfer Khātûn
  4. Gül-Çiçek Khātûn
  5. Devlet Şah Khātûn
  6. Devlet Khātûn
  7. Emîne (Amînā) Khātûn
  8. Hümâ Khātûn
  9. Sitt-î Mükrîme (Mû’kārîmā) Khātûn
  10. Emîne (Amînā) Kül-Bahār Vālida Khātûn
  11. A’ishā (Ayşe) Khātûn
  12. Gül-Bahār Khātûn
  13. Ayşe Hafsa (A’ishā Hāfîza Khātûn) Vālida Sultâna
  14. Hürrem (Khûrrām or Kārimā) Haseki Sultâna
  15. Afife Nûr-Banû Vālida Sultâna
  16. Safiyā Vālida Sultâna
  17. Handan Vālida Sultâna
  18. Âlîme Vālida Sultâna
  19. Mâh-Firûze Hadice (Khadija) Vālida Sultâna
  20. Meh-Peyker (Māh-Peyker) Kösem Vālida Sultâna
  21. Turhan Hadice (Tarhan Khadija) Vālida Sultâna
  22. Sâliha Dil-Âşûb (Dil-Âshûb) Vālida Sultâna
  23. Hatice (Khadija) Mû’azzez Second (İkinci) Haseki Sultâna
  24. Meh-Pâre Emetullah Râbi’a Gül-Nûş (Māh-Pârā Ummatullah Gül-Nûsh) Vālida Sultâna
  25. Sâliha Sebkat-î (Sabkatî) Vālida Sultâna
  26. Şâh-Süvar (Shah-Sûvar) Vālida Sultâna
  27. Emîne Mihr-î-Şâh (Amînā Mehr-î-Shah) İkinci Kadın Efendi (Second Kadın Effendi)
  28. Râbi’a Şerm-î (Shārmî) Kadın Effendi
  29. Mihr-î-Şâh (Mehr-î-Shah) Vālida Sultâna
  30. Bash Iqbal Nushatzaza (Nüzhet-Zâde / Nükhet-Sedâ) Khānum Effendi
  31. A’ishā Sinā-Pervar (Ayşe Seniyeperver) Vālida Sultân
  32. Naksh-î-Dil (Nakş-î-Dil) Haseki Vālida Sultân
  33. Bezm-î-Âlem (Bāzim-î-Âlām) Vālida Sultâna
  34. Pertevniyal (Pertāv-Nihâl) Vālida Sultâna
  35. Şevk-Efzâ (Shāvk-Efzâ) Vālida Sultâna
  36. Rahime Perestû (Piristû) Vālida Sultân
  37. Tîr-î-Müjgan Third (Üçüncü) Kadın Effendi
  38. Gül-Cemâl Fourth (Dördüncü) Kadın Effendi
  39. Gül-İstü (Gülistan Münîre) Fourth (Dördüncü) Kadın Effendi
  40. Hayrân-ı Dil Third (Üçüncü) Kadın Efendi

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Davis, Fanny (1986). "The Valide". The Ottoman Lady: A Social History from 1718 to 1918. ISBN 0-313-24811-7. 
  2. ^ http://www.beliefnet.com/Love-Family/Holidays/Mothers-Day/Can-Muslims-Celebrate-Mothers-Day.aspx?p=2#
  3. ^ Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5 (paperback)
  4. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Imperial Family of Turkey". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. 
  5. ^ The Fall of Constantinople, Steven Runciman, Cambridge University Press, p.36
  6. ^ The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, Heath W. Lowry, 2003 SUNY Press, p.153
  7. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, Cambridge University Press, p.24
  8. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=LtzXAAAAMAAJ&q=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CCkQ6AEwBg
  9. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA52&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  10. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=JXh6vjXt_4IC&pg=PA32&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBwQuwUwAw
  11. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA365&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  12. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=w4RpAAAAMAAJ&q=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&dq=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=enbrU-PJNqT4yQOqoIGADg&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA
  13. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=77aDnC12IDEC&pg=PA30&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SWjkU9zFHeHqyQPLoYL4Cw&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Gülbahar Albanian&f=false
  14. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=nDoOAQAAMAAJ&q=Gülbahar+Albanian&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jMPlU7_7LabB7Aa3_IHYDQ&ved=0CEsQ6wEwCA
  15. ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2 (www.nesilyayinlari.com)
  16. ^ Bayezid II's own biological mother is "Sitt-î Mû’karîma Khātûn"
  17. ^ The Imperial House of Osman - 4
  18. ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 395, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2
  19. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006
  20. ^ Ali Kemal Meram, "Padişah anaları", 1977 p. 399 (Turkish)
  21. ^ Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.106. Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-56619-847-X
  22. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.290. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X
  23. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.287. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X
  24. ^ "Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  25. ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 505, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2