List of valide sultans

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Reconstructed scene of a Valide Sultan and her attendants in her apartments at Topkapı Palace.

The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire presented below does not include the complete list of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans. Valide Sultan was the title of the queen mother of the reigning sultan. The mothers who died before her sons' accession to throne never assumed the title of Valide Sultan (like Devlet Hatun, Gülbahar Hatun II, Hürrem Sultan, Hatice Muazzez Sultan, Emine Mihrişah Sultan, Rabia Şermi Sultan, Tirimüjgan Sultan, Gülcemal Kadın Efendi, and Gülüstü Kadın Efendi). On the other hand, there were step-mothers who were not the biological mother but still assumed the title as adoptive Valide Sultans (like Ayşe Hatun I and Rahime Perestu Sultan).

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References[edit]

  1. ^ The Fall of Constantinople, Steven Runciman, Cambridge University Press, p.36
  2. ^ The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, Heath W. Lowry, 2003 SUNY Press, p.153
  3. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, Cambridge University Press, p.24
  4. ^ Christine Isom–Verhaaren, Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty–first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006
  5. ^ Ali Kemal Meram, "Padişah anaları", 1977 p. 399 (Turkish)
  6. ^ Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.106. Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1–56619–847–X
  7. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.290. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0–292–71842–X
  8. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.287. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0–292–71842–X

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