List of valide sultans
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The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire presented below does not include the complete list of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans. Valide Sultan was the title of the queen mother of the reigning sultan. The mothers who died before her sons' accession to throne never assumed the title of Valide Sultan (like Devlet Hatun, Gülbahar Hatun II, Hürrem Sultan, Hatice Muazzez Sultan, Emine Mihrişah Sultan, Rabia Şermi Sultan, Tirimüjgan Sultan, Gülcemal Kadın Efendi, and Gülüstü Kadın Efendi). On the other hand, there were step-mothers who were not the biological mother but still assumed the title as adoptive Valide Sultans (like Ayşe Hatun I and Rahime Perestu Sultan).
- unknown: Hayme Hatun – Wife of Ertuğrul Gazi, mother of Osman I, Turkish.
- 1324: Mal Hatun – Wife of Osman I, mother of Orhan I, Turkish. She was the daughter of the Anatolian Turkish bey, Ömer Bey, although there had been some speculations that she was the daughter of Sheik Edebali.
- 1359–?: Nilüfer Hatun – Wife of Orhan I, mother of Murad I. She was possibly of Greek descent.
- 1389–?: Gülçiçek Hatun – Wife of Murad I, mother of Bayezid I. She was an ethnic Greek.
- 1421–1449: Emine Hatun – The third wife of Mehmed I, mother of Murad II. She was the daughter of Nasreddin Mehmed Bey, the fifth ruler of Dulkadiroğulları State, and her marriage served as an alliance between the Ottomans and this buffer state.
- 1432–?: Hüma Hatun – Wife of Murad II, mother of Mehmed II. She was born in Devrekani county of Kastamonu province, daughter of an "Abdullah of Hum". (Huma means "a girl/woman from Hum".)
- 1481–1492: Gülbahar Hatun I (also known as Kül–Bahār Khātûn or Gülbahar Hatun) – Wife of Mehmed II, mother of Bayezid II. She was an Albanian.
- 1520–1534: Ayşe Hafsa Sultan and Ayşe Hatun II – Ayşe Hafsa Sultan was the wife of Selim I and the biological mother of Suleiman I.
- 1574–1583: Nurbanu – Wife of Selim II, mother of Murad III. She was born Cecilia Venier–Baffo, and was of noble Venetian birth.
- 1594–1603: Safiye – Wife of Murad III, mother of Mehmed III. She was born Sofia Baffo, and like her predecessor (and cousin), was of noble Venetian birth.
- 1603–1603: Handan – Wife of Mehmed III, mother of Ahmed I. She was an ethnic Greek, originally named Helena or Jelena.
- 1617–1618 and 1622–1623: Alime - Another wife of Mehmed III, mother of Mustafa I. She was an ethnic Caucasian, originally named Altunşah, the daughter of Akuc Bey.
- 1617–1621: Mahfiruz Hatice – Wife of Ahmed I, mother of Osman II. She was an ethnic Greek, Serb, or Circassian originally named Maria, Eudoxia or Hatice.
- 1623–1648: Kösem – Another wife of Ahmed I, mother of Murad IV and Ibrahim I. Of Greek Bosnian descent, she was originally named Anastasia.
- 1648–1683: Turhan Hatice – Wife of Ibrahim I, mother of Mehmed IV. She was of Ruthenian descent. Her original name was Nadia.
- 1687–1689: Saliha Dilaşub – Another wife of Ibrahim I, mother of Suleiman II. She was of Serbian descent. Her original name was Katarina.
- 1695–1715: Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş – Wife of Mehmed IV, mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III. Originally named Evmania Voria, she was ethnically Greek and she came from Crete, then under The Most Serene Republic of Venice rule.
- 1730–1739: Saliha Sabkati – Wife of Mustafa II, mother of Mahmud I. She was Serbian descent. Her original name was Elizabeta.
- 1754–1756: Şehsuvar – Another wife of Mustafa II, mother of Osman III. She was of Serbian descent. Her original name was Mari.
- 1789–1807: Mihrişah – Wife of Mustafa III, mother of Selim III. She was Georgian descent. Her original name was Agnès.
- 1807–1808: Ayşe Seniyeperver – Wife of Abdul Hamid I, mother of Mustafa IV. She was of Bulgarian descent. Her original name was Sonia.
- 1808–1817: Nakşidil – Another wife of Abdul Hamid I, and adoptive mother of Mahmud II. (There have been speculations that she was a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine; see Aimée du Buc de Rivéry)
- 1839–1852: Bezmiâlem – First wife of Mahmud II, mother of Abdülmecid I. She was of Russian Jewish or Georgian Jewish descent
- 1861–1876: Pertevniyal – Wife of Mahmud II, mother of Abdülaziz. She was of Romanian descent.
- 1876–1876: Şevkefza – Wife of Abdülmecid I, mother of Murad V. She was of Mingrelian descent.
- 1876–1904: Rahime Perestu – Wife of Abdülmecid I, adoptive mother of Abdul Hamid II). She was of Circassian descent.
- List of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans (including the mothers who didn't assume the title Valide sultan)
- Valide sultan
- Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman dynasty
- List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
- Line of succession to the Ottoman throne
- Ottoman Emperors family tree
- Ottoman family tree (more detailed)
- The Fall of Constantinople, Steven Runciman, Cambridge University Press, p.36
- The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, Heath W. Lowry, 2003 SUNY Press, p.153
- History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, Cambridge University Press, p.24
- Christine Isom–Verhaaren, Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty–first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006
- Ali Kemal Meram, "Padişah anaları", 1977 p. 399 (Turkish)
- Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.106. Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1–56619–847–X
- Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.290. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0–292–71842–X
- Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.287. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0–292–71842–X