List of Victoria Cross recipients by nationality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of recipients of the Victoria Cross by nationality. This list does not include the Victoria Cross awarded to the American Unknown Soldier of World War I Tomb of the Unknowns, buried in Arlington National Cemetery. He was awarded the VC posthumously in 1921. This gesture reciprocated the award of the Medal of Honor to the British Unknown Warrior.

The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other postnominals and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and civilians under military command, and is presented to the recipient during an investiture by the British monarch. It is the joint highest award for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is the equivalent honour for valour not in the face of the enemy.[1] The VC has been awarded on 1356 occasions to 1353 individual recipients.

The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men.[2] The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920 but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.[3][4] In 1867, the VC was extended to colonial troops acting under British command. The extension was made following a recommendation for gallantry regarding colonial soldier Major Charles Heaphy for action in the New Zealand land wars in 1864.[5] He was operating under British command and the VC was gazetted in 1867. Colonial troops were not eligible for the VC during the New Zealand land wars, so the New Zealand Cross (1869) was created.[6]

Indian troops were not originally eligible for the Victoria Cross since they had been eligible for the Indian Order of Merit since 1837 which was the oldest British gallantry award for general issue. When the Victoria Cross was created, Indian troops were still controlled by the East India Company and did not come under Crown control until 1860. European officers and men serving with the Honourable East India Company were not eligible for the Indian Order of Merit and the Victoria Cross was extended to cover them in October 1857. It was only at the end of the 19th Century that calls for Indian troops to be awarded the Victoria Cross intensified. Indian troops became eligible for the award in 1911. The first awards to Indian troops appeared in the London Gazette on 7 December 1914 to Darwan Sing Negi and Khudadad Khan. Negi was presented with the Victoria Cross by King George V during a visit to troops in France. The presentation occurred on 5 December 1914 and he is one of a very few soldiers presented with his award before it appeared in the London Gazette.[7] In 1904, Frederick Russell Burnham was to be awarded the Victoria Cross for his valour in Southern Africa, but Burnham declined rather than renounce his U.S. citizenship—a requirement at the time. Instead, he was awarded the British Army's second highest commendation, the Distinguished Service Order.

Several Commonwealth countries have now created their own award systems. Since 1991, Australia, Canada and New Zealand have created their own separate Victoria Crosses; the Victoria Cross for Canada, the Victoria Cross for Australia and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. Only four of these separate medals have been awarded: Willie Apiata received the Victoria Cross for New Zealand on 26 July 2007; Mark Donaldson, Ben Roberts-Smith, Daniel Keighran and Cameron Baird have all been awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia. All five awards were for actions in Afghanistan. As these are separate medals, they are not included in this list.

Recipients by nationality[edit]

  •       Rows highlighted in orange contain links to separate pages which contain the recipients of countries with over 75 recipients
  •       This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously
Name Nationality Date of action Conflict Unit Place of action Notes
Hutcheson, BellendenBellenden Hutcheson American 1918 First World War 75th Bn Canadian Expeditionary Force Drocourt-Quéant Support Line, France [8]
Metcalf, WilliamWilliam Metcalf American 1918 First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force Arras, France [8]
Mullin, GeorgeGeorge Mullin American 1917 First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force Passchendaele, Belgium [8]
Seeley, WilliamWilliam Seeley American 1864 Bombardment of Shimonoseki HMS Euryalus Shimonoseki, Japan
Zengel, RaphaelRaphael Zengel American 1918 First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force Warvillers, France [9]
AAA AustraliaAustralian recipients AAA AAA AA01 AAA
De Wiart, AdrianAdrian De Wiart Belgian 1916 First World War BB0044th Dragoon Guards La Boiselle, France
Hodge, SamuelSamuel Hodge British Virgin Islands 1866 Gambia Campaign BB0044th West India Regiment Tubabecelong, Gambia
AAB CanadaCanadian recipients AAB AAB AA02 AAB
Bruce, WilliamWilliam Bruce Channel Islander 1914 First World War BB05959th Scinde Rifles Givenchy, France
Halliday, LewisLewis Halliday Channel Islander 1900 Boxer Rising Royal Marine Light Infantry Peking, China
Harington, HastingsHastings Harington Channel Islander 1857 Indian Mutiny Bengal Horse Artillery Lucknow, India
Home, DuncanDuncan Home Channel Islander 1857 Indian Mutiny Bengal Sappers and Miners Delhi, India
Ingouville, GeorgeGeorge Ingouville Channel Islander 1855 Crimean War HMS Arrogant Vyborg, Russia
Le Patourel, HerbertHerbert Le Patourel Channel Islander 1942 Second World War Hampshire Regiment Tebourba, Tunisia
Le Quesne, FerdinandFerdinand Le Quesne Channel Islander 1889 British rule in Burma Royal Army Medical Corps Voklaak, Burma
McCrea, JohnJohn McCrea Channel Islander 1881 Basuto Gun War BB0011st Cape Mounted Yeomanry Tweefontein, South Africa
McReady-Diarmid, AllastairAllastair McReady-Diarmid Channel Islander 1917 First World War Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment) Moeuvres, France
Nurse, GeorgeGeorge Nurse Channel Islander 1899 Second Boer War Royal Field Artillery Colenso, South Africa
Sartorious, EustonEuston Sartorious Channel Islander 1859 Second Afghan War BB05959th Regiment of Foot Shahjui, Afghanistan
Sartorious, ReginaldReginald Sartorious Channel Islander 1874 First Ashanti Expedition BB0066th Bengal Cavalry Obugu, Ashanti
Dinesen, ThomasThomas Dinesen Danish 1918 First World War BB04242nd Bn CEF Canadian Expeditionary Force Parvillers, France
Hansen, PercyPercy Hansen Danish 1915 First World War BB0066th Lincolnshire Regiment Gallipoli, Turkey
Lassen, AndersAnders Lassen Danish 1945* Second World War Special Boat Service Comacchio, Italy
AAC EnglandEnglish recipients AAC AAC AA03 AAC
Sukanaivalu, SefanaiaSefanaia Sukanaivalu Fijian 1944* Second World War Fiji Infantry Regiment Mawaraka, Bougainville Island
Wooden, CharlesCharles Wooden German 1854 Crimean War BB01717th Lancers Balaklava, Crimea
Beharry, JohnsonJohnson Beharry Grenadian 2004 Iraq War Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment Amarah, Iraq
Johnstone, WilliamWilliam Johnstone Hanoverian 1854 Crimean War HMS Arrogant, RN Åland Islands, Finland [10]
Bhagat, PremindraPremindra Bhagat Indian 1941 Second World War Corps of Indian Engineers Gallabat, Abyssinia
Ghadge, YeshwantYeshwant Ghadge Indian 1944* Second World War Maratha Light Infantry Upper Tiber Valley, Italy
Hafiz, AbdulAbdul Hafiz Indian 1944* Second World War BB0099th Jat Regiment Imphal, India
Jadav, NamdeoNamdeo Jadav Indian 1945 Second World War BB0055th Maratha Light Infantry Senio River, Italy
Judge, KaramjeetKaramjeet Judge Indian 1945* Second World War BB4154/15th Punjab Regiment Meiktila, Burma
Lala Indian 1916 First World War BB04141st Dogras El Orah, Mesopotamia
Negi, DarwanDarwan Negi Indian 1914 First World War BB03939th Garhwal Rifles Festubert, France
Negi, GabarGabar Negi Indian 1915* First World War BB03939th Garhwal Rifles Neuve Chapelle, France
Ram, BhandariBhandari Ram Indian 1944 Second World War BB010Garhwal Rifles Arakan State, Burma
Ram, ChheluChhelu Ram Indian 1943* Second World War BB0066th Rajputana Rifles Djebel Garci, Tunisia
Ram, KamalKamal Ram Indian 1944 Second World War BB0088th Punjab Regiment River Gari, Italy
Ram, RichhpalRichhpal Ram Indian 1941* Second World War BB0066th Rajputana Rifles Keren, Eritrea
Singh, BadluBadlu Singh Indian 1918* First World War BB01414th Murray's Jat Lancers River Jordan, Palestine
Singh, ChattaChatta Singh Indian 1916 First World War BB009Garhwal Rifles Battle of the Wadi, Mesopotamia
Singh, GianGian Singh Indian 1945 Second World War BB01515th Punjab Regiment Kamye, Burma
Singh, GobindGobind Singh Indian 1917 First World War BB028Garhwal Rifles Pezières, France [11]
Singh, IsharIshar Singh Indian 1921 Waziristan Campaign BB02828th Punjab Regiment Haidari Kach, India
Singh, NandNand Singh Indian 1944 Second World War BB1111/11th Garhwal Rifles MaungdawButhidaung Road, Burma
Singh, ParkashParkash Singh Indian 1943 Second World War BB0088th Punjab Regiment Donbaik, Burma
Singh, PrakashPrakash Singh Indian 1945* Second World War BB01313th Frontier Force Rifles Kanlan Ywathit, Burma
Singh, RamRam Singh Indian 1944* Second World War BB001Garhwal Rifles Kennedy Peak, Burma
Singh, UmraoUmrao Singh Indian 1944 Second World War Royal Indian Artillery Kaladan Valley, Burma
AAD IrelandIrish recipients AAD AAD AA04 AAD
Gordon, WilliamWilliam Gordon Jamaican 1892 Second Gambian Campaign West India Regiment Toniataba, Gambia
Leakey, NigelNigel Leakey Kenyan 1941* Second World War BB012King's African Rifles

Colito, Abyssinia

Cain, Robert HenryRobert Henry Cain Manx 1944 Second World War BB0022nd Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment Arnhem, Netherlands [12]
Ghale, GajeGaje Ghale Nepalese 1943 Second World War BB0055th Royal Gurkha Rifles Chin Hills, Burma
Gurung, BhanbhagtaBhanbhagta Gurung Nepalese 1945 Second World War BB0022nd Gurkha Rifles Tamandu, Burma
Gurung, LachhimanLachhiman Gurung Nepalese 1945 Second World War BB0088th Gurkha Rifles Taungdaw, Burma
Gurung, ThamanThaman Gurung Nepalese 1944* Second World War BB0055th Royal Gurkha Rifles Monte San Bartolo, Italy
Lama, GanjuGanju Lama Nepalese 1944 Second World War BB0077th Gurkha Rifles Ningthoukhong, Burma
Limbu, RambahadurRambahadur Limbu Nepalese 1965 Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation BB01010th Gurkha Rifles Sarawak, Borneo
Pun, TulbahadurTulbahadur Pun Nepalese 1944 Second World War BB0066th Gurkha Rifles Mogaung, Burma
Rai, AgansingAgansing Rai Nepalese 1944 Second World War BB0055th Royal Gurkha Rifles Bishenpur, Burma
Rana, KaranbahadurKaranbahadur Rana Nepalese 1918 First World War BB0033rd Gurkha Rifles El Kefr, Egypt
Thapa, KulbirKulbir Thapa Nepalese 1915 First World War BB0033rd Gurkha Rifles Fauquissart, France
Thapa, NetrabahadurNetrabahadur Thapa Nepalese 1944* Second World War BB0055th Royal Gurkha Rifles Bishenpur, Burma
Thapa, SherSher Thapa Nepalese 1944* Second World War BB0099th Gurkha Rifles San Marino, Italy
Andrew, LeslieLeslie Andrew New Zealander 1917 First World War Wellington Infantry Regiment La Basse Ville, Belgium
Bassett, CyrilCyril Bassett New Zealander 1915 First World War New Zealand Divisional Signal Company Gallipoli, Turkey
Brown, DonaldDonald Brown New Zealander 1916 First World War Otago Infantry Regiment High Wood, France [13]
Crichton, JamesJames Crichton New Zealander 1918 First World War BB500Auckland Infantry Regiment Crevecoeur, France
D'arcy, CecilCecil D'arcy New Zealander 1879 Anglo-Zulu War Frontier Light Horse Ulundi, South Africa
Elliott, KeithKeith Elliott New Zealander 1942 Second World War BB02222nd, 2nd New Zealand Division Ruweisat, Egypt
Forsyth, SamuelSamuel Forsyth New Zealander 1918* First World War Royal New Zealand Engineers Grevillers, France
Freyberg, BernardBernard Freyberg New Zealander 1916 First World War BB06363rd (Royal Naval) Division Beaucourt sur Ancre, France
Frickleton, SamuelSamuel Frickleton New Zealander 1917 First World War New Zealand Rifle Brigade Messines, Belgium
Grant, JohnJohn Grant New Zealander 1918 First World War Wellington Infantry Regiment Bancourt, France
Hardham, WilliamWilliam Hardham New Zealander 1901 Second Boer War BB0044th New Zealand Contingent Naauwpoort, South Africa
Heaphy, CharlesCharles Heaphy New Zealander 1864 New Zealand Wars BB501Auckland Militia Mangapiko River, New Zealand
Hinton, JohnJohn Hinton New Zealander 1941 Second World War BB02020th, 2nd New Zealand Division Kalamai, Greece
Hulme, CliveClive Hulme New Zealander 1941 Second World War BB02323rd, 2nd New Zealand Division Crete, Greece
Judson, ReginaldReginald Judson New Zealander 1918 First World War BB500Auckland Infantry Regiment Bapaume, France
Laurent, HarryHarry Laurent New Zealander 1918 First World War New Zealand Rifle Brigade Gouzeaucourt Wood, France
Ngarimu, Moana-Nui-a-KiwaMoana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu New Zealander 1943* Second World War BB02828th, 2nd New Zealand Division Tebaga Gap, Tunisia
Nicholas, HenryHenry Nicholas New Zealander 1917 First World War Canterbury Infantry Regiment Polderhoek, Belgium
Sanders, WilliamWilliam Sanders New Zealander 1917* First World War HMS Prize Atlantic
Shout, AlfredAlfred Shout New Zealander 1915* First World War First Australian Imperial Force Gallipoli
Travis, RichardRichard Travis New Zealander 1918* First World War Otago Infantry Regiment Rossignol Wood, France
Trent, LeonardLeonard Trent New Zealander 1943 Second World War No. 487 Squadron RNZAF Amsterdam, Netherlands
Trigg, LloydLloyd Trigg New Zealander 1943* Second World War No. 200 Squadron RAF Atlantic
Upham, CharlesCharles Upham New Zealander 1941
1942
Second World War BB02020th, 2nd New Zealand Division Crete, Greece, (1941),
Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, (1942)
[14]
Ward, JamesJames Ward New Zealander 1941* Second World War No. 75 Squadron RNZAF Munster, Germany
Croak, JohnJohn Croak Newfoundlander 1918* First World War BB01313th Battalion, CEF Amiens, France [15]
Ricketts, ThomasThomas Ricketts Newfoundlander 1918 First World War Royal Newfoundland Regiment Ledeghem, Belgium [15]
Dast, MirMir Dast Pakistan - present day 1915 First World War BB05555th Coke's Rifles Wieltje, Belgium
Din, FazalFazal Din Pakistan - present day 1945 Second World War BB01010th Baluch Regiment Meiktila, Burma
Haidar, AliAli Haidar Pakistan - present day 1945 Second World War BB01313th Frontier Force Rifles Fusignano, Italy
Khan, KhudadadKhudadad Khan Pakistan - present day 1914 First World War BB129129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis Hollebeke, Belgium
Khan, ShahamadShahamad Khan Pakistan - present day 1916 First World War BB08989th Punjab Regiment Beit Ayeesa, Mesopotamia
Shah, SherSher Shah Pakistan - present day 1945* Second World War BB01616th Punjab Regiment Kyeyebyin, Burma
Baxter, FrankFrank Baxter Rhodesian 1896* Matabeleland Rebellion Bulawayo Field Force Umguza, Rhodesia
Booth, FrederickFrederick Booth Rhodesian 1917 First World War British South Africa Police Johannesburg, German East Africa [16]
Henderson, HerbertHerbert Henderson Rhodesian 1897 Matabeleland Rebellion Bulawayo Field Force Bulawayo, Rhodesia
AAE ScotlandScottish recipients AAE AAE AA05 AAE
Albrecht, HermanHerman Albrecht South African 1900* Second Boer War Imperial Light Horse Ladysmith, South Africa
Beauchamp-Proctor, AndrewAndrew Beauchamp-Proctor South African 1918 First World War No. 84 Squadron RFC Western Front, France
Clements, JohnJohn Clements South African 1901 Second Boer War Rimington's Guides Strijdenburg, South Africa
Crowe, JosephJoseph Crowe South African 1857 Indian Mutiny BB07878th Regiment of Foot Boursekee Chowkee, India
D'arcy, CecilCecil D'arcy South African 1879 Zulu War Frontier Light Horse Ulundi, South Africa
Faulds, WilliamWilliam Faulds South African 1916 First World War BB0011st South African Infantry Delville Wood, France
Gristock, GeorgeGeorge Gristock South African 1940* Second World War Royal Norfolk Regiment Tournai, Belgium
Hartley, EdmundEdmund Hartley South African 1879 Zulu War Cape Mounted Riflemen Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Hayward, ReginaldReginald Hayward South African 1918 First World War Wiltshire Regiment Fremicourt, France
Hewitt, WilliamWilliam Hewitt South African 1917 First World War BB0022nd South African Light Infantry Ypres, Belgium
Martineau, HoraceHorace Martineau South African 1899 Second Boer War Protectorate Regiment Mafeking, South Africa
McCrea, JohnJohn McCrea South African 1881 First Boer War BB0011st Cape Mounted Yeomanry Tweefontein, South Africa
Mullins, CharlesCharles Mullins South African 1899 Second Boer War Imperial Light Horse Elandslaagte, South Africa
Nesbitt, RandolphRandolph Nesbitt South African 1896 Mashona Rebellion Mashonaland Mounted Police Salisbury, Rhodesia
Nettleton, JohnJohn Nettleton South African 1942 Second World War No. 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron RAF Augsburg, Germany
Norton, GerardGerard Norton South African 1944 Second World War Kaffrarian Rifles Monte Gidolfo, Italy
Reid, OswaldOswald Reid South African 1917 First World War King's (Liverpool) Regiment Dialah River, Mesopotamia
Robertson, ClementClement Robertson South African 1917 First World War Queen's Royal Regiment Zonnebeke, Belgium
Sherwood-Kelly, JohnJohn Sherwood-Kelly South African 1917 First World War Norfolk Regiment Marcoing, France [17]
Smythe, QuentinQuentin Smythe South African 1942 Second World War Natal Carbineers Alem Hamza, Egypt
Swales, EdwinEdwin Swales South African 1945 Second World War South African Air Force Pforzheim, Germany
Horsfall, BasilBasil Horsfall Sri Lankan (Ceylonese) 1918* First World War East Lancashire Regiment Ablainzevelle, France
Brown, PeterPeter Brown Swedish 1879 Basuto Gun War Mounted Riflemen Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Schiess, ChristianChristian Schiess Swiss 1879 Anglo-Zulu War Natal Native Contingent Rorke's Drift, South Africa
Konowal, FilipFilip Konowal Ukrainian 1917 First World War BB04747th (British Columbia) Lens, France [8]
Barter, FrederickFrederick Barter Welsh 1915 First World War Royal Welch Fusiliers Festubert, France
Beattie, StephenStephen Beattie Welsh 1942 Second World War HMS Campbeltown Saint-Nazaire, France
Bye, RobertRobert Bye Welsh 1917 First World War Welsh Guards Yser Canal, Belgium
Chapman, EdwardEdward Chapman Welsh 1945 Second World War Monmouthshire Regiment Dortmund-Ems Canal, Germany
Davies, JamesJames Davies Welsh 1917* First World War Royal Welch Fusiliers Polygon Wood, Belgium
Evans, LewisLewis Evans Welsh 1917 First World War Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) Zonnebeke, Belgium
Fox-Russell, JohnJohn Fox-Russell Welsh 1917* First World War Royal Army Medical Corps Tel-el-Khuweilfeh, Palestine
Fuller, WilliamWilliam Fuller Welsh 1914 First World War Welch Regiment Chivy-sur-Aisne, France
Jones, RobertRobert Jones Welsh 1879 Zulu War BB02424th Regiment of Foot Rorke's Drift, South Africa
Lewis, HubertHubert Lewis Welsh 1916 First World War Welch Regiment Macukovo, Greece
Linton, JohnJohn Linton Welsh 1943* Second World War HMS Turbulent At sea
Monaghan, ThomasThomas Monaghan Welsh 1858 Indian Mutiny BB0022nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays) Jamo, India
Rees, IvorIvor Rees Welsh 1917 First World War South Wales Borderers Pilkem, Belgium
Rees, LionelLionel Rees Welsh 1916 First World War Royal Flying Corps Double Crassieurs, France
Rowlands, HughHugh Rowlands Welsh 1854 Crimean War BB04141st (Welsh) Regiment of Foot Battle of Inkerman, Crimea
Shields, RobertRobert Shields Welsh 1855 Crimean War BB02323rd Regiment Sebastopol, Crimea
Thomas, JacobJacob Thomas Welsh 1857 Indian Mutiny Bengal Artillery Lucknow, India
Wain, RichardRichard Wain Welsh 1917* First World War BB499"A" Battalion, Tank Corps Cambrai/Marcoing, France
Warburton-Lee, BernardBernard Warburton-Lee Welsh 1940* Second World War British 2nd Destroyer Flotilla Narvik, Norway [18]
Waring, WilliamWilliam Waring Welsh 1918* First World War Royal Welch Fusiliers Ronssoy, France
Watkins, TaskerTasker Watkins Welsh 1944 Second World War Welch Regiment Barfour, France
Weale, HenryHenry Weale Welsh 1918 First World War Royal Welch Fusiliers Bazentin-le-Grand, France
Williams, JackJack Williams Welsh 1918 First World War South Wales Borderers Villers Outreaux, France
Williams, JohnJohn Williams Welsh 1879 Zulu War BB02424th Regiment of Foot Rorke's Drift, South Africa
Williams, WilliamWilliam Williams Welsh 1917 First World War HMS Pargust Atlantic, near France [19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The world's most exclusive club". Ministry of Defence. 2007-04-30. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27986. p. 325. 15 January 1907. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  3. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31946. p. 6702. 18 June 1920. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  5. ^ "Charles Heaphy biography". New Zealand Encyclopedia. 1966. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  6. ^ "New Zealand Cross". New Zealand Encyclopedia. 1966. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  7. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 11. pp 117–125
  8. ^ a b c d Also considered Canadian recipient.
    Ricketts, Bruce. "American Victoria Cross recipients". Mysteries of Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  9. ^ Zengel was American born, considered Canadian.
    Bishop, Arthur (September 2005). "On The Offensive In 1918". Legionmagazine. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  10. ^ "Biography: John Bythesea VC". Royal Naval Museum. Retrieved 2007-11-16. 
  11. ^ "SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO The London Gazette Of TUESDAY, the 8th of JANUARY, 1918". The London Gazette (30471): 725. 11 January 1918. 
  12. ^ "Second report of the Tynwald Honours Committee 2004/2005". June 2005. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 
  13. ^ Brown died in action three weeks after the action that led to his award.
    Lintock, A.H. "Awards to New Zealand Servicemen". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 1966. newzealand.govt.nz. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  14. ^ Charles Upham is one of only three people to have won the Victoria Cross twice.
    Lintock, A.H. "Awards to New Zealand Servicemen". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 1966. newzealand.govt.nz. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  15. ^ a b Newfoundlander recipients of the Victoria Cross are sometimes erroneously included with Canadian awards, as Newfoundland became part of Canada in 1949.
    "Memorial to fallen Newfoundland soldiers declared National Historic Site". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 1997-04-09. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  16. ^ Born in London
  17. ^ Commanding officer of 1st Bn Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at time
  18. ^ and Captain of HMS Hardy
  19. ^ Williams was chosen by ballot to be the recipient, after the actions of all seamen were deemed to be equal importance.
    Besly, Edward (2004-02-03). "A 'mystery' Victoria Cross and a stuffed parrot". National Museums & Galleries of Wales. 

References[edit]