List of Weatherman actions
Weatherman, also known as Weathermen and later Weather Underground Organization, was an American militant organization that carried out a series of bombings, jailbreaks, and riots from 1969 through the 1970s.
Following is a list of the organization's various activities and incidents.
- June 18–22 – Students for a Democratic Society SDS National Convention held in Chicago, Illinois. Publication of "Weatherman" founding statement. Members seize control of SDS National Office.
- July – Members Bernardine Dohrn, Eleanor Raskin, Dianne Donghi, Peter Clapp, David Millstone and Diana Oughton travel to Cuba and meet representatives of the North Vietnamese and Cuban governments.
- August – Weatherman member Linda Sue Evans travels to North Vietnam. Weatherman activists meet in Cleveland, Ohio, in preparation for "Days of Rage" protests scheduled for October, 1969 in Chicago.
- September 3 – Female members participate in a "jailbreak" at South Hills High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where they run through the school shouting anti-war slogans and distributing literature promoting the “National Action.” The term "Pittsburgh 26" refers to the 26 women arrested in connection with this incident.
- September 23 - Katherine Ann Power and Saxe became involved in a plot to arm the Black Panthers as a response to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Bond introduced them to former convicts William Gilday and Robert Valeri and together the group plotted to rob the State Street Bank & Trust. On September 20, 1970, the group robbed a National Guard armory in Newburyport, Massachusetts and took 400 rounds of ammunition. They also stole weapons and set fire to the facility, causing about $125,000 in damage. The group robbed a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts, carrying handguns, a shotgun and a submachine gun. The first police officer on the scene, Boston police officer Walter Schroeder, was shot in the back by Gilday when he attempted to stop the robbery. He subsequently died from his wounds. The group escaped with $26,000 in cash that they planned to use to finance an overthrow of the federal government. Power was behind the wheel of one of the two getaway vehicles
- September 24 – A group of members confront Chicago Police during a demonstration supporting the "National Action," and protesting the commencement of the Chicago Eight trial stemming from the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
- October 6 – The Haymarket Police Statue in Chicago is bombed; Weathermen later claim credit for the bombing in their book, Prairie Fire.
- October 8–11 – The "Days of Rage" riots occur in Chicago, damaging a large amount of property. 287 Weatherman members are arrested, some become fugitives when they fail to appear for trial in connection with their arrests.
- November 8 - Sniper attack on Cambridge Police Station. Two shots were fired. Two Weathermen, James Kilpatrick and James Reaves, were indicted and then subsequently released when a witness recanted his testimony.
- November–December – Karen Ashley and Phoebe Hirsch were among the few Weatherman members to join the first contingent of the Venceremos Brigade (VB) that departs for Cuba to harvest sugar cane.
- December 6 – Bombing of several Chicago police cars parked in a precinct parking lot at 3600 North Halsted Street, Chicago. The WUO claims responsibility in Prairie Fire, stating it is a protest of the fatal police shooting of Illinois Black Panther Party leaders Fred Hampton and Mark Clark on December 4, 1969.
- December 27–30 – Weathermen hold a "War Council" in Flint, Michigan, where plans are finalized to change into an underground organization that will commit strategic acts of sabotage against the government. Thereafter they are called "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO).
- January - Silas and Judith Bissell placed a home-made bomb under the steps of the R.O.T.C. building. The bomb was made from an electric blasting cap, an alarm clock, a battery and a plastic bag filled with gasoline and explosives.
- February – The WUO closes the SDS National Office in Chicago, concluding the major campus-based organization of the 1960s. The first contingent of the VB returns from Cuba and the second contingent departs. By mid-February the bulk of the leading WUO members go underground.
- February 16 – A bomb is detonated at the Golden Gate Park branch of the San Francisco Police Department, killing one officer and injuring a number of other policemen (one seriously). No organization claims credit. (See San Francisco Police Department Park Station bombing.)
- February 21 – The house of Judge Murtagh, who was presiding over the Panther 21 trial, is fire-bombed with three Molotov cocktails by a WUO cell in New York City.
- March – Warrants are issued for several WUO members, who become federal fugitives when they fail to appear for trial in Chicago.
- March 6 – WUO members Theodore Gold, Diana Oughton, and Terry Robbins are killed in the Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, when a nailbomb they were constructing detonates. The bomb was intended to be planted at a non-commissioned officer's dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey.
- March 30 – Chicago police discover a WUO "bomb factory" on Chicago’s north side.
- April 1 - Based on a tip Chicago Police find 59 sticks of dynamite, ammunition, and nitro glyerine in an apartment traced to WUO members. The discover of the WUO weapons cache ends WUO activity in this city.
- April 2 - A federal grand jury in Chicago returns a number of indictments charging WUO members with violation of federal anti-riot laws. Also, a number of additional federal warrants charging "unlawful flight to avoid prosecution" are returned in Chicago based on the failure of WUO members to appear for trial in local cases. (The Anti-riot Law charges were later dropped in January, 1974.)
- April 15 – The FBI arrests WUO members Linda Sue Evans and Dianne Donghi in New York with the help of WUO infiltrator, Larry Grathwohl.
- May 10 – The National Guard Association of the United States building in Washington, D.C. is bombed.
- May 21 – The WUO releases its "Declaration of a State of War" communique under Bernardine Dohrn's name.
- June 6 – In a letter, the WUO claims credit for bombing of the San Francisco Hall of Justice, although no explosion has occurred. Months later, workmen locate an unexploded bomb.
- June 9 - The New York City Police headquarters is bombed by Jane Alpert and accomplices. Weathermen state this is in response to "police repression." The bomb made with ten sticks of dynamite exploded in the NYC Police Headquarters. The explosion was preceded by a warning about six minutes prior to the detonation and subsequently by a WUO claim of responsibility.
- July 23 – A federal grand jury in Detroit, Michigan, returns indictments against thirteen WUO members and former WUO members charging violations of various explosives and firearms laws. (These indictments were later dropped in October, 1973.)
- July 25 - The United States Army base at The Presidio in San Francisco is bombed on the 11th anniversary of the Cuban Revolution. [NYT, 7/27/70] On the same day, a branch of the Bank of America is bombed in New York.
- October 8 - Bombing of Marin County courthouse. WUO states this is in retaliation for the killings of Jonathan Jackson, William Christmas, and James McClain[nb 1]
- October 10 - A Queens traffic-court building is bombed. WUO claims this is to express support for the New York prison riots. [NYT, 10/10/70, p. 12]
- October 11 - A Courthouse in Long Island City, NY is bombed. An estimated 8 to 10 sticks of dynamite are used. A warning was given around 10 min. prior to the 1:23 AM blast by the WUO.
- October 12 - Around October 12 eight bomb explosions occur, Five in Rochester New York, Two in NYC, and One in Orlando FL. Despite warnings three persons are injured, none seriously. The Weatherman never claimed responsibility for the bombings nor have they ever been linked to them.
- October 14 - The Harvard Center for International Affairs is bombed by The Proud Eagle Tribe of Weather (later renamed the Women's Brigade of the Weather Underground). WUO claims this is to protest the war in Vietnam. [NYT, 10/14/70, p. 30] The bombing was in reaction to Angela Davis' arrest and was the first action undertaken by an all-women's unit of WUO.
- October - Bernardine Dohrn, Katherine Ann Power, and Susan Edith Saxe were put on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted List
- December – Fugitive WUO member Caroline Tanker, who fled the country for Cuba, is arrested by the FBI in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- December 5 - Five Weatherman are captured for trying to bomb First National City Bank of NY and other buildings on the anniversary of the death of Fred Hampton. These individuals subsequently plead guilty.
- December 11 - Vivian Bogart and Patricia Mclean from the WUO are arrested after throwing an incendiary bomb at the Royal National Bank in NYC around 1:30 AM.
- December 16 - Fugitive WUO member Judith Alice Clark is arrested on the Days of Rage indictments by the FBI in New York.
- March 1 - The United States Capitol is bombed. WUO states this is to protest the invasion of Laos. President Richard M. Nixon denounces the bombing as a "shocking act of violence that will outrage all Americans." [NYT, 3/2/71]
- April – FBI agents discover what is dubbed "Pine Street Bomb Factory", an abandoned apartment utilized by WUO in San Francisco, California.
- August 30 - Bombings of the Office of California Prisons in Sacramento and San Francisco, allegedly in retaliation for the killing of George Jackson. [LAT, 8/29/71]
- September 17 - The New York Department of Corrections in Albany, New York is bombed, as per WUO to protest the killing of 29 inmates at Attica State Penitentiary. [NYT, 9/18/71]
- Dec 2 - Fugitive WUO member Matthew Steen, suspected in the US Capitol bombing, is arrested in Seattle by the FBI for bank robbery but convicted of federal conspiracy and sentenced to ten years.
- May 19 - Bombing of The Pentagon, "in retaliation for the U.S. bombing raid in Hanoi." The date was chosen for it being Ho Chi Minh's birthday. [NYT, 5/19/72]
- May 18 - The bombing of the 103rd Police Precinct in New York. WUO states this is in response to the killing of 10-year-old black youth Clifford Glover by police.[note 1]
- September 19 – A WUO member is arrested by the FBI in New York. Released on bond, this member again submerges into the underground.
- September 28 - ITT headquarters buildings in New York and Rome, Italy are bombed. WUO states this is in response to ITT's alleged role in the Chilean coup earlier that month.
- Around October, 1973 the Government requested dropping charges against most of the WUO members. The requests cited a recent decision by the Supreme Court that barred electronic surveillance without a court order. This decision could hamper prosecution of the WUO cases. In addition, the government did not want to reveal foreign intelligence secrets that the court has ordered disclosed.
- March 6 - Bombing of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare offices in San Francisco. WUO states this is to protest alleged sterilization of poor women. In the accompanying communiqué, the Women’s Brigade argues for "the need for women to take control of daycare, healthcare, birth control and other aspects of women's daily lives."
- May 31 - The Office of the California Attorney General is bombed. WUO states this is in response to the killing of six members of the Symbionese Liberation Army.
- June 17 - Gulf Oil's Pittsburgh headquarters is bombed. WUO states this is to protest the company's actions in Angola, Vietnam, and elsewhere.
- July – The WUO releases the book Prairie Fire, in which they indicate the need for a unified Communist Party. They encourage the creation of study groups to discuss their ideology, and continue to stress the need for violent acts. The book also admits WUO responsibility of several actions from previous years. The Prairie Fire Organizing Committee (PFOC) arises from the teachings in this book and is organized by many former WUO members.
- September 11 – Bombing of Anaconda Corporation (part of the Rockefeller Corporation). WUO states this is in retribution for Anaconda’s alleged involvement in the Chilean coup the previous year.
- January 29 - Bombing of the State Department; WUO states this is in response to escalation in Vietnam. (AP. "State Department Rattled by Blast," The Daily Times-News, January 29, 1975, p. 1)
- January 23 - Offices of Dept. of Defense in Oakland are bombed. In a statement released to the press, Weather expressed solidarity with the Vietnamese still fighting against the Thieu regime in Vietnam.
- Spring - WUO publishes "Politics in Command," which is its new political-military strategy. It furthers the line of building a legal, above-ground organization and begins to minimize the armed struggle role.
- March – The WUO releases its first edition of a new magazine entitled Osawatomie.
- June 16 - Weathermen bomb a Banco de Ponce (a Puerto Rican bank) in New York, WUO states this is in solidarity with striking Puerto Rican cement workers.
- July - More than a thousand women attend the Socialist Feminist Conference at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, OH in which WUO supporters attempt to play a major role.
- July 11–13 – The Prairie Fire Organizing Committee (PFOC) holds its first national convention during which time they go through the formality of creating a new organization.
- September – Bombing of the Kennecott Corporation; WUO states this is in retribution for Kennecott's alleged involvement in the Chilean coup two years prior.
- 1976-1981 the Weather Underground slowly disbands, many members turning themselves in after taking advantage of the Federal Government dropping most charges in 1973 (illegal wiretaps and intelligence sources & methods issues) and of President Jimmy Carter’s amnesty for draft dodgers.
- February - The first issue of Prairie Fire Organizing Committee's magazine, Breakthrough, is published.
- Spring - The John Brown Book Club compiles articles critical of the old WUO leadership and subsequent split in a pamphlet entitled: The Split of the Weather Underground Organization: Struggling against White and Male Supremacy.
- November 1977 - Former WUO member Matthew Landy Steen appears on the lead segment of CBS 60 Minutes, the first and last ex-Weatherman to appear on national television, urging WUO members still underground to "re-emerge and engage change at the community level." Mark Rudd surrendered within 60 days; the remainder of the Weather leadership resurfaced the following year.
- November - Five WUO members are arrested on conspiracy to bomb California State Senator, John Brigg's offices. It is later revealed that the Revolutionary Committee and PFOC had been infiltrated, and the arrests were the results of the infiltration. From this point on, some authors argue that the Weather Underground Organization ceases to exist.
- July - Former WUO member, Cathy Wilkerson surfaces in New York City and is charged with possession of explosives arising from the 1970 townhouse explosion. She is sentenced to 3 years in prison.
- December 3 - Bernadine Dohrn and Bill Ayers turn themselves in. Charges against Ayers are dropped in 1973 (illegal wire taps & foreign intelligence sources and methods). Dohrn is placed on probation. It was discovered that the FBI had discussed a plan to kidnap her nephew, amongst other controversial schemes.
- October 20 - Brinks robbery in which WUO members Kathy Boudin, Sam Brown, Judy Clark and David Gilbert and the Black Liberation Army stole over $1.6 million from a Brinks armored car at the Nanuet Mall, near Nyack, New York on October 20, 1981. The robbers were stopped by police later that day and engaged them in a shootout, killing two police officers and one Brinks guard as well as wounding several others.
- Silas Bissell a leader of the Weather Underground Organization, who was once on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list is arrested for bombing a ROTC building. His ex-wife, Judith Bissell served three years for the attempted bombing of CA State Senator John Briggs
- Greenwich Village townhouse explosion
- Weather Underground Organization
- May 19th Communist Organization
- The Weather Underground, documentary film
- Underground, documentary film
- On August 7, 1970, Jackson and San Quentin inmates Christmas and McClain were killed outside the Marin County Courthouse in an attempted jailbreak. According to some accounts, their goal was to use the hostages to take over a radio station and broadcast about the racist, murderous conditions at the prison. The incident is also referred to by some as Black August. [NYT, 8/10/70] WUO also dedicates the bombing to political activist, Angela Davis. In a separate communique, they issue a message to peace activist, Daniel Berrigan after he is captured by the FBI.
- Gilbert 31
- FBI Surveillence Files 97, 107
- FBI Surveillence Files 97
- Berger 325
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 18–19. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 326
- WALLACE TURNER (January 22, 1987). "TIP LEADS TO THE ARREST OF RADICAL SOUGHT IN 1970 OREGON CASE". The New York Times.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (February 22, 1970). "Justice Murtagh's home target of 3 fire bombs". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
Weather Underground; Dohrn, Bernardine (December 6, 1970). "New Morning—Changing Weather". In Ayers, Bill; Dohrn, Bernardine; Jones, Jeff. Sing a Battle Song: The Revolutionary Poetry, Statements, and Communiqués of the Weather Underground, 1970–1974. New York: Seven Stories Press (published 2006). p. ISBN 978-1-58322-726-8..
Wilkerson, Cathy (2007). Flying Close to the Sun: My Life and Times as a Weatherman. New York: Seven Stories Press. pp. ISBN 978-1-58322-771-8.– .
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 25–26. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 327
- Gilbert 32
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 31–32. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 32–33. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 328
- http://www.chicagohistory.org/dramas/epilogue/toServeAndProtect/monumentOnTheMove.htm Chicago Historical Society
- Gilbert 33
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 34. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 35. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- AP (October 12, 1970). "5 Separate Explosions rock Rochester, NY". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 33, 36. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 36–37. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 36–37. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 329
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 40. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 330
- Berger 331
- Montgomery, Paul L. (September 29, 1973). "I.T.T. OFFICE HERE DAMAGED BY BOMB; Caller Linked Explosion at Latin-American Section to 'Crimes in Chile' I.T.T. Latin-American Office on Madison Ave. Damaged by Bomb Fire in Rome Office Bombing on the Coast Rally the Opponents". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- http://books.google.com/books?id=X2OJhrWo6PcC&pg=PT257&lpg=PT257&dq=itt+bomb+1973&source=bl&ots=S3lDi8Uupm&sig=yfXYDKZLw7kYAYi_BssJzcyM-ak&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EkDyTrbJF4OMiALv0pnTDg&sqi=2&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=itt%20bomb%201973&f=false Sing a Battle Song: The Revolutionary Poetry, Statements, and Communiques of The Weather Underground By Bill Ayers
- The Weather Underground.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 40, 47, 65–65, 111–112. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Berger 332
- Gilbert 37
- Jacobs, Ron (1997). The Way The Wind Blew: A History Of The Weather Underground. Verso. p. 81. ISBN 1-85984-167-8. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
- Berger 333
- Gilbert 38
- Gilbert 39
- Berger 335
- Wallace Turner (January 22, 1987). "TIP LEADS TO THE ARREST OF RADICAL SOUGHT IN 1970 OREGON CASE". New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- Albert, Michael. "Discussion on Radical Strategy, Sabotage, and the Weathermen."
Retrieved from http://www.spunk.org/texts/misc/sp000209.txt
- Berger, Dan, Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity, AK Press, (November 1, 2005), trade paperback, 450 pages, ISBN 1-904859-41-0 ISBN 978-1904859413
- Kathy Caplan. "Thompson Rejects SDS Rejection". Daily Collegian.
- Gilbert, David, Students For a Democratic Society and the Weather Underground Organization, (Abraham Guillen Press: Canada, 2002), paperback 40 pages, ISBN 1-894925-15-7 ISBN 978-1894925150
- Juliet Wittman (2004-11-21). "Memoirs:Radical parents, Red shoes and a poet up close and personal". Washington Post.
- Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground at Forty by Ron Briley, History News Network, July 20, 2009