List of World Heritage Sites in Northern Europe

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The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 36 World Heritage Sites in eight countries (also called "state parties") commonly referred to as Northern Europe: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, i.e. a combination of Nordic and Baltic countries.[1] Greenland lying on the North American continent is not included in this list despite of its political ties with Denmark; it is included in the List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas. The United Kingdom and Ireland are included in Western Europe even though they are sometimes listed in Northern Europe.[2]

Sweden is home to the most inscribed sites with 15 sites, two of which are transborder properties. Three sites are shared between several countries: the Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Russia), the High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago (Sweden and Finland) and the Struve Geodetic Arc (ten countries in Northern and Eastern Europe).[3] The first sites from the region were inscribed in 1979, when the Urnes Stave Church and Bryggen, both in Norway were chosen a year after the list's conception.[4][5] Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[6] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Northern Europe, there are 32 cultural, 3 natural, and 1 mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." None of the sites in Northern Europe has ever been listed as endangered, though possible danger listing has been considered by UNESCO in a number of cases.[7][8]

Legend[edit]

The table is sortable by column by clicking on the Sort both.gif at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[6]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable

Inscribed sites[edit]

  * Trans-border site
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland Kalmar,  Sweden
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
2000 [9]
Birka and Hovgården Stockholm,  Sweden
59°20′6.5″N 17°32′33.5″E / 59.335139°N 17.542639°E / 59.335139; 17.542639 (Birka and Hovgården)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
1993 [10]
Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki Rauma (Lappi), Satakunta,  Finland
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
1999 [11]
Bryggen Bergen, Hordaland,  Norway
60°23′50″N 5°19′23″E / 60.39722°N 5.32306°E / 60.39722; 5.32306 (Bryggen)
Cultural:
(iii)
1979 [12]
Church Village of Gammelstad, Luleå Norrbotten,  Sweden
65°38′46″N 22°1′43″E / 65.64611°N 22.02861°E / 65.64611; 22.02861 (Church Village of Gammelstad, Luleå)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v)
1996 [13]
Curonian Spit Neringa and Klaipėda district, Klaipėda County,  Lithuania* and Zelenogradsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast,  Russia*
55°16′28″N 20°57′45″E / 55.27444°N 20.96250°E / 55.27444; 20.96250 (Curonian Spit))
Cultural:
(v)
2000 [14]
Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland Gävleborg,  Sweden
61°42′26″N 16°11′45″E / 61.70722°N 16.19583°E / 61.70722; 16.19583 (Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland)
Cultural:
(v)
700114000000000000014 (35); buffer zone 537 (1,330) 2012 [15]
Engelsberg Ironworks Västmanland,  Sweden
59°58′00″N 16°00′30″E / 59.96667°N 16.00833°E / 59.96667; 16.00833 (Engelsberg Ironworks)
Cultural:
(iv)
1993 [16]
Fortress of Suomenlinna Helsinki,  Finland
Cultural:
(iv)
1991 [17]
Hanseatic Town of Visby Gotland,  Sweden
57°38′30″N 18°17′45″E / 57.64167°N 18.29583°E / 57.64167; 18.29583 (Hanseatic Town of Visby)
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
1995 [18]
High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago Västernorrland,  Sweden* and  Finland*
63°18′00″N 21°18′00″E / 63.30000°N 21.30000°E / 63.30000; 21.30000 (High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago)
Natural:
(viii)
7005194400000000000194,400 (480,000) 2000[nb 1] [19]
Historic Centre of Riga
Riga,  Latvia
56°57′15″N 24°7′0″E / 56.95417°N 24.11667°E / 56.95417; 24.11667 (Historic Centre of Riga)
Cultural:
(i), (ii)
7002438000000000000438 (1,080); buffer zone 1,574 (3,890) 1997 [20]
Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn Tallinn, Harju County,  Estonia
59°26′0″N 24°44′0″E / 59.43333°N 24.73333°E / 59.43333; 24.73333 (Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
7002113000000000000113 (280); buffer zone 2,253 (5,570) 1997[nb 2] [21]
Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church Jelling, Vejle Municipality, Southern Denmark,  Denmark
Cultural:
(iii)
70004960000000000004.96 (12.3) 1994 [22]
Kernavė Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernavė) Kernavė, Širvintos district, Vilnius County,  Lithuania
54°53′16″N 24°49′50″E / 54.88778°N 24.83056°E / 54.88778; 24.83056 (Kernavė Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernavė))
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
7002194000000000000194 (480); buffer zone 2,455 (6,070) 2004 [23]
Kronborg Castle Helsingør, Capital Region, Zealand,  Denmark
Cultural:
(iv)
2000 [24]
Laponian Area Norrbotten,  Sweden
67°20′00″N 17°35′00″E / 67.33333°N 17.58333°E / 67.33333; 17.58333 (Laponian Area)
Mixed:
(iii), (v), (vii), (viii), (ix)
7005940000000000000940,000 (2,300,000) 1996 [25]
Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun Dalarna,  Sweden
60°36′17″N 15°37′51″E / 60.60472°N 15.63083°E / 60.60472; 15.63083 (Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (v)
700143000000000000043 (110); buffer zone 3,500 (8,600) 2001 [26]
Naval Port of Karlskrona Blekinge,  Sweden
56°10′00″N 15°35′00″E / 56.16667°N 15.58333°E / 56.16667; 15.58333 (Naval Port of Karlskrona)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1998 [27]
Old Rauma Rauma, Satakunta,  Finland
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
700129000000000000029 (72); buffer zone 142 (350) 1991[nb 3] [28][29]
Petäjävesi Old Church Petäjävesi, Central Finland,  Finland
Cultural:
(iv)
1994 [30]
Rock Art of Alta Alta, Finnmark,  Norway
69°57′0″N 23°11′0″E / 69.95000°N 23.18333°E / 69.95000; 23.18333 (Rock Art of Alta)
Cultural:
{iii}
1985 [31]
Rock Carvings in Tanum Västra Götaland,  Sweden
58°42′04″N 11°20′28″E / 58.70111°N 11.34111°E / 58.70111; 11.34111 (Rock Carvings in Tanum)
Cultural:
(i), (iii), (iv)
1994 [32]
Røros Mining Town and the Circumference
Røros, Sør-Trøndelag,  Norway
62°34′26″N 11°23′8″E / 62.57389°N 11.38556°E / 62.57389; 11.38556 (Røros Mining Town and the Circumference)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), {v}
1980[nb 4] [33]
Roskilde Cathedral
Roskilde, Region Zealand, Zealand,  Denmark
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
69994000000000000000.40 (0.99); buffer zone 1.50 (3.7) 1995 [34]
Royal Domain of Drottningholm Stockholm,  Sweden
59°19′23″N 17°53′00″E / 59.32306°N 17.88333°E / 59.32306; 17.88333 (Royal Domain of Drottningholm)
Cultural:
(iv)
1991 [35]
Skogskyrkogården Stockholm,  Sweden
59°16′32″N 18°05′58″E / 59.27556°N 18.09944°E / 59.27556; 18.09944 (Skogskyrkogården)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1994 [36]
Stevns Klint White cliffs topped with sparse grass partially encircle the blue ocean Store Heddinge, Zealand,  Denmark
55°16′2″N 12°25′24″E / 55.26722°N 12.42333°E / 55.26722; 12.42333 (Stevns Klint)
Cultural:
(viii)
700150000000000000050 (120); buffer zone 4,136 (10,220) 2014 Stevns Klint is a 15 km (9.3 mi) long fossil rich chalk cliff. The fossil record includes evidence of the ash cloud following the Chicxulub meteorite impact that is believed to have caused a mass extinction 65 million years ago. The site also includes evidence of the recovery after the extinction. [37]
Struve Geodetic Arc
 Belarus*,  Estonia*,  Finland*,  Latvia*,  Lithuania*,  Moldova*,  Norway*,  Russia*,  Sweden* and  Ukraine* Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
2005 [38]
Surtsey Vestmannaeyjar,  Iceland
63°18′11″N 20°36′8″W / 63.30306°N 20.60222°W / 63.30306; -20.60222 (Surtsey)
Natural:
(ix)
70033370000000000003,370 (8,300); buffer zone 3,190 (7,900) 2008 [39]
Þingvellir National Park
Bláskógabyggð,  Iceland
64°15′14″N 21°2′14″W / 64.25389°N 21.03722°W / 64.25389; -21.03722 (Þingvellir National Park)
Cultural:
(iii), (vi)
70039270000000000009,270 (22,900) 2004 [40]
Urnes Stave Church Luster, Sogn og Fjordane,  Norway
61°18′0″N 7°20′0″E / 61.30000°N 7.33333°E / 61.30000; 7.33333 (Urnes Stave Church)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), {iii}
1979 [41]
Varberg Radio Station Halland,  Sweden
57°06′00″N 12°23′00″E / 57.10000°N 12.38333°E / 57.10000; 12.38333 (Varberg Radio Station)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
7002109000000000000109 (270); buffer zone 3,854 (9,520) 2004 [42]
Vegaøyan — The Vega Archipelago Vega, Nordland,  Norway
65°37′0″N 11°45′0″E / 65.61667°N 11.75000°E / 65.61667; 11.75000 (Vegaøyan — The Vega Archipelago)
Cultural:
(v)
7005103710000000000103,710 (256,300); buffer zone 28,040 (69,300) 2004 [43]
Verla Groundwood and Board Mill Kouvola (Jaala), Kymenlaakso,  Finland
Cultural:
(iv)
700123000000000000023 (57); buffer zone 80 (200) 1996 [44]
Vilnius Historic Centre Vilnius,  Lithuania
54°41′12″N 25°17′35″E / 54.68667°N 25.29306°E / 54.68667; 25.29306 (Vilnius Historic Centre)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1994 [45]
West Norwegian Fjords — Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord Luster, Sogn og Fjordane,  Norway
62°7′0″N 7°10′0″E / 62.11667°N 7.16667°E / 62.11667; 7.16667 (West Norwegian Fjords — Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord)
Natural:
(vii), (viii)
2005 [46]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Extended in 2006 to include the Kvarken Archipelago and name change from High Coast to the present name.
  2. ^ Minor modification of boundaries in 2008.
  3. ^ Addition of the buffer zone in 2009 which had been established on a national level in 2003.
  4. ^ Extended in 2010 to include the circumference and name change from Røros Mining Town to the present name.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Number of World Heritage Properties by region". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  2. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". Geographical region and composition of each region. United Nations Statistics Division. 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c "World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  4. ^ "Number of World Heritage properties inscribed each Year". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  5. ^ (PDF) Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session, Final Report (Report). Washington, D.C.: UNESCO. 5–8 September 1978. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0003/000347/034793eb.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  6. ^ a b "The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  7. ^ "World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Decision - 28COM 15B.75". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  10. ^ "Birka and Hovgården". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "Bryggen". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Church Village of Gammelstad, Luleå". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "Curonian Spit". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  16. ^ "Engelsberg Ironworks". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  17. ^ "Fortress of Suomenlinna". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  18. ^ "Hanseatic Town of Visby". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  20. ^ "Historic Centre of Riga". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  21. ^ "Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Kernavė Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernavė)". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  24. ^ "Kronborg Castle". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Laponian Area". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  27. ^ "Naval Port of Karlskrona". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  28. ^ "Old Rauma". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  29. ^ "Old Rauma" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 52. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  30. ^ "Petäjävesi Old Church". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  31. ^ "Rock Art of Alta". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  32. ^ "Rock Carvings in Tanum". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  33. ^ "Røros Mining Town and the Circumference". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  34. ^ "Roskilde Cathedral". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  35. ^ "Royal Domain of Drottningholm". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  36. ^ "Skogskyrkogården". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  37. ^ "Stevns Klint". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  38. ^ "Struve Geodetic Arc". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  39. ^ "Surtsey". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  40. ^ "Þingvellir National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  41. ^ "Urnes Stave Church". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  42. ^ "Varberg Radio Station". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  43. ^ "Vegaøyan — The Vega Archipelago". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  44. ^ "Verla Groundwood and Board Mill". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  45. ^ "Vilnius Historic Centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  46. ^ "West Norwegian Fjords — Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011.