List of World Heritage Sites of the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Stonehenge is part of the Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites UNESCO World Heritage Site.

There are 27 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom and overseas territories.[1] The UNESCO list contains seventeen designated properties in England (the Frontiers of the Roman Empire is shared with Scotland), four in Scotland, three in Wales, one in Northern Ireland, and one in each of the overseas territories of Bermuda, the Pitcairn Islands, and Saint Helena. The first sites in the UK to be inscribed on the World Heritage List were Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Durham Castle and Cathedral; Ironbridge Gorge; Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey; Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites; and the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd in 1986. The latest site to be inscribed was Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal in 2009.[2]

The constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (commonly referred to as UNESCO) was ratified in 1946 by 26 countries, including the UK. Its purpose was to provide for the "conservation and protection of the world’s inheritance of books, works of art and monuments of history and science".[3] The UK contributes £130,000 annually to the World Heritage Fund which finances the preservation of sites in developing countries.[4] Some designated properties contain multiple sites that share a common geographical location or cultural heritage.

The United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO advises the British government, which is responsible for maintaining its World Heritage Sites, on policies regarding UNESCO.[5] In 2008, Andy Burnham – then Minister for Culture, Media, and Sport – voiced concerns over the worth of the designation of sites in the UK as World Heritage Sites and called for a review of the government's policy of putting forward new sites; this was partly due to rising costs and lower-than-expected income from visitors, few of which were aware of the World Heritage Site status of the sites they visited.[6]

World Heritage Site selection criteria i–iv are culturally related, and selection criteria vii–x are the natural criteria.[7] Twenty-three properties are designated as "cultural", four as "natural", and one as "mixed".[note 1][1] The breakdown of sites by type was similar to the overall proportions; of the 890 sites on the World Heritage List, 77.4% are cultural, 19.8% are natural, and 2.8% are mixed.[8] St Kilda is the only mixed World Heritage Site in the UK. Originally preserved for its natural habitats alone,[9] in 2005 the site was expanded to include the crofting community that once inhabited the archipelago; the site became one of only 25 mixed sites worldwide.[10] The natural sites are the Dorset and East Devon Coast; Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Gough and Inaccessible Islands; and Henderson Island. The rest are cultural.[1]

In 2012, the World Heritage Committee added Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City to the List of World Heritage in Danger citing threats to the site's integrity from planned urban development projects.[11]

Location[edit]

The UNESCO list contains seventeen designated properties in England (the Frontiers of the Roman Empire is shared with Germany), five in Scotland, three in Wales, one in Northern Ireland, and one in each of the overseas territories of Bermuda, the Pitcairn Islands, and Saint Helena. A map below shows all current World Heritage Sites.

UK World Heritage Sites Map.png

World Heritage Sites[edit]

The table lists information about each World Heritage Site:

Name; as listed by the World Heritage Committee[8]
Location; in one of the UK's constituent countries and overseas territories, with co-ordinates provided by UNESCO
Period; time period of significance, typically of construction
UNESCO data; Site reference number, the year the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List, and the criteria it was listed under
Description; brief description of the site
  In danger In danger
Name Image Location Date UNESCO data Description
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Big Pit Mining Museum.jpg Blaenavon, Wales
51°47′N 3°05′W / 51.78°N 3.08°W / 51.78; -3.08 (Blaenavon Industrial Landscape)[12]
19th century[12] 984; 2000;
iii, iv
[12]
In the 19th century, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials. The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway.[12]
Blenheim Palace Blenheim Palace 2006 cropped.jpg Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England
51°50′28″N 1°21′40″W / 51.841°N 1.361°W / 51.841; -1.361 (Blenheim Palace)[13]
1705–1722[13] 425; 1987;
ii, iv
[13]
Blenheim Palace, the residence of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was designed by architects John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. The associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown. The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture.[13]
Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg Canterbury, Kent, England
51°17′N 1°05′E / 51.28°N 1.08°E / 51.28; 1.08 (Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church)[14]
11th century[14] 496; 1988;
i, ii, vi
[14]
St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. The cathedral exhibits Romanesque and Gothic architecture, and is the seat of the Church of England.[14][15][16]
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd Beaumaris, circular towers and moat, 2006.jpg Conwy, Isle of Anglesey and Gwynedd, Wales
53°08′20″N 4°16′34″W / 53.139°N 4.276°W / 53.139; -4.276 (Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd)[17]
13th–14th century[17] 374; 1986;
i, iii, iv
[17]
During the reign of Edward I of England (1272–1307), a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales. The World Heritage Site covers many castles including Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech. The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians.[17][18]
City of Bath Royal.crescent.aerial.bath.arp.jpg Bath, Somerset, England
51°22′48″N 2°21′36″W / 51.380°N 2.360°W / 51.380; -2.360 (City of Bath)[19]
1st–19th century[19] 428; 1987;
i, ii, iv
[19]
Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th century, Bath has a varied history. The city is preserved for its Roman remains and Palladian architecture.[19]
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Crowns peh.jpg Cornwall and Devon, England
50°08′N 5°23′W / 50.13°N 5.38°W / 50.13; -5.38 (Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape)[20]
18th and 19th centuries[20] 1,215; 2006;
ii, iii, iv
[20]
Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper. The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world.[20]
Derwent Valley Mills Arkwright Masson Mills.jpg Derwent Valley, Derbyshire, England
53°01′12″N 1°29′56″W / 53.020°N 1.499°W / 53.020; -1.499 (Derwent Valley Mills)[21]
18th and 19th centuries[21] 1,030; 2001;
ii, iv
[21]
The Derwent Valley Mills was the birthplace of the factory system; the innovations in the valley, including the development of workers' housing – such as at Cromford – and machines such as the water frame, were important in the Industrial Revolution. The Derwent Valley Mills influenced North America and Europe.[22]
Dorset and East Devon Coast Gad cliff dorset.jpg Dorset and Devon, England
50°42′N 2°59′W / 50.70°N 2.98°W / 50.70; -2.98 (Dorset and East Devon Coast)[23]
n/a 1029; 2001;
viii
[23]
The cliffs that make up the Dorset and Devon coast are an important site for fossils and provide a continuous record of life on land and in the sea in the area since 185 million years ago.[23]
Durham Castle and Cathedral Durham Cathedral and Castle.jpg Durham, County Durham, England
54°46′26″N 1°34′30″W / 54.774°N 1.575°W / 54.774; -1.575 (Durham Castle and Cathedral)[24]
11th and 12th centuries[24] 370; 1986;
ii, iv, vi
[24]
Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of Gothic architecture. The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and Bede. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops.[24]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire Hadrianswall2007.jpg Northern England and southern Scotland
54°59′N 2°36′W / 54.99°N 2.60°W / 54.99; -2.60 (Frontiers of the Roman Empire)[25]
2nd century[25] 430; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
[25]
Hadrian's Wall was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the Roman Empire from "barbarians".[25] The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian's Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd century, ranging from Antonine's Wall in the north to Trajan's Wall in eastern Europe.[8]
Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast Causeway-code poet-4.jpg County Antrim, Northern Ireland
55°14′24″N 6°30′40″W / 55.240°N 6.511°W / 55.240; -6.511 (Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast)[26]
60–50 million years ago[26] 369; 1986;
vii, viii
[26]
The causeway is made up of 40,000 basalt columns projecting out of the sea. It was created by volcanic activity in the Tertiary period.[26]
Gough and Inaccessible Islands Gough island top view.png Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean
40°19′05″S 9°56′07″W / 40.3181°S 9.9353°W / -40.3181; -9.9353 (Gough and Inaccessible Island)[27]
n/a 740; 1995 (modified in 2004);
vii, x
[27]
Together, the Gough and Inaccessible Islands preserve an ecosystem almost untouched by mankind, with many endemic species of plants and animals.[27]
Heart of Neolithic Orkney Orkney Skara Brae.jpg Orkney, Scotland
58°59′46″N 3°11′17″W / 58.996°N 3.188°W / 58.996; -3.188 (Heart of Historic Orkney)[28]
3rd millennium BC[28] 514; 1999;
i, ii, iii, iv
[28]
A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony. It includes the settlement of Skara Brae, the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar.[28]
Henderson Island HendersonISS004-E-6793.PNG Henderson Island, Pitcairn Islands, Pacific Ocean
24°21′S 128°19′W / 24.35°S 128.31°W / -24.35; -128.31 (Henderson Island)[29]
n/a 487; 1988;
vii, x
[29]
The island is an atoll in the south of the Pacific Ocean, the ecology of which has been almost untouched by man and its isolation illustrates the dynamics of evolution. There are ten plant and four animal species endemic to the island.[29]
Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda John Smith 1624 map of Bermuda with Forts 01.jpg St George, Bermuda
51°22′51″N 2°21′37″W / 51.3809°N 2.3603°W / 51.3809; -2.3603 (City of Bath)[30]
17th–20th centuries[30] 983; 2000;
iv
[30]
Founded in 1612, St George's is the oldest English town in the New World and an example of planned urban settlements established in the New World in the 17th century by colonial powers. The fortifications illustrate defensive techniques developed through the 17th to 20th centuries.[30]
Ironbridge Gorge Ironbridge002.JPG Ironbridge, Shropshire, England
52°37′34″N 2°29′10″W / 52.626°N 2.486°W / 52.626; -2.486 (Ironbridge Gorge)[31]
18th century[31] 371; 1986;
i, ii, iv, vi
[31]
Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the Industrial Revolution. The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential.[31]
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile CityIn danger Albert dock at night.jpg Liverpool, Merseyside, England
53°24′N 2°59′W / 53.40°N 2.99°W / 53.40; -2.99 (Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City)[32]
18th and 19th centuries[32] 1,150; 2004;
ii, iii, iv
[32]
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Liverpool was one of the largest ports in the world. Its global connections helped sustain the British Empire, and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in 1807, and a departure point for emigrants to North America. The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management.[32]
Maritime Greenwich Royal Naval College 2008.jpg Greenwich, London, Greater London, England
51°28′45″N 0°00′00″E / 51.4791°N 0°E / 51.4791; 0 (Maritime Greenwich)[33]
17th and 18th centuries[33] 795; 1997;
i, ii, iv, vi
[33]
As well as the presence of the first example of Palladian architecture in England, and works by Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, the area is significant for the Royal Observatory where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed.[33]
New Lanark New Lanark buildings 2009.jpg New Lanark, South Lanarkshire, Scotland
55°40′N 3°47′W / 55.66°N 3.78°W / 55.66; -3.78 (New Lanark)[34]
19th century[34] 429; 2001;
ii, iv, vi
[34]
Prompted by Richard Arkwright's factory system developed in the Derwent Valley, the community of New Lanark was created to provide housing for workers at the mills. Philanthropist Robert Owen bought the site and turned it into a model community, providing public facilities, education, and supporting factory reform.[34]
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh Looking down Royal Mile, Edinburgh.jpg Edinburgh, Scotland
55°56′49″N 3°11′28″W / 55.947°N 3.191°W / 55.947; -3.191 (Old and New Town of Edinburgh)[35]
11th–19th century[35] 728; 1995;
ii, iv
[35]
The Old Town of Edinburgh was founded in the Middle Ages, and the New Town was developed in 1767–1890. It contrasts the layout of settlements in the medieval and modern periods. The layout and architecture of the new town, designed by luminaries such as William Chambers and William Playfair, influenced European urban design in the 18th and 19th centuries.[35]
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal WalesC0047.jpg Trevor, Wrexham, Wales and Shropshire, England
52°58′12″N 3°05′13″W / 52.970°N 3.087°W / 52.970; -3.087 (Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal)[36]
1795–1805[36] 1,303; 2009;
i, ii, iv
[36]
The aqueduct was built to carry the Ellesmere Canal over the Dee Valley. Completed during the Industrial Revolution and designed by Thomas Telford, the aqueduct made innovative use of cast and wrought iron, influencing civil engineering across the world.[36][37]
Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew Kew Gardens Palm House, London - July 2009.jpg Kew, Greater London, England
51°28′26″N 0°17′42″W / 51.474°N 0.295°W / 51.474; -0.295 (Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew)[38]
18th–20th century[38] 1,084; 2003;
ii, iii, iv
[38]
Created in 1759, the influential Kew Gardens were designed by Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, Capability Brown, and William Chambers. The gardens were used to study botany and ecology and furthered the understanding of the subjects.[38]
St Kilda St Kilda Village Bay.jpg St Kilda, Scotland
57°48′58″N 8°34′59″W / 57.816°N 8.583°W / 57.816; -8.583 (St Kilda)[39]
n/a 387; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
[39]
Although inhabited for over 2,000 years, the isolated archipelago of St Kilda has had no permanent residents since 1930. The islands' human heritage includes various unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods. St Kilda is also a breeding ground for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of gannets and up to 136,000 pairs of puffins.[39][40]
Saltaire Saltaire from Leeds and Liverpool Canal.jpg Saltaire, City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England
53°50′13″N 1°47′24″W / 53.837°N 1.790°W / 53.837; -1.790 (Saltaire)[41]
1853[41] 1,028; 2001;
ii, iv
[41]
Saltaire was founded by mill-owner Titus Salt as a model village for his workers. The site, which includes the Salts Mill, featured public buildings for the inhabitants and was an example of 19th century paternalism.[41]
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Stonehenge back wide.jpg Wiltshire, England
51°10′44″N 1°49′31″W / 51.1788°N 1.8252°W / 51.1788; -1.8252 (Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites)[42]
4th–2nd millennia BC[42] 373; 1986 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iii
[42]
The Neolithic sites of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. They relate to man's interaction with his environment. The purpose of the henges has been a source of speculation, with suggestions ranging from ceremonial to interpreting the cosmos. "Associated sites" includes Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, and West Kennet Avenue.[42]
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, UK - Diliff.jpg North Yorkshire, England
54°06′58″N 1°34′23″W / 54.116°N 1.573°W / 54.116; -1.573 (Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey)[43]
1132 (abbey),
19th century (park)
[43]
372; 1986;
i, iv
[43]
Before the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century, Fountains Abbey was one of the largest and richest Cistercian abbeys in Britain and is one of only a few that survives from the 12th century. The later garden, which incorporates the abbey, survives to a large extent in its original design and influenced garden design in Europe.[43]
Tower of London Tower of London, Traitors Gate.jpg Tower Hamlets, Greater London, England
51°30′29″N 0°04′34″W / 51.5080°N 0.0761°W / 51.5080; -0.0761 (Tower of London)[44]
11th century[44] 488; 1988;
ii, iv
[44]
Begun by William the Conqueror in 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, the Tower of London is a symbol of power and an example of Norman military architecture that spread across England. Additions by Henry III and Edward I in the 13th century made the castle one of the most influential buildings of its kind in England.[44]
Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church Palace of Westminster.jpg Westminster, Greater London, England
51°29′59″N 0°07′43″W / 51.4997°N 0.1286°W / 51.4997; -0.1286 (Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church)[45]
10th, 11th, and 19th centuries[45] 426; 1987 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iv
[45]
The site has been involved in the administration of England since the 11th century, and later the United Kingdom. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs have been crowned at Westminster Abbey. Westminster Palace, home to the British Parliament, is an example of Gothic Revival architecture; St Margaret's Church is the palace's parish church, and although it pre-dates the palace and was built in the 11th century, it has been rebuilt since.[45][46][47]

Tentative list[edit]

The Tentative List is an inventory of important heritage and natural sites that a country is considering for inscription on the World Heritage List, thereby becoming World Heritage Sites. The Tentative List can be updated at any time, but inclusion on the list is a prerequisite to being considered for inscription within a five- to ten-year period.[48]

The UK's Tentative List was last updated on 27 January 2012, and consisted of 13 sites. The properties on the Tentative List are as follows:[49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A mixed site is one that falls under both natural and cultural criteria.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  2. ^ Aqueduct crowned world 'wonder', BBC Online, 2009-06-27, retrieved 2009-08-17 
  3. ^ UNESCO Constitution, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-17 
  4. ^ Funding, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, retrieved 2009-08-17 
  5. ^ About us, The United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-17 
  6. ^ Andy Burnham launches debate on the future designation of World Heritage Sites in the UK, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2008-12-02, retrieved 2009-08-17 
  7. ^ The Criteria for Selection, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  8. ^ a b c World Heritage List, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  9. ^ New publication spotlights St Kilda, Scottish Natural Heritage, 2004-12-09, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  10. ^ Dual World Heritage Status For Unique Scottish Islands, National Trust for Scotland, 2005-07-14, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  11. ^ "Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City Threats to the Site (2012)". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  13. ^ a b c d Blenheim Palace, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  14. ^ a b c d Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-15 
  15. ^ Church of St Martin, Images of England, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  16. ^ St Augustine's Abbey, Pastscape, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  17. ^ a b c d Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  18. ^ Liddiard (2005), p. 9.
  19. ^ a b c d City of Bath, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-29 
  20. ^ a b c d Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  21. ^ a b c Derwent Valley Mills, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  22. ^ Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), pp. 30–31, 96.
  23. ^ a b c Dorset and East Devon Coast, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-29 
  24. ^ a b c d Durham Castle and Cathedral, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  25. ^ a b c d Frontiers of the Roman Empire, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  26. ^ a b c d Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  27. ^ a b c Gough and Inaccessible Island, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  28. ^ a b c d Heart of Neolithic Orkney, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  29. ^ a b c Henderson Island, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  30. ^ a b c d Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-02 
  31. ^ a b c d Ironbridge Gorge, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  32. ^ a b c d Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-29 
  33. ^ a b c d Maritime Greenwich, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-29 
  34. ^ a b c d New Lanark, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  35. ^ a b c d Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  36. ^ a b c d Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  37. ^ Listed Buildings: Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, Trevor, Wrexham County Borough Council, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  38. ^ a b c d Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  39. ^ a b c St Kilda, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-12 
  40. ^ Benvie (2000).
  41. ^ a b c d Saltaire, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  42. ^ a b c d Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-27 
  43. ^ a b c d Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-29 
  44. ^ a b c d Tower of London, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-07-28 
  45. ^ a b c d Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church, UNESCO, retrieved 2009-08-15 
  46. ^ History, Westminster Abbey, retrieved 2009-08-15 
  47. ^ Thornbury (1878), p. 567.
  48. ^ Glossary, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-01-01 
  49. ^ Tentative list of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UNESCO, 2006-01-19, retrieved 2013-07-19 
Bibliography
  • Benvie, Neil (2000), Scotland's Wildlife, London: Aurum Press, ISBN 978-1-85410-978-1 
  • Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), Nomination of the Derwent Valley Mills for inscription on the World Heritage List, Derwent Valley Mills Partnership 
  • Keay, J; Keay, J (1994), Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, London: Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-255082-2 
  • Liddiard, Robert (2005), Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500, Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd, ISBN 0-9545575-2-2 
  • Thornbury, Walter (1878), "St Margaret's Westminster", Old and New London (Victoria County History) 3 

External links[edit]