List of World War II torpedoes of Germany

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List of World War II Kriegsmarine torpedoes[edit]

Designation Codename Propulsion Dimensions Range (speed) Warhead
(pistol)
Notes
KM# Type
TI G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn 'NS') / 75hm (40kn 'WS') / 50hm (44kn 'SS') Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) The standard torpedo prior to World War II, used by all platforms during World War II: surface combatants (Kreuzer, Zerstörer, T-Boote, S-Boote) and U-boats at night. Nicknamed "ato" by German crews (i.e. atem- or air-torpedo, indicating the steam propulsion) to distinguish it from the G7e (electric torpedoes). 44kn speed was only used for S-Boote. According to certain sources only used from surface vessels during the last part of World War II.
TI Fat I G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Fat program-control type I (for security-reasons only used by night).
TI Lut I G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Lut program-control type I.
TI Lut II G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Lut program-control type II.
TIü G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm <120hm (30kn) / <75hm (40kn) Exercisehead only (light) Torpedo dedicated for educational/training purposes with Schulboote at U-Flotillen. It had restricted settings on depth mechanism, a light (empty) exersicehead and other minor modifications, to ensure positive buoyancy at the end of the run and reduced stress on the engine (=less damages and loss of torpedoes, i.e. achieving a higher number of shots).
TIü Lut II G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm <120hm (30kn) / <75hm (40kn) Exercisehead only (light) TIü with Lut program-control type II.
TII G7e Electric, lead-acid battery (13T) 534.6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1) Faulty pistols. Nicknamed "eto" (electric torpedo) by German crews for easy distinguishing from the G7a ("ato" air-driven torpedo). Could not be fitted with Fat or Lut due to its short range.
TIII G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) Improved pistols and batteries (cable-guide from the battery-chamber to the warhead for powering magnetic pistols). Nicknamed "eto" (electric torpedo) by German crews for easy distinguishing from the G7a ("ato" air-driven torpedo).
TIII Fat II G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) TIII with Fat program-control type II.
TIIIa Fat II G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Fat program-control type II.
TIIIa Lut I G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Lut program-control type I.
TIIIa Lut II G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Lut program-control type II.
TIIIb G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 40hm (18.5kn) Kb2 (Pi2f) TIII with only one battery compartment to reduce weight (special adaptation for use on Marder midget submarine).
TIIIc G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 40hm (18.5kn) Kb2 (Pi2f) Improved TIIIb (special adaptation for use on Biber, Hecht, Molch and Seehund midget submarines).
TIIId G7e Dackel Electric, lead-acid (17T 210 battery) 534.6mm / 11000mm ca. 480hm (9kn) Kb2 (Pi1d) Special long-range anti-invasion torpedo with a variant of the Lut II program steering. Launched from S-Boote and barges.
TIIIe G7e Kreuzotter Electric, lead-acid (13T Special battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (20kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TIII specially adapted for use on Molch and Seehund midget submarines.
TIV G7es Falke Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (20kn) Kd (Pi4a) Simple acoustic homing. Only operational for a brief period before being replaced by the improved TV.
TV G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 57hm (24kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) Acoustic homing (three different seekers). Called GNAT by the allies (acronym from "German Naval Acoustic Torpedo). Generally regarded as the best German torpedo of World War II (between 5000 and 6000 launched, with a reported hit-rate of approximately 53%).
TVa G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534,6mm / 7163mm 80hm (21.5kn) Ke1 (Pi4d) TV specially adapted for use on S-Boote (end-of-run detonation, reduced speed, longer range and different depth-mechanism).
TVb G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 80hm (21,5kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TVa adapted for use as an anti U-Boat torpedo.
TVI G7es Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Kf (Pi6) TIIIa with minor changes (probably with Lut II) and a special warhead which was never fielded.
TVII G7ut Steinbutt Walter turbine 534.6mm / ?mm 80hm (45kn) Kb (Pi2), Kf (Pi6) Ingolin/dekalin/helman/water fueled BO VI-turbine. Combustion-chamber arranged horizontally in the longitudinal axis. Approximately 100 torpedoes produced, but never fielded - mainly due to several problems with both pistol and start ballistics.
TVIII G7ut Steinbarsch Walter turbine 534.6mm / ?mm 80hm (45kn) Kb (Pi2), Kf (Pi6) Development of the TVII, with different internal organisation of the various mechanisms. More than 100 torpedoes produced. Was due to be fielded in April 1945, despite several problems during testing.
TIX G5ut Goldbutt Walter turbine 534.6mm / 5490mm 40hm (45kn) "Goldfisch"-variant planned for the German "Kleinst-Uboote". As development of the U-boat ended, so did the program for the TIX.
TX G7f NYK Spinne Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1) Wire guided by means of visual sight from a commandbunker/observationsite. Developed for coastal defence in wagen-, mole- or schiffbatterie. Only 200 built (gerät 43d), intended for 40 "spinne sperrbatterie" to be established on the French channel- and Mediterranean coastline from July 1944. A total of 35 batteries were established, most of them evacuated north to the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark after D-Day (85 TX's were found in ca. 20 Danish batteries at the end of the war). Another version (gerät 43cp) was tested for use on midget submarines (Marder/Molch/Seehund) with good results, but never filded.
TXI G7es Zaunkönig II Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 57hm (24kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TV with Improved acoustic homing and depth mechanism. Ready for use, but only 38 were built. No record of usage in World War II (five TXI torpedoes recovered from the U-534, now on display in Birkenhead, UK. Four of the TXI's were picked for parts and blown up. Only one torpedo remains on display with the u-boat).
TXII G5e Electric, lead-acid (9T battery) 534.6mm / 5550mm 30hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) Short torpedo developed for the smaller type XVII coastal submarines. Was intended for use until the ingolin-torpedoes was ready for operational use. Never fielded.
TXIII G7ut K-Butt Walter turbine 534.6mm / 7163mm 30hm (45kn) Kb2 (Pi2) Ingolin/dekalin/helman/water fueled BO VI-turbine. Less fuel than the "Goldbutt", but 7m length. Experimental development for the Seehund midget submarine. With sinker-mechanism. Approximately 60 torpedoes produced, planned for fielding by end of April 1945.
TXIV G7a Wet heater 534.6mm (527 for airtank) / 7163mm 25hm (34kn) Kc (Pi3) TI with changed buoyancy (max air pressure reduced from 200 to 100 kg/cm^2) developed as a replacement for TIIIc (failing batteries) for use on the Seehund midget submarine. With sinker-mechanism. Never fielded.
G7es Lerche Electric (13T 210 Special battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown Ke1 (Pi4c, TZ5) Development of the TV and TX with both active acoustic seeker and wire guidance. Operator in U-boat could listen to the signal from the seeker and manually control the steering. Never fielded.
G7t Sauerstoff-turbine 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown unknown (TZ2b, TZ5) Experimental development of the oxygen-turbine was dropped in favour of the ingolin-engines.
G7m Kreismotor 534.6mm / 7163mm 270hm (40kn) / 180hm (48kn) unknown (TZ2b, TZ6) Experimental. Gasoline and compressed oxygen as fuel. Development was dropped in favour of the ingolin-engines.
G7p Electric, with primary battery 91,5hm (30kn) / 36,5hm (40kn) Experimental, using 2 primary batteries (magnesium-carbon and zinc-leadoxide) for propulsion. It was proposed to get very good speed and range, but development ended due to lack of materials.
M5 Wet heater 736,6mm / 4880mm unknown (40kn) unknown Experimental torpedo developed for coastal defence with a large explosive charge and long range. Based on the TI with a 6-cylinder engine and only one speed-setting. 20 torpedoes built. Was to be launched from a slide from shore to the water, but testing proved numerous "bottom-runners" due to failure of the launch and general quality of design and production.
G7es Geier I and II Electric 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown Active sonar homing, experimental. Similar to the TV. Development-program with Luftwaffe, which ended up going for the "Pfau" in stead. Otherwise successful design, which led to planning of a further development ("Geier III").
LtIm F5b Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 25hm (40kn) GK3a (Pi51) Luftwaffe torpedo adapted for use on Kriegsmarine Kleinst Schnellboote.
G7as Wet heater Acoustic homing, not fielded
G7u Klippfisch Wet heater Walter turbine 95hm (40kn) Ingolin/dekalin/Helman/Water-propulsion, using the aft-section and engine from the TI. Experimental intermediate model for the G7ut development (never planned for production).
G7ut Schildbutt Walter turbine with seawater injection 140hm (45kn) / 180hm (40kn) Ingolin/dekalin/Helman/Water pressure-injection fuelled turbine, later developed with the Steinwal-BO VI turbine. Experimental
Zaunbutt Ingolin Walter turbine Acoustic seeker from the TV combined with the ingolin-propulsion. Proposed shorter range than the Steinbutt, due to losing space for fuel in favour of electronics for the seeker. The project was in model-testing phase, when all plans and models were destroyed in a bombing raid. The project was never continued.
Wal / Steinwal Ingolin Walter turbine 192hm (45kn) Experimental. Ingolin/dekalin/water pumped to the motor combined with Helman pressure-conveyor (BO VI-turbine). Development nearly finished by end of the war.
G7f NY Electric 12.5hm (30kn) Remote-controlled by radio. Experimental.
G7m Closed-circuit propulsion 180hm (48kn) Considered as replacement for both steam and electric propulsion. Never fielded.
G7ur Hecht Walter rocket Experimental
G7ur Mondfisch Walter rocket 700hm (45kn) Experimental. Ingolin/dekalin/floran-fueled rocket-engine (BO VI-Turbine). Transverse combustion-chamber.
G5ut Goldfisch Walter turbine 534.6mm / 5490mm 34hm (45kn) 5m version of the "Steinfisch". Planned torpedo for the "Spezial-Uboote", with development ending as the uboats never were realized.
Electric, lead-acid unknown unknown Two experimental torpedo models using the TIII engine, but replacing the conventional propellers with "schlagruder" (oscillating fins, similar to a the tail of a whale). The hull was of an unconventional "manta" design, which had several benefits: Less drag in the water. Potential for much higher payload (a total weight of 4 tonnes using the TIII engine, compared to the 1,5 tonne total weight of the TIII). Much more stable travel compared to the traditional tube-formed torpedo hulls. One test model build.
Ackermann unknown unknown unknown Wake-homing torpedo with acoustic/pressure seeker. Only theoretic planning.
Fasan unknown unknown unknown Active acoustic-seeker with Lut-program steering. Lut program active until a ships wake is crossed/detected, upon the acoustic homing would be triggered. Only at planning-stage.
Ibis unknown unknown unknown Active wake-homing acoustic-seeker. Project was dropped in favour of the "Fasan".
Märchen unknown unknown unknown Magnetic seeker. Only theoretic planning.
Taube unknown unknown unknown Low-frequency, passive acoustic seeker. Only theoretic planning.
G7v Wet heater 500mm / 7083mm 120hm (28,5kn) Older torpedo (prequel for the 21inch G7a) used (example) at least until October 1944 in some torpedo batteries in North Norway.
F5 Wet heater 450mm / 6505mm 15hm (45kn) Norwegian F1 torpedoes (beutewaffe) used early in the war at shore-based torpedo batteries in Norway

Kriegsmarine torpedo designation system[edit]

The first letter indicates the diameter:

  • G = 53 cm (21")
  • F = 45 cm (17.7")
  • H = 60 cm (23.7")
  • M = 75 cm (30")

The number indicates the approximate length (for example, the length of a G7a is 7163 mm):

  • 7 = 7 m
  • 6 = 6 m
  • 5 = 5 m

Next letter(s) indicates specific features regarding propulsion and control:

  • a = pressluft/damphgemisch-antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • e = elektrischer antrieb (electric engine)
  • f = fernlenkung über funk (remote control by radio)
  • d = sauerstoff/damphgemisch-antrieb (oxygen/steam engine)
  • p = primärbatterie-antrieb (primary battery propulsion)
  • m = verbrennungsmaschine mit kreislaufverfahren (combustion engine recirculating air)
  • u = sauerstoffträger ingolin spurenfreier antrieb (oxygen/steam engine with hydrogen peroxide as source for air)
  • x = torpedo mit 3-achsen steuerung (3-axes control)
  • r = raketen- oder düsenantrieb (rocket- or jet propulsion)
  • s = scall, torpedo mit akustischen suchkopf (acoustic seeker)
  • t = turbinenantrieb (turbine-engine)

"r" and "t" were only used with "u" to further denote the features of the ingolin-torpedoes. Some sources claim that the "s" only was used with "a" to denote development of G7a with acoustic seeker-capability; however it is also seen used for the electric torpedoes with acoustic seekers.

When the torpedo reached production status and was fielded (i.e. for operational use), Kriegsmarine gave it a short designation "T", or "Torpedonummer", with the number given in Roman lettering (TI, TII, TIII, TIV etc.). For different versions of the main torpedo, a small Arabic letter was added (for example TIIId, TVa etc.) denoting specific/minor changes within the main design.

Warheads and pistols[edit]

Warheads was designated with the letter "K" (K = short for Kopf, meaning "head") and a small Arabic letter, with an additional number denoting variants of the head (variations was typical the change of material from bronze to steel or adding/removing spants during the course of the war). Examples: Ka, Ka1, Kb, Kb1 etc.

Pistols used the "Pi" designations to begin with (Pi = short for pistole). The early models was named Pi G7a or Pi G7H according to function and/or torpedo type, but this was later replaced by a simple system of numbers, like "Pi 1", "Pi 2" etc.

To indicate variants within the main design, a small Latin letter was added after the number, like "Pi 1a", "Pi 1b" etc.

At some point, "Pi" was dropped for pistols with combination of mechanical (direct hit) and magnetic (distance-sensor) mechanisms, to the "TZ" designation (TZ = Torpedo-Zündeinrichtung). For example, the mechanical mechanism from the "Pi 1" pistol combined with the magnetic mechanism from "Pi 2" became the "TZ 2".

Code names[edit]

Code names were intended used only through the development period for security measures. However, in some cases it was kept on also after the torpedo was fielded and designated with the "T"-number.

Torpedo pistols, program seeker-systems and other special arrangements also had their own "system" of code names, using the names of birds, fish or animals (for example Pi "Leuchtfisch", GA "Specht", seeker "Storch", control "Viper", target detector "Salamander" etc.). During development, the pistols often got code names designated by the industrial developer or manufacturer like simple words/syllables or names associated with the firm or the engineers in charge of the development (for example Pi "Otto", Pi "Atlas", Pi "Berlin" etc.).

Program steering[edit]

Fat 
Federapparat or Flächenabsuchender Torpedo (spring device or area searching torpedo), a mechanical device changes the torpedo's course over time so that it runs up- and down on parallel lines of 800 or 1600 m length. Three versions: Fat I, II and III.
Lut 
Lageunabhängiger Torpedo (bearing independent torpedo), changes the torpedo's course to a preset heading directly after launch, so the launching platform can fire such torpedoes at targets without changing its own course. Two versions: Lut I and Lut II (+ a special Lut II variant for the TIIId torpedo with a very long initial straight run).

List of World War II Luftwaffe torpedoes[edit]

Designation Codename Propulsion Dimensions, dia./length Range (speed) Warhead (pistol) Notes
Lw# Type
F5 Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 30hm (33kn) unknown Copy of the Norwegian F1 "Horten" torpedo.
LT I F5a Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 26hm (33kn) unknown German development of the Norwegian F1 "Horten" torpedo.
LT I A F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Improved version of the F5a.
LT I A1 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 20hm (40kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) Developed by Kriegsmarine for Luftwaffe. Fielded in 1941. The main German aerial torpedo of World War II.
LT I A2 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (33kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) Never fielded.
LT I A3 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK1, GK2, GK3, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) GA IX gyroscope with 9a program steering.
LT I B1 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 20hm (40kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A1 with electric depth- and gyroscope settings. Fielded early 1944.
LT I B2 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (33kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A2 with electric depth and gyroscope settings. Was probably only used for training purposes.
LT I B3 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK1, GK2, GK3, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A3 with electric depth and gyroscope settings. Fielded in mid-1944.
LT I B4 F5b Pfau Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK5, GK9 (Pi43, Pi45, Pi52, Pi52a, Pi65) Passive Acoustic seeker (was ready for use, but never fielded before the end of the war).
LT I C F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).
LT II F5u Wet heater 450mm / 5010mm 14,8hm (45kn) unknown F5b with improved engine. 50 produced, never fielded.
LT II B1 F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm 50hm (40kn) unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).
LT II B3 F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm 119hm (24kn) unknown GA 9b with 9b program steering. Never finished testing (development program ended due to limited resources).
LT II C F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown GA 9b with 9b program steering. Never finished testing (development program ended due to limited resources).
F5b Geier I and II Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown Active sonar homing, experimental. Similar to the Kriegsmarine TV. Development program with Kriegsmarine, but Luftwaffe ended up going for the "Pfau" in stead.
Geier III unknown unknown unknown Proposed development of the Geier II with system for enhancing and comparing the hydrophone echoes. Only reached planning phase.
F5i Wet heater 450mm / 5250mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Italian standard aerial torpedo.
F5w Wet heater 450mm / 5460mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Italian Whitehead torpedo.
LT 280 Electric 500mm / 2600mm 120hm (4-14kn) unknown Italian light torpedo.
LT 350 Electric ellipse-shaped hull 500mm / 2600mm 150hm (4-14kn) unknown Italian parachute-torpedo.
LT 850 Wet heater 450mm / 5470mm 20hm (42kn) unknown Japanese torpedo using Japanese-devised pneumatic PID controller for roll stabilization (only a small number existed).
LT 950 F5b Wet heater 450mm / 5360mm 30hm (40kn) unknown "Flugeltorpedo": F5b equipped with glider-attachment (wings and rudders). Experimental (several variants), not fielded.
LT 1200 Ingolin rocket-engine 533,4mm / 7160mm 9hm (40kn) unknown Development ended due to the torpedo being to heavy and having too short range (1200 denotes the weight in kg).
LT 1500 Ingolin rocket-engine 533,4mm / 7160mm 20hm (40kn) unknown Improved version of the LT 1200, but similar the development ended due to the torpedo being to heavy and having too short range (1500 denotes the weight in kg).
LT 1000 Ingolin turbine-engine ellipse-shaped hull (390x200mm) / 7160mm unknown unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).

Luftwaffe torpedo designation system[edit]

As a general rule, Luftwaffe followed the Kriegsmarine system of code names and designations, but with some differences.

Variations for the letter(s) indicating specific features regarding propulsion and control:

  • b = pressluft/damphgemisch-antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • i and w = indicated an Italian torpedo

In stead of letters and numbers denoting dimensions and features, a single 3 or 4 digit number was used for some torpedo designs.

Luftwaffe also used the "LT" designation (= Lufttorpedo), but not limited to operational torpedoes. It also combined further letters and numbers to indicate type and features of the torpedo:

  • I = Preßluft/dampfgemisch antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • II = Ingolin antrieb (use of hydrogen-peroxide as oxygen carrier)
  • A = Tiefen- und Winkeleinstellung von Hand (manual setting of depth and steering)
  • B = Electrische Tiefen- und Winkeleinstellung von Hand (electric setting of depth and steering, i.e. possible to change in flight)
  • C = Programmsteuerung (programsteering)
  • 1 = Speed of 40kn
  • 2 = Speed of 33kn
  • 3 = Speed of 24kn

Designations for Luftwaffe pistols used the same system as Kriegsmarine, while the warheads used the designation GK (GK = short for Gefechtskopf) followed by a number and a small Arabic letter for variants.

German torpedo platforms (torpedoträger)[edit]

Kriegsmarine[edit]

  • Submarines (U-Boote)
  • Motortorpedoboats, E-Boats (schnellboote)
  • Larger surfacevessels like cruisers (kreuzer), destroyers (zerstörer), torpedoboats (torpedoboote)
  • Shore-based batteries (torpedosperrbatterie).
  • Temporary torpedo batteries (used on strategic places and/or as substitutes until a more permanent battery was established): These batteries were placed on quays/piers, a suitable spot on the ground or on small boats/barges ("schwimmende batterie"). Typical armament for shore-based and temporary batteries was tubes from dismantled surface vessels (typical 533mm zwilling, drilling or vierling rohre).

Luftwaffe[edit]

  • Aircraft

References[edit]

  • Torpedo Versuch Anstalt Eckernförde: Short survey of the course of Torpedo Development from T1 to the newest types, 1946 (post-war report for the Royal Navy)
  • Royal Navy: B.R.1972 German torpedoes and development of German torpedo control, 1952
  • Numerous Royal Navy reports and translated German documents from TNA (ADM 292)
  • Kriegsmarine (T.V.A.): Technische Dienstvorschrift Nr. 194 Torpedo-Kopf-Pistolen-Tabelle, 1944
  • Bundesmarine: Deutsche Unterwasserwaffen - Torpedos, 1967 (German translation of U.S. Navy Ordnance Pamphlet 1673B)
  • Bundesmarine: Torpedo Zünder der Deutschen Marine von 1914 bis 1968 mit historischen Rückblick Band 1, ca 1975
  • Combined Intelligence Committee, Objectives Subcommittee: Evaluation Report 167: Details of Contents of Microfilm on Captured Documents Pertaining to German Torpedo Developments, 1945
  • Eberhard Rössler: Die Torpedos der deutschen U-Boote (2.ed), 2005 (ISBN 3-8132-0842-7)
  • Friedrich Lauck: Der Lufttorpedo - Entwicklung und Technik in Deutschland 1915-1945, 1981 (ISBN 3-7637-5230-7)
  • Harold Thiele: Luftwaffe Aerial Torpedo Aircraft and Operations in World War Two, 2004 (ISBN 1 902109 42 2)
  • Royal Norwegian Navy: SEP-116 Technical manual for Torpedo T1 mod 1, ca 1990 (unofficial - intended as replacement for several regulations like E.12, E.19 etc.)
  • Royal Norwegian Navy: E.12 Manual for torpedo mod. T1, ca 1950
  • David H Wright: Thesis on German torpedo crisis in WW2, 2004