List of World War I aces credited with 15–19 victories

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The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft. When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed. The American qualification of five victories eventually became the standard, even though other air services had previously used differing figures.[1]

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-seater aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. If a two-seater aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew members were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not, and vice versa.[2] The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history.[3]

Loss of records by mischance and the passage of time complicates reconstructing the actual count for given aces. The scores presented in the list cannot be definitive, but are based on itemized lists that are the best available sources of information.[4] Aces are listed after verifying the date and location of combat, and the foe vanquished, for every victory accredited by an aviator's home air service using their own aerial victory standards. Those victories for which the evidence is unavailable or fragmentary have been excluded from the victory count.

Aces[edit]

This list is complete. Notable aces are linked to their biographies.

      This along with the symbolic sword †, indicates that the pilot was known to be either killed in action, missing in action, died of wounds, or killed in a flying accident during World War I.

Name Country Air service(s) Victories
Barton, HoraceHorace Barton  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 19[5] Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar.
Beaver, WilfredWilfred Beaver  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 19[6] Military Cross
Cowper, AndrewAndrew Cowper  Australia Royal Flying Corps 19[7] Military Cross with two Bars.
Donhauser, ChristianChristian Donhauser  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 19[8] Military Merit Cross, Iron Cross
Ehrlich, JacquesJacques Ehrlich  France Aéronautique Militaire 19 Médaille Militaire, Croix de Guerre[9]
Fairclough, Arthur BradfieldArthur Bradfield Fairclough  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 19[10] Military Cross
Fieseler, GerhardGerhard Fieseler  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 19[11] Military Merit Cross, Iron Cross
Hay De Slade, HenriHenri Hay De Slade  France Aéronautique Militaire 19 Legion d'honneur, Croix de Guerre with 14 Palmes, Belgian Croix de guerre, British Military Cross, Italian Croix de la Couronne[12]
Howell, CedricCedric Howell  Australia Royal Flying Corps 19[13] Distinguished Service Order, Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Kiss, JózsefJózsef Kiss  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 19[14] Top Hungarian ace. Medal for Bravery (1 Gold, 1 Silver)
Kullberg, Harold AlbertHarold Albert Kullberg  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 19[15] British Distinguished Flying Cross[16]
Powell, LeslieLeslie Powell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 19 Military Cross with Bar.
Reed (aviator), ArthurArthur Reed (aviator)  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 19[17] Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar.
Reid, Ellis VairEllis Vair Reid  Canada Royal Naval Air Service 19[18] Distinguished Service Cross
Wilkinson (aviator), AlanAlan Wilkinson (aviator)  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 19[19] Distinguished Service Order with Bar.
Wintgens, KurtKurt Wintgens  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 19[20] First aerial victory ever with a synchronized machine gun. Pour le Merite, Iron Cross
Zenzes, AlexanderAlexander Zenzes  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 19[21] Iron Cross
Baldamus, HartmuthHartmuth Baldamus  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 18[22] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
De Romanet, Bernard BarnyBernard Barny De Romanet  France Aéronautique Militaire 18 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre with ten Palmes and three Etoiles de Vermeil[23]
Belgrave, JamesJames Belgrave  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 18[24] Military Cross with Bar.
Gräser , FranzFranz Gräser  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 18 Order of Leopold, Order of the Iron Crown, Medal for Bravery
Hemer, FranzFranz Hemer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 18[25] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Lambert, William C.William C. Lambert  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 18[26] British Distinguished Flying Cross[27]
Luke, FrankFrank Luke  United States US Army Air Service 18 Medal of Honor, Distinguished Flying Cross, Italian War Cross
"The Balloon Buster"[28]
MacKay, George ChisholmGeorge Chisholm MacKay  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 18[29] Distinguished Flying Cross, Belgian Order of Leopold, French Legion d'Honneur, French Croix de Guerre
Molesworth, WilliamWilliam Molesworth  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 18[30] Military Cross with Bar, Italian Medal for Military Valor.
Newnham, MauriceMaurice Newnham  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 18[31] Distinguished Flying Cross, French Croix de Guerre
Schäpe, EmilEmil Schäpe  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 18[32] Iron Cross
Todd, JohnJohn Todd  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 18[33] Distinguished Flying Cross, Military Cross
Trollope, John LightfootJohn Lightfoot Trollope  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 18[34] Military Cross with Bar
Bannerman, RonaldRonald Bannerman  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps 17[35] Distinguished Flying Cross
Beckhardt, FritzFritz Beckhardt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[36] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Böhning, HansHans Böhning  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[37] Iron Cross
Böning, WalterWalter Böning  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[38] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Carter, Alfred WilliamsAlfred Williams Carter  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 17[39] Distinguished Flying Cross
Marziale Cerutti  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 17
Falkenberg, Carl FrederickCarl Frederick Falkenberg  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 17[40] Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar, Air Force Cross
Gibbons, George EverardGeorge Everard Gibbons  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[41] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Hess, ErnstErnst Hess  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[42] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Holliday, Fred ParkinsonFred Parkinson Holliday  Australia Australian Flying Corps 17[43] Distinguished Service Order, Military Cross, Air Force Cross
Iaccaci, AugustAugust Iaccaci  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 17[44] Distinguished Flying Cross
Iaccaci, PaulPaul Iaccaci  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 17[45] Distinguished Flying Cross
Johnstone, Edward GrahameEdward Grahame Johnstone  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[46] Distinguished Service Cross
Klimke, RudolfRudolf Klimke  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[47] Iron Cross
Makepeace, ReginaldReginald Makepeace  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[48] Military Cross
Pinder, JohnJohn Pinder  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[49] Distinguished Flying Cross
Plauth, KarlKarl Plauth  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[50] Iron Cross
Ranza, FerruccioFerruccio Ranza  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 17 Three Silver awards of Medal for Military Valor, Military Order of Savoy, French and Belgian Croix de Guerre, Serbian Star of Karageogevich[51]
Franz Ray  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[52]
Rolfes, HansHans Rolfes  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[53] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Schwendemann, JosefJosef Schwendemann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 17[54] Military Merit Cross
Swale, EdwinEdwin Swale  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 17[55] Distinguished Flying Cross
Tempest, EdmundEdmund Tempest  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[56] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Tyrrell, WalterWalter Tyrrell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 17[57] Military Cross
Baldwin, OwenOwen Baldwin  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[58] Distinguished Flying Cross, French Legion d'Honneur, French Croix de Guerre
Bell, Gerald GordonGerald Gordon Bell  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16[59] Distinguished Flying Cross, French Legion d'Honneur, French Croix de Guerre
Bönsch, EugenEugen Bönsch  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 16 Medal for Bravery (3 Gold awards)
Bormann, ErnstErnst Bormann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[60] Iron Cross First and Second Class, with Clasps. Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves for Iron Cross. Generalmajor in World War II.
Burden, Henry JohnHenry John Burden  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16[61] Distinguished Service Order, Distinguished Flying Cross
Chaput, JeanJean Chaput  France Aéronautique Militaire 16 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de guerre with 11 Palmes, Belgian Croix de guerre, British Military Cross[62]
Chick, John StanleyJohn Stanley Chick  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16[63] Military Cross Rose to Air Commodore in RAF
Coler, EugeneEugene Coler  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16[64] British Distinguished Flying Cross[65]
Cowell, JohnJohn Cowell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[66] Distinguished Conduct Medal, Military Medal
Bruce Digby-Worsley  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16
Edwards, Stearne TigheStearne Tighe Edwards  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 16[67] Distinguished Service Cross with Bar
Elton, ErnestErnest Elton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[68] Distinguished Conduct Medal, Military Medal, Italian Medal for Military Valor
Stefan Fejes  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 16 Gold Medal for Bravery (three awards), 1st Class Silver Medal for Bravery (2 awards), 2nd Class Silver Medal for Bravery[69]
Foster, RobertRobert Foster  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[70] Knight of the Order of the Bath, Order of the British Empire, Distinguished Flying Cross. Rose to Air Chief Marshal.
Grosvenor, RobertRobert Grosvenor  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[71] Military Cross
Hanstein, LudwigLudwig Hanstein  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[72] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern
Hepburn, AllanAllan Hepburn  Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16[73] Distinguished Flying Cross
Highwood, SidneySidney Highwood  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[74] Distinguished Flying Cross
Johnson, FrankFrank Johnson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[75] Distinguished Conduct Medal with Bar
Klein, JohannesJohannes Klein  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[76] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Lufbery, RaoulRaoul Lufbery  France
 United States
Aéronautique Militaire
US Army Air Service
16 French Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, and Croix de Guerre with ten Palmes, British Military Medal, Montenegrin Medal for Military Valor.[77]
Odebrett, KarlKarl Odebrett  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[78] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross, Austro-Hungarian Medal for Bravery
Redgate, OliverOliver Redgate  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[79] Distinguished Flying Cross
Rose, OrenOren Rose  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 16 Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar[80]
Wilhelm Seitz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[81] Iron Cross
Francis Smith  Australia Australian Flying Corps 16[82] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Elliott White Springs  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, US Army Air Service 16[83] American Distinguished Service Cross, British Distinguished Flying Cross[84]
David Stewart  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16[85] Military Cross with Bar, Distinguished Flying Cross
Christoffel Venter  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 16[86] Order of the Bath, Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar. Rose to Major General.
Anthony Wall  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 16 Military Cross with Bar
Weiss, HansHans Weiss  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 16[87] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Vasili Yanchenko  Russia Imperial Army Air Service 16 Order of Saint George, Cross of Saint George (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Class), Order of Saint Vladimir, Order of Saint Anne, Order of the Star, Military Service Medal
Pavel Argeyev  Russia Aéronautique Militaire, Imperial Army Air Service 15 French Legion d'Honneur, French Croix de Guerre, Order of Saint George, Order of Saint Vladimir, Order of Saint Anne
Karl Bohnenkamp  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[88] Military Merit Cross
Lawrence Coombes  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[89] Distinguished Flying Cross
Cyril Crowe  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[90] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Charles Cudemore  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[91] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Ralph Curtis  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 15[92]
Ernest Deighton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15 Distinguished Conduct Medal
Armand De Turenne  France Aéronautique Militaire 15 Legion d'Honneur, Croix de Guerre with 11 Palmes and an Etoile de bronze, British Military Cross, Belgian Croix de Guerre, Italian Croce di guerre[93]
Albert Dossenbach  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[94] Pour le Mérite, Military Merit Cross, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Rudolf Francke  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[95] Military Merit Cross
George Gates  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[96] Distinguished Flying Cross
James Alpheus Glen  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[97] Distinguished Service Cross with Bar, French Croix de Guerre
Harry King Goode  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[98] Distinguished Service Order, Distinguished Flying Cross
John Rutherford Gordon  Australia Australian Flying Corps 15 Military Cross
John Edmund Greene  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[99] Distinguished Flying Cross
Albert Haussmann†  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[100]
Edwin Hayne  South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[101] Distinguished Service Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Alois Heldmann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[102] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Frank Hobson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[103] Military Cross
Immelmann, MaxMax Immelmann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[104] Pour le Mérite, Military Order of St. Henry, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
The Immelmann turn named after him.
John Jones  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15 Distinguished Flying Medal
Andrew Kiddie  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[105] Distinguished Flying Cross, Belgian Croix de Guerre
Otto Löffler  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[106]
Hans-Georg von der Marwitz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[107] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Harold Mellings  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 15[108] Distinguished Service Cross with Bar, Distinguished Flying Cross, Greek Royal Order of the Redeemer.
Alfred Mills  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[109] Distinguished Flying Cross
Edmund Nathanael  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[110] Iron Cross
Wilhelm Neuenhofen  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[111]
Roy Cecil Phillipps  Australia Australian Flying Corps 15[112] Military Cross with Bar, Distinguished Flying Cross
Viktor von Pressentin von Rautter  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[113] Military Merit Cross, Iron Cross
Theodor Quandt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[114] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern
Herbert Richardson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[115] Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross
Gilbert Sardier  France Aéronautique Militaire 15 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre with nine Palmes, an Etoile de vermeil, and an Etoile d'argent, British Military Cross[116]
Hugh Saunders  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[117] Order of the Bath, Order of the British Empire, Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar, Military Medal
Julius Schmidt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[118] Military Order of St. Henry, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Kurt Schneider  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[119] Military Order of St. Henry, Iron Cross
Harold Stackard  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service 15[120]
Paul Strähle  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 15[121] Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Ernst Strohschneider  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 15 Order of Leopold, Silver Military Merit Medal, Military Merit Cross (2 awards), Iron Cross
Frank Weare  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 15[122] Military Cross

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918.  p. 10.
  3. ^ How to Make War, p. 149.
  4. ^ Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920.  p. 7
  5. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 66
  6. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 69–70
  7. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 123
  8. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 99
  9. ^ Over the Front, pp. 157-158.
  10. ^ Shores, et al, p. 151
  11. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 106-107
  12. ^ Over the Front, p. 175.
  13. ^ Shores, et al, p. 200–201
  14. ^ Possibly 21.[citation needed]
  15. ^ Shores, et al, p. 229
  16. ^ Over the Front, pp. 51-52.
  17. ^ Shores, et al, p. 315
  18. ^ Shores, et al, p. 317
  19. ^ Shores, et al, p. 384
  20. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 231-232
  21. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 234-235
  22. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 65
  23. ^ Over the Front, pp.117-118.
  24. ^ Shores, et al, p. 71
  25. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 126-127
  26. ^ Shores, et al, p. 230–231
  27. ^ Over the Front, p. 52.
  28. ^ Over the Front, pp. 58-59.
  29. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 248
  30. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 283–284
  31. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 290–291
  32. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 197
  33. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 365
  34. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 368–369
  35. ^ Shores, et al, p. 62
  36. ^ http://www.flieger-album.de/logbuch.php
  37. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 78-79
  38. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 82
  39. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 100
  40. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 151–152
  41. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 165
  42. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 128-129
  43. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 197–198
  44. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 207
  45. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 207
  46. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 215
  47. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 146
  48. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 252–253
  49. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 305
  50. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 181
  51. ^ Nieuport Aces of World War 1. p. 79. 
  52. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 185
  53. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 190-191
  54. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 209
  55. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 355–356
  56. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 359–360
  57. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 370
  58. ^ Shores, et al, p. 59
  59. ^ Shores, et al, p. 72
  60. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 16
  61. ^ Shores, et al, p. 92–93
  62. ^ Over the Front, pp. 131-132.
  63. ^ Shores, et al, p. 102–103
  64. ^ Shores, et al, p. 113–114
  65. ^ Over the Front, pp. 31-32.
  66. ^ Shores, et al, p. 122–123
  67. ^ Shores, et al, p. 147–148
  68. ^ Shores, et al, p. 149
  69. ^ O'Connor, pp. 54, 56
  70. ^ Shores, et al, p. 159
  71. ^ Shores, et al, p. 178–179
  72. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 123
  73. ^ Shores, et al, p. 192
  74. ^ Shores, et al, p. 194
  75. ^ Shores, et al, p. 215
  76. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 145
  77. ^ Over the Front, pp. 56-57.
  78. ^ Note: Claimed, but unconfirmed, 5 more. Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 176
  79. ^ Shores, et al, p. 314
  80. ^ Over the Front, p. 69.
  81. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 209-210
  82. ^ Shores, et al, p. 342
  83. ^ Shores, et al, p. 348.
  84. ^ Over the Front, pp. 72-73.
  85. ^ Shores, et al, p. 352–353
  86. ^ Shores, et al, p. 372
  87. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 227-228
  88. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 78-79
  89. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 120.
  90. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 126.
  91. ^ Shores, et al (1990), p. 127.
  92. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 130
  93. ^ Over the Front, pp. 148-149.
  94. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 101
  95. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 108
  96. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 164
  97. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 169
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  99. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 176
  100. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 125
  101. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 189
  102. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 126
  103. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 196
  104. ^ Note: Involved in shooting down two final aircraft the day he was killed, but strict scoring gave the kills to other pilots. Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 134-135
  105. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 222–223
  106. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 157-158
  107. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 162-163
  108. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 280
  109. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 282
  110. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 171-172
  111. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 173-174
  112. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 303
  113. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 182
  114. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 184
  115. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 320
  116. ^ Over the Front, p. 217.
  117. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 331–332
  118. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 201-202
  119. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 203
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  121. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 212-213
  122. ^ Shore, et al (1990), p. 377

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