List of World War I aces credited with 20 or more victories

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A young male in flying uniform, with a medal around his neck.
Manfred von Richthofen, the most successful flying ace of World War I wearing the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military order in this official portrait, c. 1917

The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft. When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed. The American qualification of five victories eventually became the standard, even though other air services had previously used differing figures.[1]

A white biplane fighter aircraft, with (in order of increasing size) blue, white and red concentric circles as the insignia on its wings, siting in a field of dirt
The Nieuport 17, a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-seater aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. If a two-seater aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew members were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not, and vice versa.[2] The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history.[3]

Loss of records by mischance and the passage of time complicates reconstructing the actual count for given aces. The scores presented in the list cannot be definitive, but are based on itemized lists that are the best available sources of information.[4] Aces are listed after verifying the date and location of combat, and the foe vanquished, for every victory accredited by an aviator's home air service using their own aerial victory standards. Those victories for which the evidence is unavailable or fragmentary have been excluded from the victory count.

Aces[edit]

This list is complete. Notable aces are linked to their biographies.

      This along with the symbolic sword †, indicates that the pilot was known to be either killed in action, missing in action, died of wounds, or killed in a flying accident during World War I.

Name Country Air service(s) Victories
von Richthofen, ManfredManfred von Richthofen  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 80[5] The Red Baron
PLM plus 22 other awards
Fonck, RenéRené Fonck  France Aéronautique Militaire 75[6] Top Allied and French ace
CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, BCdeG, MC, MM
Bishop, BillyBilly Bishop  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 72[7][a] Top Canadian and British Empire ace
VC, DSO, MC, DFC, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Udet, ErnstErnst Udet  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 62[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Mannock, EdwardEdward Mannock  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 61[8] Top British ace
VC, DSO**, MC*
Collishaw, RaymondRaymond Collishaw  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 60[9] Top Royal Naval Air Service ace
DSO*, DSC, DFC, OSA, CdeG
McCudden, JamesJames McCudden  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 57[7] VC, DSO*, MC*, MM, CdeG
Beauchamp-Proctor, AndrewAndrew Beauchamp-Proctor  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] Top South African ace
VC, DSO, MC*, DFC
Löwenhardt, ErichErich Löwenhardt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 54[5] PLM, IC
MacLaren, DonaldDonald MacLaren  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Guynemer, GeorgesGeorges Guynemer  France Aéronautique Militaire 53[10] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSO, OLII
Barker, William GeorgeWilliam George Barker  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 50[7] VC, DSO*, MC**, MMV*(Silver), CdeG
Jacobs, JosefJosef Jacobs  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, IC
Voss, WernerWerner Voss  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Little, Robert A.Robert A. Little  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 47[7] Top Australian ace
DSO*, DSC*, CdeG
McElroy, GeorgeGeorge McElroy  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 47[11] MC**, DFC*
Dallas, RodericRoderic Dallas  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 45[12] DSO, DSC*
Rumey, FritzFritz Rumey  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 45[5] PLM, IC
Ball, AlbertAlbert Ball  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 44[7][13] VC, DSO**, MC, OSG
Berthold, RudolfRudolf Berthold  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, MOSH, IC
Loerzer, BrunoBruno Loerzer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Bäumer, PaulPaul Bäumer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 43[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, WB
Hazell, Tom F.Tom F. Hazell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 43[7] DSO, MC, DFC*
Nungesser, CharlesCharles Nungesser  France Aéronautique Militaire 43[14] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSC, MC, BCdeG, DSC(US)
Madon, GeorgesGeorges Madon  France Aéronautique Militaire 41[15] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Boelcke, OswaldOswald Boelcke  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, IC
Büchner, FranzFranz Büchner  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, MOSH, HOH, IC
Fullard, Philip F.Philip F. Fullard  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 40[7] DSO, MC*, AFC
von Richthofen, LotharLothar von Richthofen  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Gass, Charles GeorgeCharles George Gass  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[16] Top scoring observer ace
MC
Gilmour, John InglisJohn Inglis Gilmour  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSO, MC
Gontermann, HeinrichHeinrich Gontermann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 39[17] PLM, HOH, MOMJ, IC
Jordan, William LancelotWilliam Lancelot Jordan  South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSC*, DFC
Menckhoff, CarlCarl Menckhoff  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 39[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Atkey, AlfredAlfred Atkey  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 38[7] Leading 2 seater pilot of war
MC*
Claxton, William GordonWilliam Gordon Claxton  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO, DFC*
Coppens, WillyWilly Coppens  Belgium Belgian Military Aviation 37[18] Top Belgian ace, Leading balloon buster of war
OL, OWE, OC, CdeG, BCdeG, CdeLd'H, DSO, MC
Jones, James Ira ThomasJames Ira Thomas Jones  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
Bolle, KarlKarl Bolle  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Buckler, JuliusJulius Buckler  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, sole award of Gold WB
Fall, Joseph Stewart TempleJoseph Stewart Temple Fall  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 36[7] DFC**, AFC
von Müller, Max RitterMax Ritter von Müller  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 36[19] PLM, MOMJ, IC
Boyau, MauriceMaurice Boyau  France Aéronautique Militaire 35[20] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Brumowski, GodwinGodwin Brumowski  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 35[21] Top Austro-Hungarian ace.
OIC, OL, MFB, MMM, IC
Dörr, GustavGustav Dörr  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] MMC(P), IC
Könnecke, OttoOtto Könnecke  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
McCall, FrederickFrederick McCall  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
von Schleich, Eduard RitterEduard Ritter von Schleich  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, IC, MOMJ
Thuy, EmilEmil Thuy  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Veltjens, JosefJosef Veltjens  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Woollett, Henry WinslowHenry Winslow Woollett  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h
Baracca, FrancescoFrancesco Baracca  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 34[22] Top Italian ace
MMV(Gold), MMV**(Silver), MC, CdeG, OC
Coiffard, MichelMichel Coiffard  France Aéronautique Militaire 34[23] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), MC
Bongartz, HeinrichHeinrich Bongartz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 33[24] PLM, HOH, IC
Kroll, HeinrichHeinrich Kroll  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 33[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Quigley, Frank GrangerFrank Granger Quigley  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 33[7] DSO, MC*
Wolff, KurtKurt Wolff  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 33[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Arigi, JuliusJulius Arigi  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 32[21] MFB (1 gold and 4 silver)
Bowman, Geoffrey HiltonGeoffrey Hilton Bowman  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 32[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
Frommherz, HermannHermann Frommherz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 32[5] MOSH, IC
Kinkead, SamuelSamuel Kinkead  South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 32[25] DSO, DSC*, DFC*
Osterkamp, TheodorTheodor Osterkamp  Germany Marinefliegerkorps 32[5] Also World War II ace
PLM, IC
Billik, PaulPaul Billik  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 31[5] IC
McKeever, Andrew EdwardAndrew Edward McKeever  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Canadian Air Force 31[7] Top two-seater ace for UK
DSO, MC*, DFC
Sachsenberg, GotthardGotthard Sachsenberg  Germany Marinefliegerkorps 31[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Allmenröder, KarlKarl Allmenröder  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Auffarth, HaraldHarald Auffarth  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[d] HOH, IC, WB
Degelow, CarlCarl Degelow  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Mai, JosefJosef Mai  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] IC
Neckel, UlrichUlrich Neckel  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, IC
Schäfer, Karl EmilKarl Emil Schäfer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Thompson, Samuel Frederick HenrySamuel Frederick Henry Thompson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 30[7] MC, DFC
Booker, Charles DawsonCharles Dawson Booker  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC, CdeG
Clayson, Percy JackPercy Jack Clayson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 29[7] MC, DFC
Cobby, HarryHarry Cobby  Australia Australian Flying Corps 29[7] DSO, DFC**
Rochford, Leonard HenryLeonard Henry Rochford  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC*, DFC*
Blume, WalterWalter Blume  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 28[26] PLM, IC
Bourjade, LéonLéon Bourjade  France Aéronautique Militaire 28[27] CdeLd'h, CdeG
von Bülow-Bothkamp, WalterWalter von Bülow-Bothkamp  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 28[28] PLM, MOSH, IC
Carter, Albert DesbrisayAlbert Desbrisay Carter  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DSO*, CdeG
von Fernbrugg, Benno Fiala RitterBenno Fiala Ritter von Fernbrugg  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 28[21] OIC, OL, MMC(AH), MMM, MFB, IC
von Greim, Robert RitterRobert Ritter von Greim  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 28[29] PLM, IC, MOMJ
Gurdon, John EverardJohn Everard Gurdon  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DFC
Hoidge, ReginaldReginald Hoidge  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC*
Latimer, DennisDennis Latimer  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC, DFC
Laumann, ArthurArthur Laumann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 28[30] PLM, HOH, IC
von Röth, Friedrich RitterFriedrich Ritter von Röth  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 28[31] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Bernert, Fritz OttoFritz Otto Bernert  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[32] PLM, IC
Fruhner, OttoOtto Fruhner  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[33] MMC(P), IC
Kirschstein, HansHans Kirschstein  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[34] PLM, HOH, IC
Linke-Crawford, FrankFrank Linke-Crawford  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 27[21] OIC
McEwen, CliffordClifford McEwen  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[35] MC, DFC*, MMV
Middleton, Thomas PercyThomas Percy Middleton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DFC
Pinsard, ArmandArmand Pinsard  France Aéronautique Militaire 27[36] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, MC
Davids, Arthur RhysArthur Rhys Davids  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DSO, MC*
Soden, Frank OrmondFrank Ormond Soden  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[7] DFC*
Thom, KarlKarl Thom  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[37] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
von Tutschek, Adolf RitterAdolf Ritter von Tutschek  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[38] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Whealy, ArthurArthur Whealy  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 27[7] DSC*, DFC
Wüsthoff, KurtKurt Wüsthoff  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 27[39] PLM, HOH, IC
von Boenigk, Oskar FreiherrOskar Freiherr von Boenigk  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] PLM, IC
von Dostler, Eduard RitterEduard Ritter von Dostler  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 26[40] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Fletcher, Ronald MalcolmRonald Malcolm Fletcher  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[41] Observer ace
DFM
Harvey, William Frederick JamesWilliam Frederick James Harvey  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] MC, DFC*
King, ElwynElwyn King  Australia Australian Flying Corps 26[7] DSO, DFC
Maxwell, Gerald Joseph ConstableGerald Joseph Constable Maxwell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DFC, MC, AFC
Näther, MaxMax Näther  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] HOH, IC
Rickenbacker, EddieEddie Rickenbacker  United States US Army Air Service 26[42][43] Top US ace
MOH, DSC(US), CdeLd'h, CdeG
Scaroni, SilvioSilvio Scaroni  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 26[44] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver)
Staton, William ErnestWilliam Ernest Staton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
Thomson, William McKenzieWilliam McKenzie Thomson  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 26[7] MC, DFC
von Beaulieu-Marconnay, Olivier FreiherrOlivier Freiherr von Beaulieu-Marconnay  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 25[45] PLM, IC
Caldwell, KeithKeith Caldwell  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 25[7] Top New Zealander ace
MC, DFC*
Compston, Robert J. O.Robert J. O. Compston  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 25[7] DSC**, DFC
von Hantelmann, GeorgGeorg von Hantelmann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 25[46] HOH, IC
Pütter, FritzFritz Pütter  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 25[31] PLM, IC
Rosevear, Stanley WallaceStanley Wallace Rosevear  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 25[7] DSC*
Böhme, ErwinErwin Böhme  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 24[47] PLM, HOH, IC
Carpenter, PeterPeter Carpenter  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[35] DSO, MC*, MMV
Hayward, George S. L.George S. L. Hayward  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[41] Observer ace
MC
Luchford, Harry G. E.Harry G. E. Luchford  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*
Meyer, GeorgGeorg Meyer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 24[31] IC
Noel, Tom CecilTom Cecil Noel  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[48] Observer ace
MC*
Piccio, Pier RuggeroPier Ruggero Piccio  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 24[49] MMV**(Silver)
Shields, William ErnestWilliam Ernest Shields  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[7] DFC*
Slater, James AndersonJames Anderson Slater  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*, DFC
Alexander, William MelvilleWilliam Melville Alexander  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 23[50] DSC
Becker, HermannHermann Becker  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 23[51] HOH, IC
Campbell, William CharlesWilliam Charles Campbell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, MC*
Dorme, RenéRené Dorme  France Aéronautique Militaire 23[52] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Frew, Matthew BrownMatthew Brown Frew  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] DSO, MC*, AFC, MMV
Guerin, GabrielGabriel Guerin  France Aéronautique Militaire 23[53] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Lale, Howard PercyHoward Percy Lale  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Pentland, AlexanderAlexander Pentland  Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] MC, DFC
Whistler, HaroldHarold Whistler  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Göring, HermannHermann Göring  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[54] PLM, HOH, IC
Harrison, Thomas SinclairThomas Sinclair Harrison  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Haegelen, MarcelMarcel Haegelen  France Aéronautique Militaire 22[55] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Jenkin, Louis FleemingLouis Fleeming Jenkin  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
King, Cecil FrederickCecil Frederick King  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[56] MC, DFC, CdeG
Klein, HansHans Klein  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] PLM, HOH, IC
Leacroft, JohnJohn Leacroft  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
Newland, Arthur ErnestArthur Ernest Newland  United Kingdom Royal Air Force 22[48] Observer ace
DFM*
Pippart, Hans MartinHans Martin Pippart  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
Preuss, WernerWerner Preuss  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[57] HOH, IC
Marinovitch, PierrePierre Marinovitch  France Aéronautique Militaire 22[58] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Roxburgh-Smith, BenjaminBenjamin Roxburgh-Smith  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Schlegel, KarlKarl Schlegel  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
White, Joseph Leonard MariesJoseph Leonard Maries White  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Windisch, RudolfRudolf Windisch  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 22[59] PLM, HOH, IC
von Adam, HansHans von Adam  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 21[60] HOH
Altemeier, FriedrichFriedrich Altemeier  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 21[61] MMC(P), IC, WB
Baracchini, FlavioFlavio Baracchini  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 21[62] MMV(Gold)
Cubbon, FrancisFrancis Cubbon  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[63] Observer ace
MC*
Edwards, Harold LeslieHarold Leslie Edwards  Canada Royal Air Force 21[41] DFC, MM
Friedrichs, FriedrichFriedrich Friedrichs  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] PLM, HOH, IC
Heurtaux, AlfredAlfred Heurtaux  France Aéronautique Militaire 21[64] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Hickey, CharlesCharles Hickey  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 21[7] DFC*
Höhn, FritzFritz Höhn  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick, William John CharlesWilliam John Charles Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC*
Maybery, RichardRichard Maybery  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] MC
McCloughry, EdgarEdgar McCloughry  Australia Australian Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, DFC*
Minifie, RichardRichard Minifie  Australia Royal Naval Air Service 21[7] DSC**
Noltenius, Friedrich T.Friedrich T. Noltenius  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
Thomson, George EdwinGeorge Edwin Thomson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC, DFC
Barlow, Leonard MonteagleLeonard Monteagle Barlow  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC
Bell, Douglas JohnDouglas John Bell  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*
Bethge, HansHans Bethge  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[65] HOH, IC
Conn, Kenneth BurnsKenneth Burns Conn  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[66] DFC
Deullin, AlbertAlbert Deullin  France Aéronautique Militaire 20[67] CdeLd'h, CdeG
von Eschwege, RudolphRudolph von Eschwege  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[68] HOH, IC, Bulgarian Order for Bravery in War
Frankl, WilhelmWilhelm Frankl  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[69] PLM, HOH, IC
Freden, Hans vonHans von Freden  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] IC
Gillet, Francis W.Francis W. Gillet  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[70] DFC*, BCdeG
Göttsch, WalterWalter Göttsch  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[71] HOH, IC
Hennrich, OskarOskar Hennrich  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] MMC, IC
Johnston, EdgarEdgar Johnston  Australia Australian Flying Corps 20[66] DFC
Kazakov, AlexanderAlexander Kazakov  Russia Imperial Army Air Service 20[72] Top Russian ace
OSG, OSV, OSS, OSA, DSO, MC, DFC, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Kissenberth, OttoOtto Kissenberth  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[73] PLM, HOH, IC
Lagesse, CamilleCamille Lagesse  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] DFC*
McDonald, Ian Donald RoyIan Donald Roy McDonald  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC, DFC
Park, KeithKeith Park  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] MC*, DFC, CdeG
Reinhard, WilhelmWilhelm Reinhard  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[74] HOH, IC
Ross, Charles G.Charles G. Ross  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, South African Air Force 20[7] CBE, DFC*, BCdeG
Ruffo di Calabria, FulcoFulco Ruffo di Calabria  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 20[75] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver), MMV***(Bronze)
Schmidt, OttoOtto Schmidt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] HOH, IC
Southey, WalterWalter Southey  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] DFC
Thayre, FrederickFrederick Thayre  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Speculation about Bishop's claims, particularly his 2 June 1917 mission which earned him a Victoria Cross (VC), have persisted.[76]
  2. ^ Although various claim-by-claim analyses ascribe Dallas a score of 32 aircraft shot down,[77][78] he was officially credited with 39,[79][80] and his actual tally could number in the 50s.[78]
  3. ^ May be 31.[81]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918.  p. 10.
  3. ^ How to Make War, p. 149.
  4. ^ Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920.  p. 7
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 241–242
  6. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 20
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp Shores, 2001. p. 89
  8. ^ Shores, Frank, Guest 1990, pp. 255-256.
  9. ^ Franks, 2004. pp. 68–69
  10. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 43–44
  11. ^ Franks, 2007. p. 41
  12. ^ See victory list in linked article; it was compiled from Above the Lines, Australian Hawk Over the Western Front,Australian Air Aces, Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I.
  13. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 28–29
  14. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 56–58
  15. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 51
  16. ^ Guttman, 2007. pp. 29–31, 87
  17. ^ a b c d Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 239
  18. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 71
  19. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 169–171
  20. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 60–61
  21. ^ a b c d Chant, 2002. p. 90
  22. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 76
  23. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 93
  24. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 81–82
  25. ^ Franks, 2003. pp. 12–13
  26. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 75
  27. ^ Guttman, 2002. pp. 65–66
  28. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 90
  29. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 119–120
  30. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 153–154
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 236
  32. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 70
  33. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 111–112
  34. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 142–143
  35. ^ a b Franks, 2003. p. 88
  36. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 61–62
  37. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 215
  38. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 219
  39. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 233–234
  40. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 101–102
  41. ^ a b c Guttman, 2007. p. 87
  42. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 74
  43. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 86
  44. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 81–82
  45. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 68
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