List of World War I aces credited with 6 victories

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History's first flying ace, Adolphe Pégoud
Adolphe Pégoud scored six victories to become history's first flying ace. He was also the first ace killed in action.

The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft. When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed. The American qualification of five victories eventually became the standard, even though other air services had previously used differing figures.[1]

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-seater aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. If a two-seater aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew members were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not, and vice versa.[2] The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history.[3]

Loss of records by mischance and the passage of time complicates reconstructing the actual count for given aces. The scores presented in the list cannot be definitive, but are based on itemized lists that are the best available sources of information.[4] Aces are listed after verifying the date and location of combat, and the foe vanquished, for every victory accredited by an aviator's home air service using their own aerial victory standards. Those victories for which the evidence is unavailable or fragmentary have been excluded from the victory count.

Aces[edit]

This list is complete. Notable aces are linked to their biographies.

      This along with the symbolic sword †, indicates that the pilot was known to be either killed in action, missing in action, died of wounds, or killed in a flying accident during World War I.

Name Country Air service(s) Victories
Ivan Agabeg  United Kingdom Royal Air Force 6[5]
Percival Appleby  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Karl Arnold  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
John Aspinall United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Hilbert Bair  United States Royal Air Force, United States Army Air Service 6[8]
Robert Barbour United Kingdom Royal Air Force 6[9]
John Barlow United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Johann Baur German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
James Beane United States Aéronautique Militaire, United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Frank Bell United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Eric Betts United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Clayton Bissell United States United States Army Air Service, United States Army Air Corps, United States Army Air Forces, United States Air Force 6[8]
Charles Arthur Bissonette United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Aldo Bocchese  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Paul Bona German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Nicholson Boulton United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Percy Boulton United Kingdom Royal Air Force 6[8]
Clifford Bowman United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Moritz-Waldemar Bretschneider-Bodemer German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Arthur Britton United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Eric Brookes United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Arthur Raymond Brooks United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Albin Bühl German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Harry von Buelow-Bothkamp German Empire Luftstreitkräfte, Luftwaffe 6[7]
Leslie William Burbidge United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
August Burkard German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
James Bush United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Alessandro Buzio Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
William Cairnes United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
William Cambray United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Douglas Campbell United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
John Candy United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Douglas Carbery United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Charles Catto United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Albert Chabrier France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Robert Chalmers  Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Thomas Chiltern United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Antonio Chiri Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Henry Gordon Clappison Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Edward Clarke United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Harris George Clements United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
John Henry Colbert United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Reginald Conder United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Gerald Kempster Cooper United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Maurice Cooper United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Norman Cooper alias Ernest S. Tooker United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Irving Corey Canada Royal Air Force 6[6]
Bartolomeo Costantini Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Louis Coudouret France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Jules Covin France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Earl Frederick Crabb Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, United States Army Air Corps 6[8]
Thomas Culling  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
William Curphey United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Edward Peck Curtis United States United States Army Air Service, United States Army Air Force 6[10]
John Daley United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Charles Dance United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Edward Darby United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Horace Balfour Davey United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Charles Davidson United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Horace Debenham United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
François de Boigne France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Joseph De Bonnefoy France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Karl Deilman German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Lionel de Marmier France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Alexander De Seversky  Russian Empire Imperial Army Air Service 6[13]
Andreas Dombrowski  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
John Elmer Drummond Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Adolphe DuBois d'Aische  Kingdom of Belgium Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
André Dubonnet France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Pierre Dufaur de Gavardie France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Denis Edwin Edgley United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Karl Engelfried German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Cyril Askew Eyre United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service 6[8]
Robert Farquhar United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
William Spurrett Fielding-Johnson United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
John Pierce Findlay United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Alfred Fleischer German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Guglielmo Fornagiari Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Herbert Fowler Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Gustav Frädrich German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Johann Frint Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Daniel Galbraith Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force 6[8]
George Gardiner United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Mieczyslaw Garsztka German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Paul Gastin France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Rupert Gifford United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Friedrich Gille German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Hermann Gilly German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Maurice Gond France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
George H. D. Gossip  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Herbert Gould United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
James Green United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Duncan Grinnell-Milne United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Murray Guthrie United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Heinrich Haase German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Erich Hahn German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Alfred Haines United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
David S. Hall United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[9]
Stanley Hamblin United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Leslie Hamilton United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Leonard Hammond United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Frank Hays United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Geoffrey Hemming United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Marcel Henriot France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Albert Hets German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Richard Alexander Hewat United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Cyril Heywood United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Robert Hildebrandt German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Walter G. R. Hinchliffe United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Otto Höhne German Empire Luftstreitkräfte, Luftwaffe 6[7]
Philip Holligan United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Donald Hudson United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Frank Hudson United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Alfred Hübner German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Victor Huston United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Hans Imelmann German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Attilio Imolesi Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
David Ingalls United States United States Navy attached to Royal Air Force 6[8]
Bruce Jackman United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
H. S. Jackson United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Johannes Jensen German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Philip Andrew Johnston Australia Royal Naval Air Service 6[8]
Erich Just German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Willy Kahle German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Max Kahlow German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Alexander Kasza Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
James Alfred Keating United States United States Army Air Service attached to Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[10]
Noel Keeble United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Ernest Tilton Sumpter Kelly Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Otto Klaiber German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Gustav Klaudat German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Howard Knotts United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Erich König German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Kurt Küppers German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Herman Kunz German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
George Lawson Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, South African Air Force 6[8]
Alfred Lenz German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
André Robert Lévy France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Thomas Lewis United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
H. Lindfield United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Robert Opie Lindsay United States United States Army Air Service, United States Army Air Corps 6[10]
George Lingham Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Alwyne Travers Loyd United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Ludwig Luer German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Thomas Luke United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
John Knox MacArthur United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Andrew MacGregor Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Cesare Magistrini Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Garnet Malley Australia Australian Flying Corps 6[8]
Friedrich Mallincrodt German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Maxmillian Mare-Montembault United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Louis Martin France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
T. W. Martin United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Heinrich Maushake German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
F. H. Maynard New Zealand Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Malcolm McCall United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Robert McKenzie Australia Australian Flying Corps 6[8]
Robert McLaughlin United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Oscar McMaking United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Leslie McRobert United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Earl Stanley Meek Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
William Meggitt United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Emil Meinecke German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Frank Tremar Sibly Menendez United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Konrad Mettlich German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
William James Middleton United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Archibald Miller United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
William Miller United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Norman Craig Millman Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Laurence Minot United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Alfred Mohr German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Hugh Fitzgerald Moore United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Guido Nardini Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Gerald Ewart Nash Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force 6[8]
Gustave Naudin France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Werner Niethammer German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Karl Nikitsch Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Hans Oberlander German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Jan Olieslagers Kingdom of Belgium Aviation Militaire Belge 6[15]
Luigi Olivi Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Rudolf Otto German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Ernest Edward Owen  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Augustus Paget United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Medley Parlee Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Laurence Pearson United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Adolphe Pégoud France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Giorgio Pessi alias Guiliano Parvis Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Franz Peter Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
David McKelvey Peterson United States Aéronautique Militaire, United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Geoffrey Pidcock United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Cleo Pineau United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
William Ponder United States Aéronautique Militaire, United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Sydney Pope United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Frederick Powell United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[16]
Josef Pürer Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Thomas G. Rae Union of South Africa Royal Air Force 6[8]
Arthur Rahn German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Richard Raymond-Barker United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Émile Régnier France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Alan Rice-Oxley United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Rudolf Rienau German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Harry Rigby Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Johann Risztics Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Cosimo Rizzotto Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Bogart Rogers United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Achille Rousseaux France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Cyril H. Sawyer United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Alfons Scheicher German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Roman Schmidt Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Karl Schmückle German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Edgar Scholtz German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Erich Schuetze German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Wilhelm Schulz German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Gunther Schuster German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Laurence Henry Scott United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Heinrich Seywald German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Evander Shapard United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6
Thomas Sharpe United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Edward A. Simpson United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
David Esplin Smith United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
John Smith-Grant Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[16]
Cyril Richard Smythe United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Erich Sonneck German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Constant Soulier France Aéronautique Militaire 6[12]
Otto Splitgerber German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Arthur Spurling United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
Georg Staudacher German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Mario Stoppani Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
William H. Stovall United States United States Army Air Service, United States Army Air Corps 6[10]
William Strugnell United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Rothesay Stuart Wortley United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Kurt Student German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Hermann Stutz German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
William Swayze Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Ronald Sykes United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Harry Symons Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Cecil Thompson Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Claud Robert James Thompson Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Australian Flying Corps 6[8]
Romolo Ticconi Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 6[11]
Edgar Tobin United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Albert Tonkin Australia Australian Flying Corps 6[17]
James Hamilton Traill Australia Australian Flying Corps 6[8]
George Trapp Canada Royal Naval Air Service 6[8]
Reinhard Treptow German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Philip Tudhope Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Thomas Tuffield United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
William Tyrell United Kingdom Royal Air Force 6[8]
Konstantin Vakulovsky Russian Empire Imperial Army Air Service 6[13]
Hermann Vallendor German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Jerry Vasconcells United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Remington Vernam United States Aéronautique Militaire, United States Army Air Service 6[10]
Hans Waldhausen German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Eric Walker United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[6]
Bernard Albert Walkerdine United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Stephen Reginald Parke Walter United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 6[8]
Harry Watson Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Rudolf Weber Austro-Hungarian Empire Luftfahrtruppen 6[14]
Joseph F. Wehner United States United States Army Air Service 6[10]
William Weir Australia Australian Flying Corps 6[5]
Heinrich Wessels German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Siegfried Westphal German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
William Westwood Union of South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
William A. Wheeler United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Victor White United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[5]
Ernst Wiehle German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 6[7]
Frederick Wilton United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[9]
William Otto Braasch Winkler United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[8]
Harry Wood Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 6[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918.  p. 10.
  3. ^ How to Make War, p. 149.
  4. ^ Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920.  p. 7
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on British observer aces.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on British bomber observer aces.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in text.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in text.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on British bomber pilot aces.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Over the Front: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on American aces.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on Italian aces.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Over the Front: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on French aces.
  13. ^ a b Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on Russian aces.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918.  Ace listed alphabetically by last name in section of text on Austro-Hungarian aces.
  15. ^ Above Flanders Fields: A Complete Record of the Belgian Fighter Pilots and Their Units During the Great War.  pp. 72-73.
  16. ^ a b Above the Trenches Supplement: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces, Ace listed alphabetically by last name.
  17. ^ a b Above the Trenches Supplement: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces.  p. 5.

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