Outline of academic disciplines
A scholar's discipline is commonly defined and recognized by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. However, there exist no formal criteria for the status of an academic discipline. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications.
A discipline may have branches, and these are often called sub-disciplines.
The University of Paris in 1231 consisted of four faculties: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law and Arts. Most academic disciplines have their roots in the mid-to-late-19th century secularization of universities, when the traditional curricula were supplemented with non-classical languages and literatures, social sciences such as political science, economics, sociology and public administration, and natural science and technology disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.
In the early 20th century, new disciplines such as education and psychology were added. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was an explosion of new disciplines focusing on specific themes, such as media studies, women's studies, and black studies. Many disciplines designed as preparation for careers and professions, such as nursing, hospitality management, and corrections, also emerged in the universities. Finally, interdisciplinary scientific fields such as biochemistry and geophysics gained prominence as their contribution to knowledge became widely recognized.
There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified (e.g., whether anthropology and linguistics are social sciences disciplines or humanities disciplines). More generally, the proper criteria for organizing knowledge into disciplines are also open to debate.
- 1 Humanities
- 2 Social sciences
- 3 Natural sciences
- 4 Formal sciences
- 5 Professions
- 5.1 Agriculture
- 5.2 Architecture and design
- 5.3 Business
- 5.4 Divinity
- 5.5 Education
- 5.6 Engineering
- 5.7 Environmental studies and forestry
- 5.8 Family and consumer science
- 5.9 Human physical performance and recreation
- 5.10 Journalism, media studies and communication
- 5.11 Law
- 5.12 Library and museum studies
- 5.13 Medicine
- 5.14 Military sciences
- 5.15 Public administration
- 5.16 Social work
- 5.17 Transportation
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
- Comparative literature
- English literature
- World literature
- Literary theory
- Creative writing
- Classical archaeology
- Architectural Analytics
- Experimental archaeology
- Maritime archaeology
- Near Eastern archaeology
- Prehistoric archaeology
- African studies
- American studies
- Asian studies
- European studies
- Australian studies
- Middle East studies
Cultural and ethnic studies
Gender and sexuality studies
- See also Branches of chemistry
- See also Branches of earth sciences
- See also Branches of physics
- See also ACM Computing Classification System
Also a branch of electrical engineering
Architecture and design
- See also Branches of engineering
Environmental studies and forestry
Family and consumer science
Human physical performance and recreation
Journalism, media studies and communication
Library and museum studies
- Child welfare
- Community practice
- Medical social work
- Mental health
- School social work
- Highway safety
- Intermodal transportation studies
- Marine transportation
- Operations research
- Mass transit
- Academic genealogy
- Transdisciplinary studies
- Classification of Instructional Programs
- Joint Academic Classification of Subjects
- Outline of education
- List of fields of doctoral studies
- History of Education, Encyclopædia Britannica (1977, 15th edition), Macropaedia Volume 6, p. 337
- Abbott, Andrew (2001). Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2.
- Oleson, Alexandra; Voss, John (1979). The Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8.
- US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP). National Center for Education Statistics.
- Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP 2000): Developed by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking, assessment, and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity.
- Complete JACS (Joint Academic Classification of Subjects) from Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) in the United Kingdom
- Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC 2008) (web-page) Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification.
- Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised.