List of active nationalist parties in Europe

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Nationalist parties in Europe have been on rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5][6] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[7][8]

Ruth Wodak stresses that the rise of populist parties across Europe has different reasons in different countries. In a March 2014 article she divided these parties into four groups: "parties [that] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (e.g., in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties that "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (e.g., in the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties that "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (e.g., in Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom) and parties that "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (e.g., in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria).[9] According to the Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the national culture "seeming under threat."[10]

Overview[edit]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with different ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Western Europe are described as right-wing populists.[11] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[12] Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Nationalist parties are the ruling parties in the two former Yugoslav countries. In the Republic of Macedonia, the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. The Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), founded in 2008 by former Serbian Radical Party members and is led by Tomislav Nikolić. The SNS won plurality in the 2012 parliamentary election and is since the senior party in the Serbian government.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as in the National Front in France, True Finns in Finland, Austria, Jobbik Hungary, LDPR in Russia, MHP in Turkey, the Golden Dawn in Greece, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Armenia, etc.

Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus[edit]

Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.

Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.

List[edit]

  •   the ruling party

National[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description
VMRO-DPMNE  Macedonia
1893
43.0% (2014)
481,615
61 / 123
Macedonian nationalism,[13] Conservatism,[14] Christian democracy,[14][15] National conservatism[16]
Swiss People's Party   Switzerland
1971
26.6% (2011)
648,675
54 / 200
Nationalism,[17][18] conservatism
Serbian Radical Party  Serbia
1991
3.78% (2012)
147,793
0 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-Wing Populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism
Freedom Party of Austria  Austria
1956
20.5% (2013)
962,313
40 / 183
Anti-Immigration[19][20]
New Flemish Alliance  Belgium
2001
20,3% (2014)
1,366,397
33 / 150
Flemish nationalism, conservatism, separatism[21]
IRL  Estonia
2006
20.1% (2011)
118,023
23 / 101
Estonian nationalism,[22][23] National conservatism
True Finns  Finland
1995
19.1% (2011)
560,075
39 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[24] Anti-Immigration[25][26]
Jobbik  Hungary
2003
16.67% (2014)
985,029
23 / 199
Hungarian nationalism,[27][28] Anti-Semitism,[29] Greater Hungary[30]
Progress Party  Norway
1973
16.3% (2013)
463,560
29 / 169
Anti-immigration[31]
National Alliance  Latvia
2010
13.9% (2011)
127,208
14 / 100
Latvian nationalism[32]
National Front  France
1972
13.6% (2012)
3,528,373
2 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Eurosceptism[33][34][35]
Nationalist Movement Party  Turkey
1969
13.0% (2011)
5,585,513
53 / 550
Turkish nationalism, Pan-Turkism
Sweden Democrats  Sweden
1988
12.9% (2014)
781,120
49 / 349
Anti-immigrant[36]
Danish People's Party  Denmark
1995
12.3% (2011)
436,726
22 / 179
Anti-immigration,[37][38] Euroscepticism[39][40]
LDPR  Russia
1991
11.7% (2011)
7,664,570
56 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, Anti-American[41][42]
SDP  Montenegro
1993
11.1% (2012)
40,131
9 / 81
Svoboda  Ukraine
1991
10.4% (2012)
2,129,906
36 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[43] Anti-Russian[44]
Party for Freedom  Netherlands
2006
10.1% (2012)
950,263
15 / 150
Anti-Immigration, Anti-Islam
Sinn Féin  Ireland
1905
9.9% (2011)
220,661
14 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-Wing Nationalism, Democratic Socialism
ADR  Luxembourg
1987
6.64% (2013)
217,683
3 / 60
conservatism
Order and Justice  Lithuania
2002
7.31% (2012)
100,120
11 / 141
Right-wing populism,

Euroscepticism.

Attack  Bulgaria
2005
7.3% (2013)
258,481
23 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[45] ultranationalism,[46][47]
Golden Dawn  Greece
1985
6.9% (2012)
426,025
18 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea,[48] neo-Nazi,[49] fascist[50]
ARF  Armenia
1890
5.7% (2012)
85,550
5 / 131
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[51][52]
Slovak National Party  Slovakia
1989
4.6% (2012)
116,420
0 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[53][54][55][56][57][58] extremist,[59][60][61] Hungarophobia,[62] Antiziganism[63][64][65]
Flemish Interest  Belgium
2004
3.7% (2014)
247,738
3 / 150
Flemish nationalism, separatism[66]
Croatian Party of Rights  Croatia
1990
3.0% (2011)
72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[67][68][69]
Brothers of Italy – National Alliance  Italy
2012
2.0% (2013)
666,035
9 / 630
Italian nationalism[70]
British National Party  United Kingdom
1982
1.9% (2010)
563,743
0 / 650
White nationalism,[71][72][73] Fascism,[74][75][76] Euroscepticism[77]
Slovenian National Party  Slovenia
1991
1.8% (2011)
19,786
0 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[78]
National Democratic Party  Germany
1964
1.5% (2013)
635,135
0 / 631
German nationalism
Greater Romania Party  Romania
1991
1.5% (2012)
108,911
0 / 137
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
Workers' Party  Czech Republic
2010
1.1% (2010)
59,888
0 / 200
Czech nationalism
National Popular Front  Cyprus
2008
1.1% (2011)
4,354
0 / 460
Greek nationalism
National Liberal Party  Moldova
1993
0.6% (2010)
10,923
0 / 101
National Front  Albania
1989
0.3% (2009)
5,112
0 / 140
National Renovator Party  Portugal
2000
0.3% (2011)
17,548
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism
SRP  Poland
1992
0.05% (2011)
9,733
0 / 460
Polish nationalism
España 2000  Spain
2002
0.04% (2011)
9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
Conservative Party of Georgia  Georgia
2001
part of Georgian Dream alliance
6 / 150
Belarusian Popular Front  Belarus
1988
N/A N/A N/A
Azerbaijani Popular Front Party  Azerbaijan
1992
N/A N/A N/A Azerbaijani nationalism, Anti-Armenianism

Disputed, de facto independent areas[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology, description
Unity Party Georgia (country)  South Ossetia
2003
46.3% (2009)
21,246
17 / 34
Free Motherland Azerbaijan  Nagorno-Karabakh
2005
44.2% (2010)
29,252
14 / 33
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus
1975
44.1% (2009)
622,804
27 / 50
Democratic Party of Kosovo Serbia  Kosovo
1975
32.1% (2010)
224,339
34 / 120
Renewal Moldova  Transnistria
2000
% (2010)
25 / 43
United Abkhazia Georgia (country)  Abkhazia
2004
% (2012)
0 / 35

Regional[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska
2001
50.5% (2010)
319,615
37 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland
1934
45.4% (2011)
902,915
65 / 129
Scottish nationalism
Basque National Party Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Country
1895
34.6% (2012)
383,565
27 / 75
Basque nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders
2001
31.9% (2014)
1,339,943
43 / 124
Flemish nationalism, conservatism, separatism[79]
Convergence and Union Spain  Catalonia
1978
30.7% (2012)
1,116,259
50 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Sinn Féin United Kingdom  Northern Ireland
1905
26.9% (2011)
178,224
29 / 108
Irish nationalism
Party of Democratic Action Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1990
20.2% (2010)
206,926
23 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales
1925
19.3% (2011)
182,907
11 / 60
Welsh nationalism
Party of the Corsican Nation France  Corse
2002
18.4% (2010)
24,057
11 / 51
Corse nationalism
Die Freiheitlichen Italy  South Tyrol
1992
15.9% (2013)
47,634
7 / 75
German/Austrian nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1990
10.6% (2010)
108,943
12 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia
1982
10.1% (2012)
146,027
7 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina
1982
6.2% (2012)
8 / 120
Hungarian nationalism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders
1992
5.9% (2014)
248,840
6 / 124
Flemish nationalism

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External links[edit]