List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state's borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania[edit]

Northern Epirus[5][6]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Brussels-Capital Region

 Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)

German-speaking Community of Belgium

 Walloon Region

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Croatia[edit]

Istria

Rijeka

Cyprus[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

 Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

 Åland

France[edit]

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4. Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.
Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia[edit]

Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenia Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Azerbaijan Borchali Azerbaijanis

Germany[edit]

Bavaria

East Frisia

Franconia[23]

Lusatia

Schleswig-Holstein

Italy[edit]

Sardinia

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

See: International recognition of Kosovo

Serbia North Kosovo

Latvia[edit]

Latgale flag.JPG Latgale

 Macedonia[edit]

 Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[28]

Netherlands[edit]

Frisia

  • Ethnic group: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[29]

Poland[edit]

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

  • Ethnic group: Kashubians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.

Romania[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Székely Land, Transylvania, Banat, Partium

Szekler National Council,[39] Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO.,[38] Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania,[38] Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[40] Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO,[41] an active supporter of the "Autonomy for Transylvania" campaign,[42] League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.[43][44]

Russia[edit]

Main article: Secession in Russia

Russia's North Caucasus[edit]

Russia's other European regions[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Preševo Valley

Breakaway state:

Kosovo Republic of Kosovo

Slovakia[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Autonomist movements:

  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[50] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[51]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[52]

Spain[edit]

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)

 Aragon

Asturias Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)

Cantabria Cantabria

Catalonia Catalonia (Catalan independence)

 Castile

Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)

Bandera del País Leonés.svg

Leonese Country (Main article: Leonesismo)

Bandera de Olivenza.svg

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença) (Main article: Disputed status of Olivenza)

Switzerland[edit]

Geneva

  • Regional group: Genevan
    • Proposed state: La République de Genève" or "Free State of Geneva"

Jura[53]

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

Turkey[edit]

Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan[55]

Ukraine[edit]

Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Federal State of Novorossiya

Disputed status:

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions:

 Crimea

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom]] and its dependencies[edit]

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

Constituent countries of the United Kingdom[edit]

See also: Home Nations

England[edit]

 Cornwall (possibly including the ScillonianCross.svg Isles of Scilly)

 England

Ceremonial counties in Southern England[66]

 Yorkshire (historical county)

Northern Ireland[edit]

 Ulster

political parties Democratic Unionist(DUP), Sinn Fein, Ulster Unionist(UUP), Social Democratic and Labour Party(sdlp), Traditional Unionist voice (TUV)

Reunification of Northern Ireland with Ireland

Scotland[edit]

 Scotland

Northern Isles ( Orkney and  Shetland)

Western Isles Council Flag.svg Outer Hebrides (Western Isles)

Wales[edit]

 Wales

Crown dependencies[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

 Bailiwick of Guernsey (including  Alderney,  Sark and other smaller islands and rocks)

 Bailiwick of Jersey (including smaller islands and rocks)

Isle of Man[edit]

Overseas Territories[edit]

For movements in other British Overseas Territories, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Gibraltar

Note: There are disputes with Spain concerning Gibraltar and with Cyprus concerning Akrotiri and Dhekelia, another British Overseas Territory in Europe and Sovereign Base Areas. See also Disputed status of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia#Dispute with Cyprus. Other ideas (not separation) for constitutional reform of Gibraltar has been proposed:

  • The condominium, with sovereignty shared between the UK and Spain. It was proposed by the Spanish government, rejected by the British government.[80]
  • The devolved integration or incorporation into the United Kingdom itself. It aims to change the status of Gibraltar from a British overseas territory into an integral part of the UK. It is supported by the Integration With Britain Movement.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram [Political program], AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .