List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Map of active separatist movements in the European Union. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state's borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members.
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania Albania[edit]

Austria Austria[edit]

Autonomist movements

Possible Merged

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[edit]

Belgium Belgium[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Croatia Croatia[edit]

Autonomist movements

Cyprus Cyprus[edit]

Czech Republic Czech Republic[edit]

Denmark Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

Finland Finland[edit]

France France[edit]

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4. Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.
Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia (country) Georgia[edit]

Germany Germany[edit]

Secessionist movements

Autonomist movements

Italy Italy[edit]

Latvia Latvia[edit]

Autonomist movements
  • Latgale
    • Marginal political party and groups: „Gods un kārtība”, Linderman’s party "Par dzimto valodu"

Lithuania Lithuania[edit]

Republic of Macedonia Macedonia[edit]

Moldova Moldova[edit]

Montenegro Montenegro[edit]

Netherlands Netherlands[edit]

  • Frisia
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[27]

Norway Norway[edit]

Poland Poland[edit]

Portugal Portugal[edit]

Romania Romania[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania
Political organisations
Proposed autonomous region

Russia Russian Federation[edit]

Russia's North Caucasus[edit]

  •  Chechnya
    • Militant organisation: Chechen separatists; though recently Ramzan Kadyrov, the Russian-appointed leader of the Chechen Republic within Russia has also made statements seeming to support broad autonomy,[32] criticising Russian attempts to make a "North Caucasus" district[32] and inviting back separatist leader Akhmad Zakayev.[33]
    • Proposed state: Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
  •  Dagestan
  •  Ingushetia
  • Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia
  • Circassia
    • Movement: Circassian nationalism; Circassian Congress; Circassian Youth Initiative; Adyge Djegi
    • Proposed state: Circassia, including all regions historically included in Circassia and/or inhabited by Circassians (note: this includes Adygea as well as large parts of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachey-Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai, and Stavropol' Krai)
  • Balkar and Karachay peoples
    • Movement: Various nationalist organisations in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia
    • Goals: Firstmost, the establishment of autonomy for the Karachai and Balkars, rather than in biethnic republics where they must share power with Russians and Circassians (division of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia into smaller units, also popular for Circassian nationalists). Then, the unification of Karachay and Balkar units is advocated by some but not all nationalists (see Balkar and Karachai nationalism)

Russia's other European regions[edit]

Serbia Serbia[edit]

Autonomist movements
Secessionist movements

De facto state with partial de jure international recognition

Slovakia Slovakia[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia
Autonomist movements
  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[36] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[37]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[38]

Spain Spain[edit]

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.

Sweden Sweden[edit]

Switzerland Switzerland[edit]

Turkey Turkey[edit]

Ukraine Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom United Kingdom (including Crown dependencies and Overseas Territories)[edit]

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

Constituent countries of the United Kingdom[edit]


Northern Ireland[edit]



Crown dependencies[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

Isle of Man[edit]

British Overseas Territories in Europe[edit]

For movements of the British Overseas Territories in other continents, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.

Note: There are disputes with Spain concerning Gibraltar and with Cyprus concerning Akrotiri and Dhekelia, another British Overseas Territory in Europe and Sovereign Base Areas. See also Disputed status of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia#Dispute with Cyprus. Other ideas (not separation) for constitutional reform of Gibraltar has been proposed:

  • The condominium, with sovereignty shared between the UK and Spain. It was proposed by the Spanish government, rejected by the British government.[69]
  • The devolved integration or incorporation into the United Kingdom itself. It aims to change the status of Gibraltar from a British overseas territory into an integral part of the UK. It is supported by the Integration With Britain Movement.

See also[edit]


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