List of additives for hydraulic fracturing

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In the United States, about 750 compounds have been listed as additives for hydraulic fracturing in a report to the US Congress in 2011 after originally being kept secret for "commercial reasons".[1][2] The following is a partial list of the chemical constituents in additives that are used or have been used in fracturing operations, as based on the report of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, some are known to be carcinogenic.[3]

In the UK only 'Non-Hazardous' chemicals are permitted for fracturing fluids by the Environment Agency. All chemicals have to be declared publicly and, increasingly, food additive based chemicals are available to allow fracking to take place safely.[4]

Additives used in the United States[edit]

CAS Number Chemical Constituent
2634-33-5 1,2-Benzisothiazolin-2-one / 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one
95-63-6 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene
123-91-1 1,4-Dioxane
3452-07-1 1-eicosene
629-73-2 1-hexadecene
112-88-9 1-octadecene
1120-36-1 1-tetradecene
10222-01-2 2,2 Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide
27776-21-2 2,2'-azobis-{2-(imidazlin-2-yl)propane}-dihydrochloride
73003-80-2 2,2-Dibromomalonamide
15214-89-8 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonic acid sodium salt polymer
46830-22-2 2-acryloyloxyethyl(benzyl)dimethylammonium chloride
52-51-7 2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol
111-76-2 2-Butoxy ethanol
1113-55-9 2-Dibromo-3-Nitriloprionamide (2-Monobromo-3-nitriilopropionamide)
104-76-7 2-Ethyl Hexanol
67-63-0 2-Propanol / Isopropyl Alcohol / Isopropanol / Propan-2-ol
26062-79-3 2-Propen-1-aminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-chloride, homopolymer
9003-03-6 2-propenoic acid, homopolymer, ammonium salt
25987-30-8 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with 2 p-propenamide, sodium salt / Copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate
71050-62-9 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with sodium phosphinate (1:1)
66019-18-9 2-propenoic acid, telomer with sodium hydrogen sulfite
107-19-7 2-Propyn-1-ol / Propargyl alcohol
51229-78-8 3,5,7-Triaza-1-azoniatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane, 1-(3-chloro-2-propenyl)-chloride,
115-19-5 3-methyl-1-butyn-3-ol
127087-87-0 4-Nonylphenol Polyethylene Glycol Ether Branched / Nonylphenol ethoxylated / Oxyalkylated Phenol
64-19-7 Acetic acid
68442-62-6 Acetic acid, hydroxy-, reaction products with triethanolamine
108-24-7 Acetic Anhydride
67-64-1 Acetone
79-06-1 Acrylamide
38193-60-1 Acrylamide - sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate copolymer
25085-02-3 Acrylamide - Sodium Acrylate Copolymer or Anionic Polyacrylamide
69418-26-4 Acrylamide polymer with N,N,N-trimethyl-2[1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy Ethanaminium chloride
15085 -02-3 Acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer
68551-12-2 Alcohols, C12-C16, Ethoxylated (a.k.a. Ethoxylated alcohol)
64742-47-8 Aliphatic Hydrocarbon / Hydrotreated light distillate / Petroleum Distillates / Isoparaffinic Solvent / Paraffin Solvent / Napthenic Solvent
64743-02-8 Alkenes
68439-57-6 Alkyl (C14-C16) olefin sulfonate, sodium salt
9016-45-9 Alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants
1327-41-9 Aluminum chloride
73138-27-9 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, ethoxylated
71011-04-6 Amines, Ditallow alkyl, ethoxylated
68551-33-7 Amines, tallow alkyl, ethoxylated, acetates
1336-21-6 Ammonia
631-61-8 Ammonium acetate
68037-05-8 Ammonium Alcohol Ether Sulfate
7783-20-2 Ammonium bisulfate
10192-30-0 Ammonium bisulfite
12125-02-9 Ammonium chloride
7632-50-0 Ammonium citrate
37475-88-0 Ammonium Cumene Sulfonate
1341-49-7 Ammonium hydrogen-difluoride
6484-52-2 Ammonium nitrate
7727-54-0 Ammonium Persulfate / Diammonium peroxidisulphate
1762-95-4 Ammonium Thiocyanate
7664-41-7 Aqueous ammonia
121888-68-4 Bentonite, benzyl(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium stearate complex / organophilic clay
71-43-2 Benzene
119345-04-9 Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis, tetratpropylene derivatives, sulfonated, sodium salts
74153-51-8 Benzenemethanaminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-[2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy]ethyl]-, chloride, polymer with 2-propenamide
10043-35-3 Boric acid
1303-86-2 Boric oxide / Boric Anhydride
71-36-3 Butan-1-ol
68002-97-1 C10 - C16 Ethoxylated Alcohol
68131-39-5 C12-15 Alcohol, Ethoxylated
10043-52-4 Calcium chloride
124-38-9 Carbon dioxide
68130-15-4 Carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar
9012-54-8 Cellulase / Hemicellulase Enzyme
9004-34-6 Cellulose
10049-04-4 Chlorine dioxide
77-92-9 Citric Acid
94266-47-4 Citrus Terpenes
61789-40-0 Cocamidopropyl betaine
68155-09-9 Cocamidopropylamine Oxide
68424-94-2 Coco-betaine
7758-98-7 Copper(II) sulfate
31726-34-8 Crissanol A-55
14808-60-7 Crystalline Silica (Quartz)
7447-39-4 Cupric chloride dihydrate
1120-24-7 Decyldimethyl Amine
2605-79-0 Decyl-dimethyl Amine Oxide
3252-43-5 Dibromoacetonitrile
25340-17-4 Diethylbenzene
111-46-6 Diethylene glycol
22042-96-2 Diethylenetriamine penta (methylenephonic acid) sodium salt
28757-00-8 Diisopropyl naphthalenesulfonic acid
68607-28-3 Dimethylcocoamine, bis(chloroethyl) ether, diquaternary ammonium salt
7398-69-8 Dimethyldiallylammonium chloride
25265-71-8 Dipropylene glycol
139-33-3 Disodium Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate
5989-27-5 D-Limonene
123-01-3 Dodecylbenzene
27176-87-0 Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid
42504-46-1 Dodecylbenzenesulfonate isopropanolamine
50-70-4 D-Sorbitol / Sorbitol
37288-54-3 Endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, or Hemicellulase
149879-98-1 Erucic Amidopropyl Dimethyl Betaine
89-65-6 Erythorbic acid, anhydrous
54076-97-0 Ethanaminium, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy]-, chloride, homopolymer
107-21 -1 Ethane-1,2-diol / Ethylene Glycol
9002-93-1 Ethoxylated 4-tert-octylphenol
68439-50-9 Ethoxylated alcohol
126950-60-5 Ethoxylated alcohol
67254-71-1 Ethoxylated alcohol (C10-12)
68951-67-7 Ethoxylated alcohol (C14-15)
68439-46-3 Ethoxylated alcohol (C9-11)
66455-15-0 Ethoxylated Alcohols
84133-50-6 Ethoxylated Alcohols (C12-14 Secondary)
68439-51-0 Ethoxylated Alcohols (C12-14)
78330-21-9 Ethoxylated branch alcohol
34398-01-1 Ethoxylated C11 alcohol
61791-12-6 Ethoxylated Castor Oil
61791-29-5 Ethoxylated fatty acid, coco
61791-08-0 Ethoxylated fatty acid, coco, reaction product with ethanolamine
68439-45-2 Ethoxylated hexanol
9036-19-5 Ethoxylated octylphenol
9005-67-8 Ethoxylated Sorbitan Monostearate
9004-70-3 Ethoxylated Sorbitan Trioleate
64-17-5 Ethyl alcohol / ethanol
100-41-4 Ethyl Benzene
97-64-3 Ethyl lactate
9003-11-6 Ethylene Glycol-Propylene Glycol Copolymer (Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane)
75-21-8 Ethylene oxide
5877-42-9 Ethyloctynol
68526-86-3 Exxal 13
61790-12-3 Fatty Acids
68188-40-9 Fatty acids, tall oil reaction products w/ acetophenone, formaldehyde & thiourea
9043-30-5 Fatty alcohol polyglycol ether surfactant
7705-08-0 Ferric chloride
7782-63-0 Ferrous sulfate, heptahydrate
50-00-0 Formaldehyde
29316-47-0 Formaldehyde polymer with 4,1,1-dimethylethyl phenolmethyl oxirane
153795-76-7 Formaldehyde, polymers with branched 4-nonylphenol, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide
75-12-7 Formamide
64-18-6 Formic acid
110-17-8 Fumaric acid
65997-17-3 Glassy calcium magnesium phosphate
111-30-8 Glutaraldehyde
56-81-5 Glycerol / glycerine
9000-30-0 Guar Gum
64742-94-5 Heavy aromatic petroleum naphtha
9025-56-3 Hemicellulase
7647-01-0 Hydrochloric Acid / Hydrogen Chloride / muriatic acid
7722-84-1 Hydrogen peroxide
79-14-1 Hydroxy acetic acid
35249-89-9 Hydroxyacetic acid ammonium salt
9004-62-0 Hydroxyethyl cellulose
5470-11-1 Hydroxylamine hydrochloride
39421-75-5 Hydroxypropyl guar
35674-56-7 Isomeric Aromatic Ammonium Salt
64742-88-7 Isoparaffinic Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Synthetic
64-63-0 Isopropanol
98-82-8 Isopropylbenzene (cumene)
68909-80-8 Isoquinoline, reaction products with benzyl chloride and quinoline
8008-20-6 Kerosene
64742-81-0 Kerosine, hydrodesulfurized
63-42-3 Lactose
64742-95-6 Light aromatic solvent naphtha
1120-21-4 Light Paraffin Oil
14807-96-6 Magnesium Silicate Hydrate (Talc)
1184-78-7 methanamine, N,N-dimethyl-, N-oxide
67-56-1 Methanol
68891-11-2 Methyloxirane polymer with oxirane, mono (nonylphenol) ether, branched
8052-41-3 Mineral spirits / Stoddard Solvent
141-43-5 Monoethanolamine
44992-01-0 N,N,N-trimethyl-2[1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy Ethanaminium chloride
64742-48-9 Naphtha (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy
91-20-3 Naphthalene
38640-62-9 Naphthalene bis(1-methylethyl)
93-18-5 Naphthalene, 2-ethoxy-
68909-18-2 N-benzyl-alkyl-pyridinium chloride
68139-30-0 N-Cocoamidopropyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-2-hydroxypropylsulfobetaine
7727-37-9 Nitrogen, Liquid form
68412-54-4 Nonylphenol Polyethoxylate
121888-66-2 Organophilic Clays
64742-65-0 Petroleum Base Oil
64741-68-0 Petroleum naphtha
70714-66-8 Phosphonic acid, (phosphonomethyl)iminobis2,1-ethanediylnitrilobis(methylene)tetrakis-, ammonium salt
8000-41-7 Pine Oil
60828-78-6 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), a-[3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)hexyl]-w-hydroxy-
25322-68-3 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), a-hydro-w-hydroxy / Polyethylene Glycol
24938-91-8 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-tridecyl-ω-hydroxy-
51838-31-4 Polyepichlorohydrin, trimethylamine quaternized
56449-46-8 Polyethlene glycol oleate ester
62649-23-4 Polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-propenoate
9005-65-6 Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monooleate
61791-26-2 Polyoxylated fatty amine salt
127-08-2 Potassium acetate
12712-38-8 Potassium borate
1332-77-0 Potassium borate
20786-60-1 Potassium Borate
584-08-7 Potassium carbonate
7447-40-7 Potassium chloride
590-29-4 Potassium formate
1310-58-3 Potassium Hydroxide
13709-94-9 Potassium metaborate
24634-61-5 Potassium sorbate
112926-00-8 Precipitated silica / silica gel
57-55-6 Propane-1,2-diol, or Propylene glycol
107-98-2 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
68953-58-2 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
62763-89-7 Quinoline,2-methyl-, hydrochloride
15619-48-4 Quinolinium, 1-(phenylmethl),chloride
7631-86-9 Silica, Dissolved
5324-84-5 Sodium 1-octanesulfonate
127-09-3 Sodium acetate
95371-16-7 Sodium Alpha-olefin Sulfonate
532-32-1 Sodium benzoate
144-55-8 Sodium bicarbonate
7631-90-5 Sodium bisulfate
7647-15-6 Sodium bromide
497-19-8 Sodium carbonate
7647-14-5 Sodium Chloride
7758-19-2 Sodium chlorite
3926-62-3 Sodium chloroacetate
68-04-2 Sodium citrate
6381-77-7 Sodium erythorbate / isoascorbic acid, sodium salt
2836-32-0 Sodium Glycolate
1310-73-2 Sodium Hydroxide
7681-52-9 Sodium hypochlorite
7775-19-1 Sodium Metaborate .8H2O
10486-00-7 Sodium perborate tetrahydrate
7775-27-1 Sodium persulfate
9003-04-7 Sodium polyacrylate
7757-82-6 Sodium sulfate
1303-96-4 Sodium tetraborate decahydrate
7772-98-7 Sodium thiosulfate
1338-43-8 Sorbitan Monooleate
57-50-1 Sucrose
5329-14-6 Sulfamic acid
112945-52-5 Synthetic Amorphous / Pyrogenic Silica / Amorphous Silica
68155-20-4 Tall Oil Fatty Acid Diethanolamine
8052-48-0 Tallow fatty acids sodium salt
72480-70-7 Tar bases, quinoline derivs., benzyl chloride-quaternized
68647-72-3 Terpene and terpenoids
68956-56-9 Terpene hydrocarbon byproducts
533-74-4 Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (a.k.a. Dazomet)
55566-30-8 Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS)
75-57-0 Tetramethyl ammonium chloride
64-02-8 Tetrasodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
68-11-1 Thioglycolic acid
62-56-6 Thiourea
68527-49-1 Thiourea, polymer with formaldehyde and 1-phenylethanone
108-88-3 Toluene
81741-28-8 Tributyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride
68299-02-5 Triethanolamine hydroxyacetate
112-27-6 Triethylene glycol
52624-57-4 Trimethylolpropane, Ethoxylated, Propoxylated
150-38-9 Trisodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
5064-31-3 Trisodium Nitrilotriacetate
7601-54-9 Trisodium orthophosphate
57-13-6 Urea
25038-72-6 Vinylidene Chloride/Methylacrylate Copolymer
7732-18-5 Water
1330-20-7 Xylene
Aliphatic acids
Aliphatic alcohol glycol ether
Alkyl Aryl Polyethoxy Ethanol
Alkylaryl Sulfonate
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic ketones
Oxyalkylated alkylphenol
Petroleum distillate blend
Polyethoxylated alkanol
Polymeric Hydrocarbons
Salt of amine-carbonyl condensate
Salt of fatty acid/polyamine reaction product
Sugar
Surfactant blend

See also[edit]

References[edit]