List of air operations during the Battle of Europe

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This World War II timeline of European Air Operations lists notable military events in the skies of the European Theater of Operations of World War II from the Invasion of Poland to Victory in Europe Day. The list includes combined arms operations, defensive anti-aircraft warfare, and encompasses areas within the territorial waters of belligerent European states.[4]

1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

1939[edit]

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png September 1: The 4:40 am Bombing of Wieluń began World War II at the start of the Invasion of Poland and was the first World War II terror bombing

RAF roundel.svg September 4: F/O Andrew McPherson and crew were the first RAF members to fly into enemy airspace: targets were German warships at Wilhelmshaven,[5]

RAF roundel.svg September 4: The first RAF bombing attack of the war was made on German shipping at Brunsbuttel: two Wellingtons became the first aircraft shot down on the Western Front.[citation needed]

RAF roundel.svg September 4: The first POW[clarification needed] was Sergeant George Booth, RAF Observer on a Blenheim when it was shot down over the German coast.[6]

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png September 13: The Bombing of Frampol was the war's first area bombardment

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png December 18: The first use of radar for defence (an "experimental Freya radar") gave warning of RAF bombers near the German Bight as they made an attack on Wilhelmshaven.[7]:20 Not until visual confirmation was made were German fighters launched - they intercepted the bombers after they had dropped bombs.

1940[edit]

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png April 21: A bombing raid on Norway kills the first American military officer killed in World War II.

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png May 13: Luftflotte 3 (supported by Luftflotte 2) in the Battle of France executed the heaviest air bombardment to date (300 sorties)--the most intense by World War II Luftwaffe.

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png May 14: Under cover of Adolf Galland's air wing and after dummy paratroopers were airdropped (imitating battle noises after landing), Fort Eben-Emael was taken by glider troops in Belgium.[7]:3

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png May 14: The Rotterdam Blitz ended the Battle of the Netherlands

RAF roundel.svgMay 15: A kill shared by French pilot Rene Mouchotte and Englishman Jack Charles becomes the 1,000th victim of Biggin Hill fighters--Vickers threw a "fabulous party"[1]

RAF roundel.svgMay 15: The RAF lost the 100th of its France-based bombers[specify] - half the attacking force was lost in 72 hours.[8]

RAF roundel.svg May 15/16: In the 1st large-scale World War II strategic bombing[9]:53 and the 1st attack on the German "backcountry", just 24 of 96 dispatched bombers found the Ruhr Area power stations and refineries.[10]

French-roundel.svg May 19: French fighters strafed advanced columns of Operation Abendsegen[7]:4

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png May 27, 1940: Heinkels bombarded the Dunkirk perimeter followed by Stukas and Dorniers: RAF roundel.svg opposition included the "first major encounter" by Spitfires of No. 74 Squadron RAF.[11]:71

RAF roundel.svg May 27/28: A No. 10 Squadron RAF Whitley tail gunner was the first in the RAF to down a German fighter.

RAF roundel.svg June 2: Robert Stanford Tuck led a wing of Spitfires from RAF Martlesham Heath, the first "big formation" of the war, against 8 Heinkel IIIs and about 25 Messerschmitt Bf-109s over the Calais area.[12]:108

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png June 3: Operation Paula was Nazi Germany's "single attempt at strategic air warfare during the French campaign."[7]:7

French-roundel.svg June 7–8: French Air Force raid is the first against Berlin.[citation needed]

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png June 9: Germany attains air supremacy in the Battle of France

RAF roundel.svg June 11/12: First British bombing of Italy with a raid on Turin.[2][specify]

RAF roundel.svg June 26: The RAF Advanced Air Striking Force disbanded after beginning operations in France in May

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png July 24: Ferrying of Luftwaffe aircraft to the Channel Coast ended the first phase of the Battle of Britain[7]:15

RAF roundel.svg August 9: The Birmingham Blitz began and (along with Hull Blitz) became the basis for the RAF dehousing bombing policy in 1942.

RAF roundel.svg August 25: First RAF raid on Berlin

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png September 7: The Blitz bombing of Britain began with 57 nights of air raids

RAF roundel.svg September 8: Three Dornier 17 bombers are downed by a single shot from a "Territorial gun crew" near Farnington.[13]:129

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png September 15: In a single day, the Luftwaffe loses 60 aircraft over England during the Battle of Britain[14]:68

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png November 30: The second phase of The Blitz began against British industrial and port cities

1941[edit]

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png January 21: As revenge for the British raids on Berlin, Germany started the Baby Blitz (planned since November 27).[13]:396

10 February : Operation Colossus, the first British paratrooper raid, blew up an Italian aqueduct.[specify]

RAF roundel.svg March 31/April 1: A bombing raid on Emden is the first use of the 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) HC "cookie" blockbuster bomb

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png April 15: The Belfast Blitz kills 1000, the greatest loss of British lives outside of London from a night raid

Regulation WW II Underwing Balkenkreuz.png June 22 - July 3: In the opening phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Luftwaffe achieved air superiority by destroying some 2,000 Soviet aircraft, at a loss of only 35 aircraft (of which 15 were non-combat-related).

Red star.svg August 8–9: The Red Army Air Force began a limited bombing offensive with a raid on Berlin.[15]

RAF roundel.svg c. August 15: Robert Stanford Tuck led the first air mission by fighters based in eastern England against enemy-occupied territories in a "Rhubarb" sweep of the Netherlands for ground targets by two Hawker Hurricanes .[12]:215–219

RAF roundel.svg August 18: A 18 Squadron Blenheim dropped an artificial leg over France for captured Wing Commander Douglas Bader.[2]


RAF roundel.svg November 7: A large raid on Berlin lost 20 bombers and caused little damage. The head of Bomber Command was subsequently replaced in February 1942.

RAF roundel.svg December 7/8: 251 bombers target Aachen and Brest—the Brest attack was the first operational use of the Oboe navigation system

RAF roundel.svg December 18: Blenheim aircraft conducted the first night intruder attack, successfully striking Soesterberg airfield in the Netherlands with bombs and attacking two German bombers in the air with guns

1942[edit]

RAF roundel.svg February 16: The first regular operations with the American Boston bomber were conducted.

RAF roundel.svgMarch 8/9: The first city raid following the February 14 Area bombing directive bombed Essen.

RAF roundel.svg March 13/14: Gee radio navigation was first used during a bombing of Cologne. [16]

March 25/26: In the largest force (254 aircraft) sent to a single target to date, bombers of an Essen mission were drawn off by decoy fire from Rheinberg[specify]

RAF roundel.svg March 28/29: The Bombing of Lübeck in World War II was the 1st major success for RAF Bomber Command against a German city.

RAF roundel.svg April 8/9: The largest force to date (272 aircraft) bomb Hamburg

RAF roundel.svg April 17: The Augsburg Raid is the first to attempt low-level daylight bombing for accuracy - in this case against the factory producing engines for U-boats. Half of the 12 bombers were shot down for little damage caused.

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg April 23–29: The first period of the Baedeker Blitz bomb the provincial cities of Exeter, Bath, Norwich, and York.

RAF roundel.svg April 23–27: Bombing of Rostock. [17]

RAF roundel.svgMay 30: The first use of the bomber stream and the first British large scale operation, as part of Operation Millennium the first "Thousand Bomber" raid is sent against Cologne, Germany. Of the 1,047 aircraft sent, nearly 900 bombed the target area - the whole raid passing over in 90 minutes.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgJune 11–12: First American daylight raid over European soil, against petroleum wells, in Ploiești Romania amongst objectives in Bulgaria the first stages of American Bombing offensive [18]

RAF roundel.svgJune 25/26: The third "Thousand bomber" raid bombs Bremen, a new record of RAF Bomber Command losses (48 of 1,067 aircraft)

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgRAF roundel.svgJuly 4: The first American bombing mission over enemy-occupied territory in Europe used 20 Boston bombers (plus 6 RAF-crewed Bostons) to attack the Alkmaar, Hammsted, and Valkenburg airfields -- [19]:106 only two reached the target area (two shot down, the others heavily damaged)[7]:111

82 ABD SSI.svg August 15: 82nd Airborne is the first US airborne division. (the first combat jumps were 8 November 1942 by the 509th Parachute Battalion in the North Africa Operation Torch).[19]:106,107

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg August 17: The 87th bomber Squadron,[7]:111 led by Ira Eaker of the VIII Bomber Command, conducted the first "heavy bomber" attack on the European continent.[19]:102

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgAugust 17: In a mission against the Rouen/Sotteville marshalling yard and the first all-US bombing raid, 2nd Lt Sam F Junkin becomes the first American pilot to down a German fighter [19]:107

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg August 17: 12 B-17s of the 97 BG (including one with Eaker aboard) bombed the Sotteville railyard 3 miles (4.8 km) North of Rouen, France, in the "first combat action" of the Eighth Air Force and the first B-17 bombing of Europe.

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg August/September: Case Blue included area bombardment during the Battle of Stalingrad

RAF roundel.svg September 2/3:[specify] The first use of the 8,000 lb (3,600 kg) High Capacity bomb (Blockbuster bomb) was against Karlsruhe.[20]:1441

RAF roundel.svg October 24: 88 aircraft use independent routes over France to rendezvous at Lake Annecy for a daylight raid on Milan

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg December 12: B-17 303d Bombardment Group#Wulf Hound surrendered to the Luftwaffe and was assigned to Kampfgeschwader 200 in September 1943.

RAF roundel.svg December 22: An unsuccessful Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II was the first use of the Master Bomber tactic.[citation needed]

1943[edit]

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg January 27: The first World War II US mission flown against the German homeland bombs Wilhelmshaven.[19]:107

RAF roundel.svg March 5/6: The first raid of the Battle of the Ruhr[2] flew RAF Bomber Command's 100,000th sortie of World War II, with 160 acres destroyed and 53 Krupps buildings bombed at Essen.

RAF roundel.svg April 16/17:A force of 327 Lancasters and Halifaxes set out to destroy the Skoda arms factory at Plzen, Czechoslovakia.271 aircraft raided Mannheim as a diversion the same night. The force mistook the mental hospital near Dobrany to be the factory at Plzen. The raid sustained the heaviest losses until that point in the air war. [21]

June 23, 1943 RAF reconnaissance photo of Peenemünde Test Stand VII

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg April 13: The Eighth Air Force's largest mission to date (115 B-17s) destroys half of the Focke-Wulf factory buildings in Bremen

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg May 5: P-47s are first used for escorting bombers.

RAF roundel.svg May 17: Operation Chastise bouncing bombs breached the Möhne and Eder Dams

RAF roundel.svg June 11/12: The first two Operation Pointblank raids included a successful mass trial of H2S radar on Münster

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg June 13: The heaviest fighter attacks to date against the Eighth Air Force claim 26 B-17s bombing Bremen & Kiel U-boat facilities.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg c. June: A 100 BG B-17 surrendered and then escaped.

RAF roundel.svg June 20/21: Operation Bellicose targets Würzburg radar production and is the first bombing of a V-2 rocket facility.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg July 19: The first Allied World War II bombing of Rome drops 800 tons of bombs on Littoro and Clampino airports, causing immense damage and 2000 deaths[19]:110

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgRAF roundel.svg July 24: After the US developed an airborne radar immune to Window, the first use of the countermeasure (40 tonnes—92 million strips) were dropped during a Hamburg bombing mission.[22]:145

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg July 29 First use of unguided air-to-air rockets against American combat box formations of heavy bombers by JG 1 Oesau and JG 11, attacking with Bf 109Gs and Fw 190As each armed with pairs of Werfer-Granate 21 rocket ordnance, developed from the 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 ground barrage rocket system.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg August 1: Flying from North Africa Operation Tidal Wave bombs the oil refineries at Ploiești. A large number of the bombers are loft for little strategic benefit. Five Medals of Honor are awarded to American aircrew.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg August 13: The first Ninth Air Force raid on Austria bombed the Wiener Neustadt Bf 109 factory

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgRAF roundel.svg August 17: The double-strike USAAF Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission was the third shuttle bombing. British aircraft operate diversionary attacks.

RAF roundel.svg August 17/18: The Operation Hydra bombing of V-2 facilities at Peenemünde began Operation Crossbow.

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svgAugust 18: The counterattack against Operation Hydra included the first operational use of Schräge Musik by German fighters[23]

RAF roundel.svg August 27: The first mission against a "Heavy" Crossbow site bombed the Watten V-2 rocket bunker

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg October 10: As a result of the June "surrender/escape" of a 100 BG B-17, out of the 13 B-17s of 100 BG attacking a railyard in Münster, only the B-17F of Robert Rosenthal survives to return safely to Thorpe Abbotts in England.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgRAF roundel.svg October 14: The Second Raid on Schweinfurt (Black Thursday) resulted in 122 damaged bombers and 650 MIA/KIA.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg RAF roundel.svg November 1: A Combined Bomber Offensive progress report estimates that 19/19/9 German towns & cities have been virtually destroyed/severely damaged/more effectively damaged – another report claims 10% of German war potential had been destroyed[3]

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg November 2: The USAAF 12th Air Force conducted the first large Allied aerial attack against Zadar, Italy

RAF roundel.svg November 2: A raid targeting the Wiener Neustadt Messerschmitt plant damaged the nearby Raxwerke V-2 rocket facility.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg November 3: A Wilhelmshaven raid is the first Eighth Air Force blind-bombing mission to completely destroy the aiming point, the Eighth's first 500-plane mission, and the first use by the US of H2X radar

RAF roundel.svg November 18/19: The "Battle of Berlin" aerial campaign bombing began

RAF roundel.svg November 22/23: The largest force sent to bomb Berlin to date (764 aircraft) conducted the most effective World War II raid on Berlin

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg December 2: 100 Ju-88s bombed the port of Bari, hitting a secret store of US mustard gas (83 of the sailors died within a month). Autopsies indicated excess white blood cells, and the discovery led to the use of the gas to combat leukemia (the secret regarding the storage at Bari of mustard gas was subsequently declassified in 1959).[22]:149

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg December 5: B-26s of the Ninth Air Force attacked three V-1 ski sites near Ligescourt, the first No-Ball missions.[24]:29

1944[edit]

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg January 21: The unsuccessful Operation Steinbock, the first mass bombing of London, began the Baby Blitz

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg January 30: The first U.S. Intruder operation was conducted by P-47s and accurately preceded the bombers to strike fighters at Villaorba airfield.

RAF roundel.svg February 19/20: Handley Page Halifax IIs and Vs were permanently withdrawn from operations to Germany after 14.9% of those that did not turn back were lost on a raid to Leipzig.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg February 20–25: The Argument plan was executed during Big Week and included 734 aircraft that had flown in the October 1943 Second Raid on Schweinfurt

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg March 6: The first large scale US attack on Berlin (some 600 bombers) dropped 1600 tons of bombs - 160-170 of 800-900 fighters are shot down[19]:113

RAF roundel.svg March: As Seversky predicted in 1942,[14] Bomber Command's 16 area bombardment raids of the Battle of Berlin (air) are unsuccessful at "substantially" reducing population and morale

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg March–April: Bombing stopped aircraft production at Cantiere Navale Triestino

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg April 24: The APS-15 "Mickey" radar was first used on a Ploiești mission.[9]

RAF roundel.svg June 2: The first US shuttle bombing mission, Operation Frantic Joe, bombed Debrecen (Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg German fighters subsequently attack the bombers on Soviet airfields at Focşani)

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg June 2–5: In preparation for Operation Overlord, Operation Cover bombed transportation and airfield targets in Northern France and "coastal defenses, mainly located in the Pas de Calais coastal area, to deceive the enemy as to the sector to be invaded".

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg June 8: The first use of the Azon guided bomb targeted the Melun bridge

RAF roundel.svg June 8/9: The first use of Tallboy bombs pierced the roof of the Saumur railway tunnel and blocked the expected movement of a German Panzer Division

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg June 12 0418 hrs: The Robot Blitz[25] began with a V-1 flying bomb striking Swanscombe RAF roundel.svg June 14/15: The first V-1 was shot down by a fighter

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg July 3: 74 US military personnel died in (the most for one London event) when a V-1 flying bomb struck Sloane Court East / Turks Row.

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg July 7:[1] The first of 638 modified V-1 flying bombs that reached Britain (of about 1,200) were air-launched from Heinkel He 111s (RAF roundel.svg403 were downed)[26]

RAF roundel.svg July 23/24: The first major raid (629 aircraft) on a German city for two months bombs Kiel

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg July 25: Mission 494 (1581/500 bombers/fighters) supporting Operation Cobra was the most effective saturation bombing/carpet bombing/area bombardment of the Normandy Campaign,[27] killing US General McNair.

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg July 26 The first aerial victory for a jet fighter in air combat history occurs as a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a of Erprobungskommando 262 mortally damages a de Havilland Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft of No. 540 Squadron RAF.[28]

RAF roundel.svg August 27: The RAF restarted daylight bombing of Germany (first since 12 August 1941) with an attack on the Homberg Fischer-Tropsch plant in Hamburg.[29]:149

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg August 13 & 17: Le Havre (Mission 549) and La Pallice (Mission 559) were the targets for the first uses of the BAT guided bomb

Balkenkreuz.svg September 8: Operation Penguin began with the first V-2 rocket launches against Paris and London

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg September 17: The last UK-USSR-Italy-UK shuttle bombing was completed as 72 B-17s and 59 P-51s flew from Italy without bombs to the UK; 70 B-17s 57 P-51s land safely in the UK.

Red star.svg September: The Soviets shot down Allied aircraft during the Airdrops in aid of the Warsaw Uprising.[citation needed]

1945[edit]

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg January 1: Operation Bodenplatte supported the last major German offensive, Operation Nordwind, and resulted in the defeat of the Luftwaffe

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg January & February: Fake mailbags of the OSS Morale Operations' Operation Cornflakes with two million Das Neue Deutschland (German: The New Germany) propaganda newspapers were airdropped into the wreckage of bombed German mail trains, and the envelopes were forwarded by unwitting German authorities.[22]:104

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg February: A captured B-24 joined a US formation as a phantom aircraft and was escorted away by the Tuskegee Airmen.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg February 3: The largest raid on Berlin ever by the USAAF, led by the 100th Bomb Group B-17 of Major Robert Rosenthal[2], with the notorious Volksgerichtshof justice Roland Freisler killed during the raid, as a significant German casualty.

RAF roundel.svgUS Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg February 13–15: The controversial Bombing of Dresden in World War II firestorm consumes the picturesque centre of the city.

RAF roundel.svg March 12: A Dortmund raid of 1108 aircraft was the heaviest World War II raid on a European city.[30]

RAF roundel.svg March 14: The first of 41 Grand Slam bombs used in the war is dropped on the Bielefeld viaduct

RAF roundel.svgUS Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg February: To open Operation Veritable/Grenade, Operation Clarion began attacks on 200 targets with 20,000 bombers and escort fighters.[20]:2059

Balkenkreuz.svg March 17: V-2 rockets were fired at the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen

Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg March 18: Against Mission 894 attacking Berlin (1,329 bombers and 733 fighters), the Luftwaffe makes its most concentrated and successful attacks to date with Me 262s.

March 22: 200 Piper L-4 Grasshoppers each carried one armed infantryman (instead of an observer) across the Rhine to establish a US 3rd Army bridgehead near Oppenheim.[20]:2068 (light aviation became a major part of the Army Field Artillery fire detection center on June 4, 1942)[19]:104

18 ABC SSI.svg March 24: Operation Varsity provided airborne support for Operation Plunder

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgApril 25: The last Eighth Air Force full-scale mission in the ETO hit the Škoda Works at Pilsen in Czechoslovakia (B-17s), while B-24s bombed rail complexes surrounding Hitler's Berchtesgaden.

US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svgApril: "…at the end of April 1945, the order went out to the squadrons to stop offensive operations. Then the order went out to fill the bomb bays of our [US] bombers with food packages to be delivered to the starving population of the Netherlands. I…watched the crews happily taking off on their last mission of the War, not to kill people but to feed them."(tbd)[3]

RAF roundel.svg May 3: The RAF Second Tactical Air Force attacked 3 ships carrying concentration camp prisoners.

c. May 7: The final European dogfight of World War II between an L-4 Grasshopper (using .45 caliber pistols) and a German Fieseler Fi 156 Storch forced the German aircrew to land and surrender.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Irving, David (1964). The Mare's Nest. London: William Kimber and Co. pp. p223. ISBN 0-586-06368-4.  NOTE: V-2 rocket air operations were conducted by various German Army units, but operational orders were issued by a Joint Services (OKW) command.
  2. ^ a b c d "Campaign Diary". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
    1940: May-June (Battle of France) July-December June-October (Battle of Britain)
    1941: January-April May-August September- December
    1942: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1943: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1944: January, February March, April, May, June(D-Day), July, August, September, October, November, December
    1945 January, February, March, April
  3. ^ a b McKillop, Jack. "Combat Chronology of the USAAF". Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
    1942: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1943: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1944: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1945: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September
    NOTE: The Chronicles for August 13, 1944 inaccurately list the BATTY mission as an APHRODITE mission
  4. ^ NOTE: Air offensive or defensive operations does not include cargo operations such as Operation Carpetbagger or reconnaissance from air.
  5. ^ tbd. "tbd". tbd. Retrieved tbd. 
  6. ^ tbd. "Lesser Known Facts of WWII Pre-War to 1939, 1940". tbd. Retrieved tbd. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Galland, Adolf (1968 Ninth Printing - paperbound) [1954]. The First and the Last: The Rise and Fall of the German Fighter Forces, 1938–1945. (translated by Mervyn Savill). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-553-11709-2. 
  8. ^ tbd. "tbd". tbd. Retrieved tbd. 
  9. ^ a b Miller, Donald L. (2006). Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7432-3544-0. 
  10. ^ Overy, Richard (1997). Why the Allies Won. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-393-31619-3. 
  11. ^ Jablonski, Edward (1971). "Volume 1 (Tragic Victories), Book II (The Big League)". Airpower. p. 71. 
  12. ^ a b Forrester, Larry (1973) [1956]. Fly for Your Life: The Story of R. R. Stanford Tuck, D.S.O, D.F.C. and Two Bars. Sir Max Aitken (Foreword). Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday. ISBN 0-553-11642-8. 
  13. ^ a b Jones, Reginald Victor (1978). Most Secret War. Hamish Hamilton Ltd. ISBN 0-2418-9746-7. 
  14. ^ a b Seversky, Alexander P. de (1942). Victory Through Air Power. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. p145. ""Destruction of enemy morale from the air can be accomplished only by precision bombing."" 
  15. ^ McBride, Gisela R.: Through my eyes: memoirs of Hitler's Berlin. Hamilton Books, 2006, page 209. ISBN 0-7618-3394-3
  16. ^ "Whirlwind: Bombing Germany (September 1939 – April 1944)", The World at War, 1974 
  17. ^ Norddeutscher Rundfunk
  18. ^ http://www.manas.afcent.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=12790
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Lang, Walter (1998) [199]. United States Military Almanac: a Chronological Compendium of Over 200 Years of American History. Avenel NJ: Random House. p. 102,106–7. ISBN 1-84065-001-X. 
  20. ^ a b c Bauer, Eddy (original text) (1966) [1972]. Illustrated World War II Encyclopedia. H. S. Stuttman Inc. p. 1478 (Vol 11), 1999 (Vol 15), 2059,2068. ISBN 0-87475-520-4. 
  21. ^ A Shaky Do: The Skoda Works Raid 16/17th April 1943 Peter W.Cunliffe ISBN 978-0955795725
  22. ^ a b c Russell, Francis; et al. (1981). The Secret War. World War II. Chicago: Time-Life Books Inc. p. 104,145,149. ISBN 0-16-049376-5. 
  23. ^ Middlebrook, Martin (1982). The Peenemünde Raid: The Night of 17–18 August 1943. New York: Bobs-Merrill. ISBN 0-672-52759-6. 
  24. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. (2008) [2007]. German V-Weapon Sites 1943-45. Fortress Study Group (72). Johnson, Hugh & Taylor, Chris (Illustrations). New York: Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84603-247-9. 
  25. ^ Hill, Roderic (October 19, 1948). Air Operations by Air Defence of Great Britain and Fighter Command in Connection with the German Flying Bomb and Rocket Offensives, 1944–1945. 
  26. ^ Collier, Basil (1976) [1964]. The Battle of the V-Weapons, 1944–1945. Yorkshire: The Emfield Press. pp. p174. ISBN 0-7057-0070-4. 
  27. ^ Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945. p. p140. ISBN 978-0-275-94319-6. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  28. ^ Radinger, Will and Walter Schick. (1996). 'Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. p. 51. 
  29. ^ Roundel of the German Air Force border.svg July 26 The first aerial victory for a jet fighter in air combat history occurs as a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a of Erprobungskommando 262 mortally damages a de Havilland Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft of No. 540 Squadron RAF.Radinger, Will and Walter Schick. (1996). 'Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. p. 51.  Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945. p. p140. ISBN 978-0-275-94319-6. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  30. ^ "1944 air raids". Historisches Centrum Hagen. historisches-centrum.de. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  1944, 1945
Bibliography

External links[edit]

1939 · 1940 · 1941 · 1942 · 1943 · 1944 · 1945