List of aircraft hijackings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a list of notable aircraft hijackings around the world.

List of notable aircraft hijackings[edit]

1930s[edit]

  • Brazil September 25, 1932: the Panair do Brasil Sikorsky S-38 registration P-BDAD still bearing the titles of Nyrba do Brasil was seized in the company's hangar by three men, who took a fourth as one hostage. None were aviators but they managed to take-off. However the aircraft crashed in São João de Meriti, killing the four men. Apparently the hijack was related to the events of the Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo and it is considered to be the first hijack that took place in Brazil.[1][2]

1940s[edit]

  • RomaniaTurkey July 25, 1947: An internal Romanian flight from Bucharest to Craiova was hijacked by three army officers seeking political asylum from communist Romania. The airplane landed at Çanakkale in Turkey. During hijacking the flight mechanic, Mitrofan Bescioti, was shot by lieutenant Aurel Dobre.[3]
  • MacauHong Kong July 16, 1948: Miss Macao, a seaplane, was hijacked in an attempted robbery and then crashed into the Pearl River Delta. The crash killed 25 of the 26 passengers and crew. The lead hijacker was the only survivor.

1950s[edit]

  • CzechoslovakiaWest Germany March 24, 1950; three Douglas DC-3s from Czechoslovakia were simultaneously hijacked by former Czech Royal Air Force pilots seeking asylum. All three planes landed at the US Air Force Base at Erding, West Germany. 26 of 85 passengers stayed in West Germany to escape from the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia.[4][5][6] The story of this event is here. An English & Czech account by Dr Miloš Vítek who was one of those escaping here
  • SyriaIsrael December 12, 1954 a Syrian civilian airliner was forced to land at Lydda / Lod Airport, Israel, by the Israeli Air Force after entering Israeli airspace and the civilian passengers were detained for two days by Israeli security forces.[7][8] According to Syria, the purpose of the forced landing was for Israel to gain hostages in order to obtain the release of Israeli soldiers who were captured inside Golan Heights, while retrieving wiretapping devices from telephone poles. The four Arab civilian passengers were released after two days and the one American citizen was released almost immediately.
  • Hungary July 13, 1956: seven young Hungarian students, armed with nothing more than plastic wrenches, hijacked a small domestic aircraft out of Budapest and landed it at a NATO base in West Germany to escape from behind the Iron Curtain.

1960s[edit]

  • Portugal 1961: Aircraft forced to circle Lisbon to drop leaflets against the dictatorship that ruled the country. After that, the 6 hijackers forced the crew to fly them back to Morocco.
  • United StatesCuba May 1, 1962: First U.S. Airline flight hijacked to Cuba. A National Airlines Convair 440 flight from Marathon, Florida to Key West was hijacked by a man carrying a knife and a gun who demanded the flight divert to Havana. The aircraft, piloted by Captain Francis X. Riley, was thought to be lost at sea for several hours before authorities learned it had been hijacked.[12]
  • United States July 31, 1961: The first attempted 'skyjacking' of an airline on American soil. Said to be 'inspired by numerous airliner hijackings from other countries to Cuba', pipeline worker Bruce Britt, Sr boarded and attempted to commandeer a Pacific Airlines flight at the Chico Municipal Airport, in Chico, Ca. His intended destination: home to Smackover, Ark. Though the attempt failed, Britt shot two airline employees, blinding one for life.[13]
  • ArgentinaUnited Kingdom September 28, 1966: Argentine nationalists, styling themselves 'Condors', hijacked a plane and forced the pilot to fly to Stanley, Falkland Islands.[14]
  • United StatesCuba November 24, 1968: Luis Armando Pena Soltren, Jose Rafael Rios Cruz and Miguel Castro coerced the pilot of Pan Am Flight 281 out of New York's John F. Kennedy Airport on a scheduled route to Puerto Rico to divert to Havana, Cuba.[15][16] Passengers were evacuated from Cuba by a U.S. State Department aircraft. There were no fatalities.
  • United StatesRepublic of IrelandItaly October 31, 1969: TWA Flight 85 en route from Los Angeles to San Francisco was hijacked by 19-year old US Marine Raffaele Minichiello. All passengers, including the band Harper's Bizarre, and three stewardesses were released in Denver. The hijacker, three pilots and a stewardess continued on to JFK airport in New York, where two pilots were added for the overseas flight. The plane refueled in Bangor, Maine and Shannon, Ireland, before continuing to Rome, Italy. In Rome, Minichiello took the chief of the airport police as a hostage and departed in a car, from which he slipped away, but was caught shortly thereafter.[18] Minichiello intended to visit his dying father in Italy. Italy did not extradite Minichiello and he served only 18 months in jail.[19] Covering 6900 miles, this was the longest hijacking in history.
  • United States November 10, 1969: The youngest American on record to attempt to hijack a plane when a Delta Air Lines flight en route from Cincinnati to Chicago was hijacked by 14-year old David Booth. US Attorney George Kline of Lexington, Kentucky declined to prosecute Booth saying that the federal government does not have facilities to handle prosecution of juveniles as reported by the Lawrence Daily Journal-World.[20]
  • South KoreaNorth Korea December 11, 1969: a Korean Air Lines YS-11 en route from Gangneung to Seoul-Gimpo was hijacked by a North Korean agent and flown to North Korea. All four crew members and seven of the 46 other passengers (excluding the agent) were held hostage by North Korea; their fate is still unknown.[22]

1970s[edit]

  • United States March 17, 1970: Eastern Air Lines Shuttle Flight 1320, carrying passengers from Newark to Boston was hijacked around 7:30 P.M. by John J. Divivo who was armed with a .38 caliber revolver. Captain Robert Wilbur Jr., 35, a former Air Force pilot who had only been promoted to captain six months prior, was shot in his arm by the suicidal hijacker. His copilot, First Officer James Hartley, 31, was shot without warning by Divivo and collapsed. Divivo then turned the gun on the captain, causing an arm injury. Despite being fatally wounded, Hartley recovered sufficiently to rip the gun from Divivo's hand, and shoot the would-be hijacker three times before lapsing into unconsciousness, and eventually death. Although wounded and slumped between the seats, Divivo arose and began clawing at Captain Wilbur, attempting to force a crash. Wilbur hit Divivo over the head with the gun he had retrieved from the center console.[23] With a .38 slug in his arm and bleeding profusely, he flew his aircraft safely to a landing while talking to the tower, telling them his copilot was shot (but not himself) and needed an ambulance. The pilot was able to land the plane safely at Logan International Airport, and the hijacker was arrested immediately.[24] On November 1, 1970, DiVivo hung himself while awaiting trial at Charles Street Jail.[25]
  • JapanSouth KoreaNorth Korea March 31, 1970: Japan Airlines Flight 351, carrying 131 passengers and 7 crew from Tokyo to Fukuoka, was hijacked by nine members of the Japanese Red Army group. 23 passengers were freed at Fukuoka Airport, mainly children and the elderly. 108 passengers and all crew members, along with the Red Army group, left Fukuoka, bound for Gimpo Airport, near Seoul. Three days later, the Red Army group asked to be flown to North Korean capital Pyongyang, before leaving from Seoul, 103 passenger and crew hostages were freed, and the Red Army group members surrendered to North Korean authorities.
  • IsraelNetherlandsGreeceWest GermanySwitzerlandBelgiumState of Palestine September 1970: As part of the Dawson's Field hijackings, PFLP members attempted to hijack four aircraft simultaneously. They succeeded on three and forced the planes to fly to the Jordanian desert, where the hijackers blew up the aircraft after releasing most of the hostages. The final hostages were freed in exchange for seven Palestinian prisoners. The fourth attack on an El Al plane by two people including Leila Khalid was foiled by the pilots, passengers and armed guards aboard.
  • IndiaPakistan January 30, 1971: Indian Airlines Fokker F27 on scheduled Srinagar-Jammu flight is hijacked to Lahore by two self-proclaimed Kashmir Separatists. All passengers were released by February 2 and repatriated to India, but the aircraft was blown-up, leading to an India-Pakistan air-travel ban, and suspension of overflight rights until 1976.
  • PhilippinesChina March, 1971: Philippine Airlines flight was hijacked in March 1971 by six students from the Mindanao State University, opposed to the Marcos government. The plane landed in Guangzhou (Canton) in southern China, and the Chinese authorities let the students stay in the country. The plane was then allowed to fly back to the Philippines. No one was hurt.
  • RomaniaHungaryAustria May 1971: an IL-14 with 4 staff members and 16 passengers was hijacked by 6 men at the Oradea Airport (Romania), then forced to flew to Budapest (Hungary), then Vienna (Austria). The passengers and the crew were released in Vienna, while the hijackers flew to West Germany.[27]
  • United StatesMexicoPeruBrazilArgentina July 2, 1971: Braniff Flight 14, a Boeing 707 flying from Acapulco to New York with 102 passengers and a crew of eight was hijacked on approach to a refueling stop in San Antonio, Texas. The ordeal lasted 43 hours across Texas, Mexico, Peru, Brazil and ended happily in Argentina. After a refueling stop in Monterrey, the hijackers released flight attendants Jeanette Eatman Crepps, Iris Kay Williams and Anita Bankert Mayer and all of the passengers. The remaining crew of Captain Dale Bessant, Bill Wallace, Phillip Wray and flight attendants Ernestina Garcia and Margaret Susan Harris flew on to Lima. The hijackers, a U.S. Navy deserter named Robert Jackson and his Guatemalan lady friend, demanded and got a ransom of $100,000 and wanted to go to Algeria. The Bessant crew was released, one by one, and replaced by a volunteer crew of Captain Al Schroeder, Bill Mizell, Bob Williams and Navigater Ken McWhorter. Two Lima based employees, Delia Arizola and Clorinda Ontaneda volunteered to board the flight. Clorinda had been attending college classes, something she did regularly during her off days from flying. Delia had been retired 6 months but still offered her services. The 707 left for Rio and planned to refuel but the hijacker forced them on to Buenos Aires. The long flight and fatigue took its toll and the hijackers gave up. It was a record for long distance hijacking, over 7,500 miles.[28][29]
  • United StatesCuba November, 1971: Charles Hill, Ralph Lawernce, and Albert Finney were driving a carload of weapons to Louisiana as part of the Republic of New Afrika militant group. They murdered New Mexico State Police officer Robert Rosenbloom during a traffic stop and escaped to Albuquerque where they hijacked a TWA 727 to Cuba.[35][36]
  • United States November 24, 1971: A man who became known as D. B. Cooper hijacked Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305, a Boeing 727-100 aircraft flying from Portland, OR, to Seattle, WA, received US$200,000 in ransom, and parachuted from the plane. The actual name of the hijacker remains unknown. The hijacker revealed what appeared to be a bomb to a flight attendant and demanded the ransom and parachutes. The flight landed in Seattle, and FBI agents provided the ransom money and parachutes. Cooper then released all passengers and one flight attendant. After refueling, the aircraft took off again and flew toward Reno, NV. Cooper opened the aft stairs and jumped from the plane with a parachute during a heavy rainstorm. The aircraft was forced to land with the aft stairs deployed. The FBI believes Cooper most likely did not survive, but the case remains unsolved.[37][38][39]
  • United States January 12, 1972: Braniff Flight 38, a Boeing 727, was hijacked as it departed Houston, Texas bound for Dallas, Texas. The lone armed hijacker, Billy Gene Hurst, Jr., allowed all 94 passengers to deplane after landing at Dallas Love Field but continued to hold the 7 crewmembers hostage, demanding to fly to South America and asking for US $2 million, parachutes, and jungle survival gear, amongst other items. After a 6-hour standoff, the entire crew secretly fled while Hurst was distracted examining the contents of a package delivered by Dallas police. Law enforcement officers stormed the craft shortly afterwards and arrested Hurst without serious incident.[40][41]
  • United States January 28, 1972: TWA Flight 2, Los Angeles to New York, was hijacked by con man and bank robber Garrett Trapnell while over Chicago. Trapnell demanded $306,800 in cash (to recoup the loss of a recent court case), the release of Angela Davis (as well as that of a friend of his who was also imprisoned), and clemency from President Richard Nixon. The FBI was able to retake the aircraft during a crew switch at Kennedy Airport; Trapnell was shot and wounded, no one else was hurt. Trapnell's hijacking came after a string of domestic incidents and resulted in an overhaul of flight procedures by the Nixon Administration, procedures that remained in place until the September 11, 2001 hijackings. Trapnell and unrelated hijacker Martin J. McNally (see June 23, 1972 below) attempted to escape Marion federal prison on May 24, 1978, after Trapnell's girlfriend Barbara Ann Oswald hijacked a helicopter and ordered it to Marion but that hijacking ended when the pilot grabbed the woman's gun and killed Oswald. On December 21, 1978 Oswald's 17-year-old daughter Robin Oswald hijacked TWA Flight 541 in another attempt to rescue Trapnell. She surrendered after 10 hours of negotiations at the airport in Marion.
  • United StatesAlgeria June 3, 1972: Western Airlines Flight 701 from Los Angeles to Seattle was hijacked by Willie Roger Holder, a black Vietnam veteran, and Catherine Marie Kerkow. The hijackers claimed they had a bomb in an attache case and demanded $500,000. After allowing all 97 passengers to get off in San Francisco, they flew to Algeria where they were granted political asylum. The Algerian government confiscated and returned $488,000 of the ransom money to US officials.[43][44][45][46]
  • United States June 23, 1972: In the 9th copycat D.B. Cooper-style hijacking Martin J. McNally under the pseudonym of Robert W. Wilson hijacked American Airlines Flight 119, a Boeing 727 bound from St. Louis to Tulsa and demanded $502,500. The plane flew back and forth between Tulsa and St. Louis while the loot was raised. While at St. Louis Lambert Airport a man crashed at 80 mph through the airport fence into the plane struts in a Cadillac convertible, after seeing the television news coverage of the case. The hijacker transferred to a new 727 and jumped out of the plane over Indiana. The full loot bag and gun were discovered by searchers near Peru, Indiana. Fingerprints led to McNally. While in Marion Federal Prison McNally and fellow inmate and hijacker Garrett Trapnell (see January 28, 1972 above) on May 24, 1978 were involved in an attempted prison escape after Trapnell's girlfriend hijacked a helicopter. The escape attempt ended when the helicopter pilot grabbed the woman's gun and killed her. McNally was paroled from prison January 27, 2010.[47]
  • United StatesAlgeria July 31, 1972: Delta Air Lines Flight 841 was hijacked by five members of the Black Liberation Army including the elusive George Wright. The flight was originally from Detroit to Miami. The hijackers exchanged the passengers for $1 million in Miami and forced the plane to fly to Boston, then to Algeria, who returned the plane and cash but released the hijackers.[49][50][51]
  • SwedenSpain September 15, 1972: SAS DC 9 - Gunder Viking - with registration number LN-RLO en route from Torslanda, Gothenburg, Sweden, to Stockholm, Sweden, was hijacked five minutes after take off by 3 armed Croatians connected to Ustasa. The plane was ordered to land at Bulltofta airport, Malmö, Sweden. 86 passengers and 4 crew members were held hostage until the next morning when the hostages were released in exchange for 500,000 Swedish Kronor and seven Croatian imprisoned in Sweden. The last passenger left the plane unharmed after 16 hours. The plane and crew was then ordered to fly to Madrid, Spain, where the hijackers later were to be put on trial.
  • West GermanyLebanonSocialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaLibya October 29, 1972: Lufthansa Flight 615, a Boeing 727, from Beirut to Frankfrurt, piloted by capt. Walter Claussen, was hijacked by three men and flown to Zagreb, asking for liberation of the three surviving perpetrators of the Munich Massacre on 5 September that year. After boarding the three liberated men, the plane was redirected to Tripoli in Libya where all hostages were finally released.[52][53]
  • United StatesCanadaCuba November 10, 1972: Southern Airways Flight 49, was hijacked by three men and flown to multiple locations in the United States, and one Canadian city. At one point, the hijackers threatened to fly the plane into the nuclear reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, if their demands for $10 million in cash were not met. While stopped for refueling at McCoy Air Force Base, Orlando, the FBI shot out the plane's tires, prompting the hijackers to force pilot William Haas to take off. The hijacking came to an end when the plane landed on a partially foam-covered runway in Havana, Cuba, and the hijackers were captured after attempting to escape.
  • Soviet Union April 24, 1973: The hijacking attempt of Aeroflot Tu-104 flying from Leningrad to Moscow. When a flight attendant tried to disarm the hijacker, the bomb detonated, killing both and causing decompression. The crew made an emergency landing in Leningrad; the plane was written off.[55]
  • Soviet Union May 18, 1973: Another hijacking attempt of Aeroflot Tu-104 flying from Irkutsk to Chita. The hijacker demanded the plane be diverted to China. The bomb detonated and the plane crashed near Lake Baikal, killing all 82 people on board.[56]
  • VenezuelaNetherlands AntillesPanamaMexicoCubaMay 18 to May 20, 1973 Domestic flight of a two-engine Convair aircraft with 32 passengers to Caracas, Venezuela hijacked between Valera and Barquisimeto. Three male and one female hijackers linked to the leftist group "Punto Cero" demanded the release of 79 "political prisoners" from Venezuelan prisons. Diverting the plane via Curacao in the Dutch Antilles and Panama, where three passengers were released, to Mérida, Yucatán and Mexico City, where they issued an ultimatum. Mediation by a Mexican official resulted in continuation of the voyage back to Mérida, where the threat was reduced to blowing up the plane upon arrival in Cuba and release of the hostages. Aircraft continued to Havana, Cuba, where the hijackers and the Mexican negotiator left the aircraft. The aircraft then returned to Maiquetía, Venezuela with the remaining passengers.[57]
  • NetherlandsMaltaUnited Arab Emirates November 25, 1973: A KLM Boeing 747, "Mississippi", was hijacked by three young Arabs over Iraqi airspace on a scheduled Amsterdam-Tokyo flight with 247 passengers on board. After the hijackers threatened to blow up the plane when no country would grant landing permission, the plane landed in Malta. Most of the passengers and the eight stewardesses were released after negotiations with the Maltese PM Dom Mintoff who argued with the hijackers that the plane could not possibly take off with both the passengers and the 27,000 gallons of fuel they had demanded given the (then) short runway. With 11 passengers on board the jumbo jet left Malta to Dubai where the incident ended without fatalities.[58]
  • United StatesCanadaIcelandFrance September 10, 1976: TWA Flight 355 was hijacked by Croatian separatists. Some passengers were allowed to deplane in Canada before the hijackers continued on to Iceland, then France, where they released the remaining passengers and surrendered to authorities. One New York police officer was killed while working on a bomb which the hijackers had planted at Grand Central Station.
  • BangladeshJapan September 28, 1977 Japan Airlines Flight 472 was being hijacked by the Japanese Red Army (JRA). The JRA hijacked the plane over India and forced it to land in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Japanese Government freed six imprisoned members of the group and allegedly paid a $6M ransom.
  • United StatesMarch 13, 1978: United Flight 696 was hijacked by a lone American immediately after takeoff out of SFO. The aircraft landed in Oakland and the release of cabin crew and passengers was negotiated by the flight crew. The fueling was cut short by the hijacker and Flt 696 took off only partially refueled. Flight 696 landed in Denver to take on more fuel for Cuba. While waiting for the fuel, the cockpit crew jumped from the cockpit to escape the hijacker. The hijacker surrendered to the FBI within minutes of the crew's escape. No fatalities but the three cockpit crew-members suffered fractures and torn cartilage from the two-story leap.
  • PolandEast Germany August 30, 1978: LOT Polish Airlines Flight 165 was hijacked by two East Germans in order to escape to West Berlin. There were no casualties, the hijackers surrendered and were tried by never-before-convened United States Court for Berlin.
  • Finland September 30, 1978: Finnair Flight 405[59] was hijacked by Aarno Lamminparras; the flight was en route from Oulu to Helsinki. He requested a ransom of 675,000 markka, which he received, and as a result he released all 44 passengers on board. Then he ordered the plane to fly him to Amsterdam in the Netherlands and then back to Oulu. He returned home and was arrested there the next day. He served seven years and one month in prison and now lives in Sweden.[60] One of the passengers on board the hijacked plane was singer Monica Aspelund.[59]
  • India December 20, 1978: Devendra Nath Pandey and Bhola Nath Pandey hijacked Indian Airlines flight IC-410. They demanded the immediate release of Indian National Congress party leader Indira Gandhi who was imprisoned at that time on the charges of fraud and misconduct. Later, they were awarded with party tickets for this act by the Indira Gandhi government in 1980 such that Devendra Nath Pandey rose to become a minister in the government of most populous state of India, Uttar Pradesh. This case was also mentioned by Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale to justify his claim regarding the hypocrisy of the Indian government.[61]
  • United States December 21, 1978: 17-year-old Robin Oswald hijacked TWA Flight 541 flying from Louisville to Kansas City claiming she had three sticks of dynamite. The plane landed at Williamson County Regional Airport where she hoped to seek the release of Garrett Trapnell who was serving time at Marion Federal Penitentiary. Trapnell was serving time for a January 28, 1972 hijacking (see January 28, 1972 above). On May 24, 1978 her mother Barbara Ann Oswald was killed after hijacking a helicopter in an attempt to rescue Trapnell. Robin eventually surrendered at the Williamson Airport. The dynamite was revealed to be flares.[62]
  • United StatesRepublic of Ireland June 20, 1979: Nikola Kavaja, a Serbian nationalist and anti-communist hijacked American Airlines Flight 293. During the hijacking, Kavaja demanded and received another airplane with the intent of crashing it into the headquarters of the Yugoslav Communist Party. His lawyer convinced him to surrender after landing at Shannon Airport, Ireland.

1980s[edit]

  • PakistanAfghanistan 1981: On March 2, 1981, Pakistan International Airlines's flight PK-326 began as a routine domestic trip from Karachi to Peshawar. In midair three heavily armed men seized the plane, diverted it to Kabul, Afghanistan, and demanded the release of 92 "political prisoners" from the Pakistani jails. On March 7, twenty nine hostages including women, children and sick men were released in Kabul. The Boeing 720B sat in Kabul for a week, and when Pakistan's President Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq refused to give in, the hijackers shot a Pakistani diplomat Tariq Rahim in full view of the other passengers and dumped his body onto the tarmac.[citation needed]
  • IndonesiaMalaysiaThailand 1981: The Hijacking of Flight Garuda Indonesia GA 206 on March 28, 1981. This was the first serious Indonesian airline hijacking, since the first case was a desperate Marine hijacker who was killed by the pilot himself. The hijackers, a group called Commando Jihad, hijacked the DC 9 "Woyla", en route from Palembang to Medan, and ordered the pilot to fly the plane to Colombo, Sri Lanka. But since the plane didn't have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia and then to Don Muang, Thailand. The hijackers demanded the release of Commando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US $1.5 million, as well as a plane to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. The Kopassus commandos who took part in this mission trained for only three days with totally unfamiliar weapons, executed this fast-paced operation. One of the Kopassus commandos was shot by the hijacker leader, who then shot himself. All the other hijackers were killed. All the hostages were saved.[citation needed]
  • Republic of IrelandFrance 1981: Aer Lingus Flight 164 from Dublin to London was hijacked and diverted to Le Touquet in France by a man demanding that the Pope release the third secret of Fatima. While authorities negotiated with the hijacker by radio in the cockpit, French special forces entered the rear of the aircraft and overpowered him.
  • Socialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaItalyGreeceIsrael September 26, 1981: Yugoslav Airlines Flight from Titograd via Dubrovnik to Belgrade - A few minutes after take-off from Dubrovnik Airport Čilipi, three hijackers diverted Boeing 727 YU AKF to Brindisi Airport in Italy. Just when the crew was preparing for the final approach, the hijackers decided to divert the plane once again, but to Tel Aviv, Israel. Captain Ljubomir Zekavica persuaded the hijackers to stop and refuel at Athens' Ellinikon International Airport. After a long refuel and failed attempts to negotiate with the hijackers, the airplane was cleared for take-off. When they reached Israeli airspace, the crew was ordered to turn around immediately or the plane would be shot down by Israeli fighters, since Yugoslavia did not have diplomatic relationships with Israel at that time. At their return to Greece, the captain lied to the hijackers that the plane was running out of fuel and simulated fuel loss at 30,000 feet so they would have to land at the nearest airport. The plane landed at Larnaca International Airport at Cyprus. The hijackers agreed to release an old and sick woman who was supposed to be urgently transported from Titograd to a Belgrade hospital. During the hostage release, passengers secretly agreed to start a panic as if there was a fire on the plane. The hijackers were confused and all 78 hostages and 7 crew members managed to escape, and the hijackers were arrested by Greek police. Among the hostages were the entire FK Buducnost Podgorica football squad and a few famous Serbian actors. The incident lasted about 14 hours.
  • Kuwait February 25, 1982: Kuwait Airways Flight KU561 from Kuwait to Beirut to Libya (return flight to Libya) was hijacked on the ground in Beirut, Lebanon on the return from Libya, with 150 aboard by Hamza akl Hamieh shortly after landing, demanding news and release of Imam Musa al-Sadr, founder of the Islamic group AMAL, who had disappeared in Libya in 1978. The hijackers threatened to kill passengers if demands were not met and Lebanese security forces did not withdraw from the area around the plane. Despite negotiations with a high level Shia cleric Sheikh Abdul Amir Qabalan it was the missing Imams sister, Rehab, who persuaded Hamza to abandon the aircraft. Sheikh Qabala promised that appeals would be launched at the UN, The Arab League and the World Court to find Imam Sadr. In all five of his previous hijackings, Hamza never faced trial or incarceration. Just after midnight they left the plane and disappeared into the night. Captain Les Bradley flew the damaged plane back to Kuwait. There were no casualties. Ref Sacred Rage:Robin Wright Pages 46–51
  • India August 22, 1982: A lone Sikh militant, armed with a pistol and a hand grenade, hijacked an Indian Airlines on a scheduled flight from Mumbai to New Delhi carrying 69 persons. Indian security forces killed the hijacker and rescued all passengers. Peter Lamont, production designer working on the James Bond film Octopussy, was a passenger.
  • FranceLebanon August 27, 1983. Armed with guns and grenades, hijackers seized a Boeing 727 aircraft after departure from Vienna, Austria. They forced it to land in Geneva, then Sicily and Damascus, - over which period 93 of the 111 passengers and crew were released - before arriving in Tehran. The hijackers demanded the release of Lebanese prisoners in French prisons and the withdrawal of French troops from Lebanon. After three days of negotiations in Tehran, the hijackers surrendered and all remaining passengers were released unharmed.
  • West GermanySwitzerlandLebanonIran August 1, 1984, an Air France Boeing 737-200 en route from Frankfurt to Paris with 82 passengers and crew aboard was hijacked by 3 hijackers who demanded to be taken to Tehran.[64] They were Arab protesters against military cooperation between France and Iraq on the Iran-Iraq war context. One steward escaped to the hijacker in Larnaka. The hijacking duration was 48 hours.[65] The hijackers destroyed the aircraft with explosives in front of the TV cameras. There were no victims.[66] Strangely, the hijackers were taken in a big black limousine and disappeared in Iran.
  • IndiaUnited Arab Emirates August 24, 1984: Seven young Sikh hijackers demanded an Indian Airlines jetliner flying from Delhi to Srinagar[67] be flown to the United Arab Emirates. The plane was taken to UAE where the defense minister of UAE negotiated the release of the passengers. It was related to the Sikh secessionist struggle in the Indian state of Punjab.
  • Soviet Union December 19, 1985: Yakutsk United Air Group Flight 101/435 was hijacked by the co-pilot and diverted to China. The hijacker was apprehended by the Chinese upon landing, while the passengers returned safely to the Soviet Union.[69]
  • United States January 11, 1987; A Continental Airlines DC-9 was hijacked in flight by Norwood Emanuel, a Muslim hijacker that wanted to crash into the White House on Jan. 11, 1987. The crew diverted a possible disaster 14 years before the 9-11 attack. Captain Mark Meyer was credited with thwarting the hijacking by quickly landing at Dulles International outside of Washington D.C.. Capt. Meyer then confronted and distracted Emanuel in the rear of the cabin allowing all 49 passengers and crew to successfully evacuate onto the ramp. Capt. Meyer escaped 2 hours later. The FBI eventually talked Emanuel off of the aircraft. No deaths/ No injuries. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR0_obQ_h3I
  • New ZealandFiji May 19, 1987: An aircraft refueller at Nadi International Airport, Fiji, attempted to hijack an Air New Zealand Boeing 747-200 stopping at Nadi en route from Tokyo to Auckland. The hijacker entered the cockpit and held the captain, first officer and flight engineer hostage, demanding that the Timoci Bavadra-led government be restored after they were ousted in a military coup d'état six days earlier. After six hours, the hijacker got distracted and the flight engineer knocked him out with a bottle of whisky. None of the 105 passengers or 24 crew (including the three hostages) on board were injured.[70]
  • Soviet Union March 8, 1988: Ovechkin family (a mother and her 10 children) attempted to hijack a Tu 154 flight from Irkutsk to Leningrad while trying to escape from the USSR. The plane landed on a military airfield near Vyborg and was then stormed. A stewardess and three passengers were killed. The mother was killed by one of her sons by her own request, then four of them committed suicide.
  • Kuwait April 5, 1988: Kuwait Airways Flight 422 was hijacked from Bangkok to Kuwait with 111 passengers and crew aboard, including three members of the Kuwaiti Royal Family. 6 - 7 Lebanese men[71] (including Hassan Izz-Al-Din, a veteran of the TWA 847 hijacking[72]) armed with guns and hand grenades forced the pilot to land in Mashhad, Iran and demanded the release of 17 Shiite Muslims guerrillas held in Kuwait. Lasting 16 days and traveling 3,200-miles from Mashhad in northeastern Iran to Larnaca, Cyprus, and finally to Algiers, it is the longest skyjacking to date. Two passengers, Abdullah Khalidi, 25, and Khalid Ayoub Bandar, 20, both Kuwaitis, were shot dead by the hijackers and dumped on the tarmac in Cyprus.[73] Kuwait did not release the 17 prisoners and the hijackers were allowed to leave Algiers.

1990s[edit]

  • China October 2, 1990: A hijacker seized a plane from China which later crashed as it tried to land in Guangzhou, killing 128 people.
  • India 1993: Two separate hijackings of Indian Airlines aircraft to Amritsar, Punjab, India in the month of April. In the first case the hijacker was talked into surrendering; in the second, the NSG stormed in and killed the two hijackers and captured one. The Amritsar Deputy Commissioner Karan Bir Singh Sidhu was conferred the Convoy Safe Skies Award.
  • NorwayRussia 1993: Russian Aeroflot passenger jet flying from Perm to Moscow diverted to Gardermoen airport by two Iranian brothers. Hijackers surrendered and hostages went free. The hijackers were later given asylum in Norway for humanitarian reasons.
  • RussiaAfghanistan 1995: Russian cargo jet flying from Tirana to Kabul was forced to land in Kandahar by Taliban forces. Jet's crew had been held in a captivity until escape in 1996.
  • LebanonBulgariaNorway 1996: Hemus Air Tu-154 aircraft was hijacked by the Palestinian Nadir Abdallah, flying from Beirut to Varna. The hijacker demanded that the aircraft be refuelled and given passage to Oslo, Norway after landing at Varna Airport. All of the 150 passengers were freed at Varna, afterwards the crew continued the flight to Oslo, where the hijacker surrendered and asked for political asylum.[77]
  • Ethiopia 1996: Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 crashed into the Indian Ocean near a beach in the Comoros Islands after hijackers refused to allow the pilot to land and refuel the plane. 125 passengers died and the remaining 50 passengers survived with minor injuries. This was the third incident in which there were survivors of a passenger jet that had been intentionally ditched into a body of water.
  • MaltaGermany 1997: Two Turkish men hijacked Air Malta Flight 830 en route from Malta to Turkey on June 9, 1997 surrendered to police at an airport in Cologne, Germany, early on the same day and freed without incident about 80 crew members and passengers on board.

2000s[edit]

  • Brazil 2000, August 18: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registration PP-SMG en route from Foz do Iguaçu to Curitiba-Afonso Pena was hijacked by 5 persons with the purpose of robbing BRL 5 million (approximately USD 2.75 Million) that the aircraft was transporting. The pilot was forced to land at Porecatu where the hijackers fled with the money. There were no victims.[78][79]
  • Saudi ArabiaIraq 2000, October 14: Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 115,[80] flying from Jeddah to London was hijacked en route by two men who claimed they were armed with explosives. The hijackers commandeered the Boeing 777-200 to Baghdad, Iraq, where all 90 passengers and 15 crew members were safely released. The two hijackers, identified as Lieutenant Faisal Naji Hamoud Al-Bilawi and First Lieutenant Ayesh Ali Hussein Al-Fareedi,[81] both Saudi citizens, were arrested and later extradited to Saudi Arabia in 2003.[82]
  • RussiaIsrael 2000, 11 November: A Vnukovo Airlines Tu-154 flying from Makhachkala to Moscow was hijacked by a man demanding it be diverted to Israel. The plane landed at an Israeli military base where hijacker surrendered. None of 59 people on board were injured.[83]
  • RussiaTurkeySaudi Arabia 2001, 15 March: Another Vnukovo Airlines Tu-154 flying from Istanbul to Moscow was hijacked by a three Chechens demanding it be diverted to Saudi Arabia. After the plane with 174 people on board landed at Medina the hijacker threatened to blow it up unless it would be refuelled for flying to Afghanistan. The Saudi authorities decided to storm the plane. During the assault 2 people were killed by Saudi police: one of the passengers (Turkish citizen), and the leader of the hijackers. The stewardess, Yulia Fomina, was killed during the hijacking, and later the plane was named after her.[84]
United Airlines Flight 93 wreckage at the crash site in Somerset County, Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001.
  • TurkeyItaly 2006: Turkish Airlines Flight 1476, flying from Tirana to Istanbul, was hijacked by Hakan Ekinci in Greek airspace. The aircraft, with 107 passengers and six crew on board, transmitted two coded hijack signals which were picked up by the Greek air force; the flight was intercepted by military aircraft and landed safely at Brindisi, Italy.
  • SudanLibya 2008: a Sun Air Boeing 737 flying from Nyala, Darfur, in Western Sudan to the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, was hijacked shortly after takeoff.[citation needed] The hijackers demanded to be taken to France where they reputedly wanted to gain asylum. The plane initially tried to land at Cairo but was refused permission. It subsequently touched down at Kufra, Libya. The hijackers gave themselves up almost 24 hours after taking the plane. There were no reported casualties.
  • Jamaica 2009: CanJet Flight 918, a Boeing 737-800 preparing to depart from the Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay, Jamaica to Canada was hijacked by a gunman who forced his way through airport security onto the plane. His main motive was a demand to the crew to fly him to Cuba. Most of the passengers on the plane gave him money to buy their freedom. For the rest of the night, negotiations took place as 6 crew members were held hostage in the flight for several hours. Quick responses from the police force allowed them to disarm the hijacker and arrest him. There were no casualties.

2010s[edit]

  • NorwayTurkey January 2011: Turkish Airlines Flight 1754, flying from Oslo to Istanbul, was in Bulgarian airspace when an unsuccessful attempt was made to hijack it. The suspect allegedly said that he had a bomb and that he would blow up the aircraft unless the plane returned to Norway. Some passengers overpowered the hijacker and the flight safely landed at Atatürk International Airport at 9:30 p.m after the pilot notified emergency service. All 60 passengers and seven crew got off the aircraft; none were injured during the incident. The suspect was arrested.[87]
  • China June 29, 2012: an attempt was made to hijack Tianjin Airlines Flight GS7554 from Hotan to Ürümqi. Six people tried to hijack the aircraft 10 minutes after take-off. There were 6 police officers on board. Four were in plain clothes, taking the plane for a business trip. The hijackers used aluminium canes with sharpened tips to attack the members of the crew. The police officers and civilians on board subdued the hijackers, all of whom were of Uyghur ethnicity. The plot was foiled and the plane returned to Hotan in 22 minutes after takeoff.[90]
  • UkraineTurkey February 7, 2014: Pegasus Airlines Flight 751, during the start of the 2014 Winter Olympics, a man attempted to hijack Pegasus Airlines Flight 751[47] that was on a flight from Kharkiv, Ukraine, to Istanbul, Turkey, saying he had a bomb on board, and demanding to be flown to Sochi, the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The pilots turned off the inflight monitors and landed at Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen Airport, fooling the man into thinking he was landing in Sochi. The plane, a Boeing 737-800, was escorted to Istanbul by two Turkish F-16 fighter jets. The man, who appeared to be severely intoxicated, was detained by police and taken to the Istanbul Security Headquarters.
  • EthiopiaSwitzerlandItalyFebruary 17, 2014: Ethiopian Airlines Flight 702 "on scheduled service departing from Addis Ababa at 00:30 (local time) scheduled to arrive in Rome at 04:40 (local time) was forced to proceed to Geneva airport", according to the airline.[91] The Boeing 767-300 (ET-AMF) was flying north over Sudan when it changed radio frequency to squawk 7500—which is used in case of hijacking. Nearing Geneva, the pilots communicated with air traffic control to inquire about possibility of hijackers receiving asylum in Switzerland. The aircraft circled the airport several times, before landing around 6:00 in the morning with one engine and less than 10 minutes of fuel remaining. The airport remained closed as the aircraft stayed on the tarmac. At 7:12 local time, the pilots communicated to ATC that they would be ready to disembark passengers in five minutes. The hijacker which was the co-pilot was arrested.[92][93]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pereira, Aldo (1987). Breve História da Aviação Comercial Brasileira (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Europa. p. 337. 
  2. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Uma verdadeira aventura". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  3. ^ "PRIMA DETURNARE DE CURSA AERIANA DIN LUME". Orizont Aviatic, 34/2005. 
  4. ^ "Hijacking description PP-SNT". Aviation Safety Network. 
  5. ^ "Hijacking description PP-SNT". Aviation Safety Network. 
  6. ^ "Hijacking description PP-SNT". Aviation Safety Network. 
  7. ^ "Syrian Passenger Plane Violates Israel Air Space; is Intercepted". Retrieved 2014-08-14. [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ "SYRIAN AIRLINER SEIZED BY ISRAEL; Plane, l0 Aboard, Is Forced Down -- Damascus Sees Tie to Soldiers' Capture". Retrieved 2014-08-14. [unreliable source?]
  9. ^ "Incident description PP-PCR". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  10. ^ Pereira, Aldo (1987). Breve História da Aviação Comercial Brasileira (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Europa. pp. 362–363. 
  11. ^ "TAA Skyjack". Trans-Australia Airlines Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  12. ^ Hijacker: Cuba Suspected Spying The Miami Herald
  13. ^ [1] Chico ER
  14. ^ "Les Gleadell". The Daily Telegraph (London). July 13, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Suspect in 1968 hijacking at JFK is captured - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  16. ^ "Former LIers recall 1968 hijacking to Cuba". Newsday.com. 2009-10-11. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  17. ^ "Incident description October 8, 1969". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  18. ^ "Capture Gunman in Chapel After Hijacking Plane on Longest Flight in History". The Gettysburg Times. 1969-11-01. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  19. ^ "An Ex-Skyjacker Who Survived An Earthquake Himself Rushes Aid to Italy's Homeless". Time, Inc. 1980-12-15. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  20. ^ [2] Hearing Today For Youth, 14 in Hijack Try
  21. ^ "Incident description November 12, 1969". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  22. ^ "Son of NK Kidnap Victim Seeks UN's Help", The Dong-a Ilbo, 2010-06-10, retrieved 2010-07-07 
  23. ^ Tristani, Captain, Eastern Air Lines (ret), J.P. (March 30, 2009). "One heck of an in-air gunfight on a civilian jet". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  24. ^ Walker, Adrian (March 20, 2009). "Friends in high places". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  25. ^ Eastern Airlines Hijacking at CelebrateBoston.com
  26. ^ "Incident description 4 July 1970". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  27. ^ Marea deturnare: avion românesc răpit la Oradea
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ http://clippedb.bizbuzzs.com/history_braniff.htm
  30. ^ "PAKISTAN AIR FORCE - Official website". Paf.gov.pk. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  31. ^ John Pike. "PAF Kamra". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  32. ^ "Pakistan". Ejection-history.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  33. ^ "Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas". Pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  34. ^ "Nishan-i-Haider laurelled Rashid Minhas’ anniversary today". Samaa Tv. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  35. ^ Congressional Record Page 25960 13 December 2001. U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  36. ^ "Havana Is Haven for Fugitive '70s Hijacker". Washington Post Foreign Service. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  37. ^ "FBI makes new bid to find 1971 skyjacker". The San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2009-10-04. [dead link]
  38. ^ Krajicek, David. "The D.B. Cooper Story: 'Everything Is Ready'". Crime Library. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  39. ^ Pasternak, Douglas (2000-07-24). "Skyjacker at large". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  40. ^ Jim Ewell and Tom Williams (1972-01-13). "Braniff Hijacker Taken as Police Storm Plane". The Dallas Morning News. 
  41. ^ Tom Johnson (1972-01-13). ""Keep Him Going," Dispatcher Offers". The Dallas Morning News. 
  42. ^ "On This Day—23 February1972: Hijackers surrender and free Lufthansa crew". BBC. February 23, 1972. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  43. ^ "Hijack suspects seized in Paris". The Miami News. Jan 27, 1975. 
  44. ^ "Hijack Suspects Arrested". Ocala Star-Banner. Jan 26, 1975. 
  45. ^ "Skyjacker Wants To Return Home". Merced Sun-Star. May 7, 1977. 
  46. ^ "France hands over suspect in 1972 hijacking". The Deseret News. Jul 27, 1986. 
  47. ^ BY TIM O'NEIL • toneil@post-dispatch.com > 314-340-8132 (2011-06-25). "A Look Back • Airline hijacking at Lambert in 1972 turns bizarre". Stltoday.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  48. ^ Emch, Tom. "Anatomy of a Hijack". San Francisco Examiner/Chronicle. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  49. ^ Newton, Michael (2002). "The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings (Facts on File Crime Library)". Facts On File, Inc. 
  50. ^ "FBI Charges 5 - Escaped Convicts in Hijacking Plot". The Spokesman-Review. Aug 3, 1972. 
  51. ^ "Hijackers Order Jet to Algeria". The Palm Beach Post. Aug 1, 1972. 
  52. ^ http://books.google.it/books?id=bKZa91YO_4YC&pg=PT208&lpg=PT208&dq=walter+claussen+lufthansa&source=bl&ots=DkxJJPL0ag&sig=z6pnfyp3TJSbnI-9p2CbVuothNw&hl=it#v=onepage&q=walter%20claussen%20lufthansa&f=false
  53. ^ Greenfeter, Yael (4 November 2010). "Israel in shock as Munich killers freed". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  54. ^ Hijacker surrenders in Montreal to authorities
  55. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 104B CCCP-42505 Leningrad". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  56. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 104B CCCP-42411 Chita". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  57. ^ "Hijacked Plane returns after Five Country Trip", The Spartanburg Herald (Spartanburg, S. C.) 101 (100), May 21, 1973: 1 
  58. ^ "Hijackings, KLM 1973". Büttni-Malta. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  59. ^ a b Tämä kone on kaapattu
  60. ^ 1978 airplane hijacking information (in Finnish) from yle.fi
  61. ^ "Unholier Than Thou". Outlook India. 18 January 2000. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 
  62. ^ Kentucky New Era (Dec 22, 1978). "17-Year-Old Hijacks To Free Hijacker". Kentucky New Era. p. 11. Retrieved January 10, 2011. 
  63. ^ "Incident description 3 February 1984". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  64. ^ Vidéo Ina - Fin détournement Boeing, vidéo Fin détournement Boeing, vidéo Economie et société Justice et faits divers - Archives vidéos Economie et société Justice et faits di...
  65. ^ Vidéo Ina - Détournement avion, vidéo Détournement avion, vidéo Economie et société Justice et faits divers - Archives vidéos Economie et société Justice et faits divers : Ina...
  66. ^ Vidéo Ina - Itinéraire Boeing, vidéo Itinéraire Boeing, vidéo Economie et société Justice et faits divers - Archives vidéos Economie et société Justice et faits divers : Ina.f...
  67. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-2A8 Lahore, Karachi, Dubai
  68. ^ "WORLD | History of airliner hijackings". BBC News. 2001-10-03. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  69. ^ "Passengers, Crew in Soviet Hijacking All Safe". Los Angeles Times. December 26, 1985. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  70. ^ "1987: Attempted hijacking in Fiji foiled -- 19 May -- Today in History". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  71. ^ "1988: Hijackers free 25 hostages." BBC. Retrieved on 4 March 2009.
  72. ^ Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p.95
  73. ^ Greenwald, John, Sam Allis, and David S. Jackson. "Terrorism Nightmare on Flight 422." TIME. Monday 25 April 1988. Retrieved on 4 March 2009.
  74. ^ "Incident description PP-SNT". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  75. ^ "Sangue no vôo 375" (in Portuguese). Abril: Veja. 5 October 1988. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  76. ^ "2 Czech Youths Hijack Jetliner to West Germany". Los Angeles Times. March 30, 1989. Retrieved August 19, 2010. 
  77. ^ ASN Aviation Safety Database
  78. ^ "Incident description PP-SMG". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  79. ^ Maschio, José (21 August 2000). "PF liga sequestro de avião da VASP à rebelião em penitenciária em Roraima" (in Portuguese). Folha Online. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  80. ^ "Saudi hijack passengers freed". BBC World. 14 October 2000. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  81. ^ "Hijacked Saudi plane returns safely to Riyadh". Saudi Embassy. 2000-09-16. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  82. ^ "Saudi Hijacker Extradited". USA Today. 18 November 2003. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  83. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 154 Baku, Uvda Air Force Base". Aviation-safety.net. 2000-11-11. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  84. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 154M RA-85619 Medina". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  85. ^ "Passengers overpower plane hijacker in Spain's Canary Islands, suspect arrested". USA Today. February 15, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  86. ^ Pilots and passengers foil hijacking of Turkish jet - International Herald Tribune
  87. ^ "Turkish Airlines hijack attempt foiled by passengers", Hürriyet, January 5, 2011
  88. ^ Hradecky, Simon (24 April 2011). "Accident: Alitalia A321 en route on Apr 24th 2011, attempted hijack". Aviation Herald. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  89. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident 24-APR-2011 Airbus A321-112 I-BIXA". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  90. ^ "Plane hijacking fouled in west". Foxnews.com. June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  91. ^ "Ethiopian Airlines flight ET-702 of 17 February 2014". Ethiopian Airlines Press Releases. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  92. ^ "Hijacked Ethiopian plane probably flown to Switzerland for asylum". 17 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  93. ^ "Hijacker arrested after Ethiopian Airlines flight forced to land in Geneva". The Guardian. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.