List of amendments of the Constitution of India

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As of May 2013, there have been 98 amendments to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950.[1][2]

No. Amendments Enforced since Objectives
1 Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.[3]
18 June 1951 To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
2 Amend article 81(1)(b).[4] 1 May 1953 Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).
3 Amend schedule 7.[5] 22 February 1955 Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of 4 classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.
4 Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.
Amend schedule 9.[6]
27 April 1955 Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution
5 Amend article 3.[7] 24 December 1955 Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.
6 Amend articles 269 and 286.
Amend schedule 7.[8]
11 September 1956 Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes
7 Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.[9]
1 November 1956 Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories
8 Amend article 334.[10] 5 January 1960 Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970
9 Amend schedule 1.[11] 28 December 1960 Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10 Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.[12]
11 August 1961 Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
11 Amend articles 66 and 71.[13] 19 December 1961 Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
12 Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.[14]
20 December 1961 Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
13 Amend article 170.
Insert new article 371A.[15]
1 December 1963 Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A
14 Amend articles 81 and 240.
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.[16]
28 December 1962 Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
15 Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.[17]
5 October 1963 Raise retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16 Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.
Amend schedule 3.[18]
5 October 1963 Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligtory templates
17 Amend article 31A.
Amend schedule 9.[19]
20 June 1964 To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
18 Amend article 3.[20] 27 August 1966 Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories
19 Amend article 324.[21] 11 December 1966 Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts
20 Insert article 233A.[22] 22 December 1966 Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
21 Amend schedule 8.[23] 10 April 1967 Include Sindhi as an Official Language
22 Amend article 275.
Insert articles 244A and 371B.[24]
25 September 1969 Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam
23 Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.[25] 23 January 1970 Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SC/ST and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.
24 Amend articles 13 and 368.[26] 5 November 1971 Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution
25 Amend article 31.
Insert article 31C.[27]
20 April 1972 Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property
26 Amend article 366.
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.[28]
28 December 1971 Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic
27 Amend articles 239A and 240.
Insert articles 239B and 371C.[29]
15 February 1972 Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers
28 Insert article 312A.
Remove article 314.[30]
29 August 1972 Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence
29 Amend schedule 9.[31] 9 June 1972 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
30 Amend article 133.[32] 27 February 1973 Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law
31 Amend articles 81, 330 and 332.[33] 17 October 1973 Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
32 Amend article 371.
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.[34]
1 July 1974 Protection of regional rights in Telengana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh
33 Amend articles 101 and 190.[35] 19 May 1974 Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
34 Amend schedule 9.[36] 7 September 1974 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
35 Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.[37]
1 March 1975 Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India
36 Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.[38]
26 April 1975 Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union
37 Amend articles 239A and 240.[39] 3 May 1975 Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly
38 Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.[40] 1 August 1975 Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances
39 Amend articles 71 and 329.
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.[41]
10 August 1975 Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister
40 Amend article 297.
Amend schedule 9.[42]
27 May 1976 Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India

Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution

41 Amend article 316.[43] 7 September 1976 Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42 Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.[44]
1 April 1977 Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic
43 Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.[45]
13 April 1978 Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
44 Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12.
Amend schedule 9.[46]
6 September 1979 Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
45 Amend article 334.[47] 25 January 1980 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990
46 Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.
Amend schedule 7.[48]
2 February 1983 Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax
47 Amend schedule 9.[49] 26 August 1984 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
48 Amend article 356.[50] 1 April 1985 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab
49 Amend article 244.
Amend schedules 5 and 6.[51]
11 September 1984 Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
50 Amend article 33.[52] 11 September 1984 Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure
51 Amend articles 330 and 332.[53] 16 June 1986 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
52 Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191.
Insert schedule 10.[54]
1 March 1985 Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other
53 Insert article 371G.[55] 20 February 1987 Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54 Amend articles 125 and 221.
Amend schedule 2.[56]
1 April 1986 Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
55 Insert article 371H.[57] 20 February 1987 Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh
56 Insert article 371I.[58] 30 May 1987 Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa
57 Amend article 332.[59] 21 September 1987 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
58 Insert article 394A.
Amend part 22.[60]
9 December 1987 Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
59 Amend article 356.
Insert article 359A.[61]
30 March 1988 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
60 Amend article 276.[62] 20 December 1988 Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-
61 Amend article 326.[63] 28 March 1989 Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18
62 Amend article 334.[64] 20 December 1989 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000
63 Amend article 356.
Remove article 359A.[65]
6 January 1990 Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed
64 Amend article 356.[66] 16 April 1990 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab
65 Amend article 338.[67] 12 March 1990 National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66 Amend schedule 9.[68] 7 June 1990 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
67 Amend article 356.[69] 4 October 1990 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab
68 Amend article 356.[70] 12 March 1991 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab
69 Insert articles 239AA and 239AB.[71] 1 February 1992 To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory
70 Amend articles 54 and 239AA.[72] 21 December 1991 Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election
71 Amend schedule 8.[73] 31 August 1992 Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages
72 Amend article 332.[74] 5 December 1992 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly
73 Insert part 9.[75] 24 April 1993 Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages
74 Insert part 9A.[76] 1 June 1993 Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities
75 Amend article 323B.[77] 15 May 1994 Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals
76 Amend schedule 9.[78] 31 August 1994 Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution
77 Amend article 16.[79] 17 June 1995 A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions
78 Amend schedule 9.[80] 30 August 1995 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
79 Amend article 334.[81] 25 January 2000 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010
80 Amend articles 269 and 270.
Remove article 272.[82]
9 June 2000 Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81 Amend article 16.[83] 9 June 2000 Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies
82 Amend article 335.[84] 8 September 2000 Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates
83 Amend article 243M.[85] 8 September 2000 Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions
84 Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.[86] 21 February 2002 Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
85 Amend article 16.[87] 4 January 2002 A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees
86 Amend articles 45 and 51A.
Insert article 21A.[88]
12 December 2002 Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six
87 Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.[89] 22 June 2003 Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
88 Amend article 270.
Insert article 268A.
Amend schedule 7.[90]
15 January 2004 To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax
89 Amend article 338.
Insert article 338A.[91]
28 September 2003 The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
90 Amend article 332.[92] 28 September 2003 Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area
91 Amend articles 75 and 164.
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.[93]
1 January 2004 Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws
92 Amend schedule 8.[94] 7 January 2004 Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as official languages
93 Amend article 15.[95] 20 January 2006 To enable provision of reservation(27%) for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions
94 Amend article 164.[96] 12 June 2006 To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhyapradesh, Orissa.
95 Amend article 334.[97] 25 January 2010 To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years
96 Amend schedule 8.[98] 23 September 2011 Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya"
97 Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.[99] 12 January 2012 Added the words "or co-operative societies" after the word "or unions" in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.

The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.[100]

98 To insert Article 371J in the Constitution[2] 2 January 2013 To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.[2]

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