List of amphibians of Sri Lanka

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Sri Lanka is host to over 106 species of amphibians, of which over 90 species is being endemic to the country.[1] The 85% of endemicity ratio makes Sri Lanka the country which has the highest amphibian endemism in Asia.[2] During the past decade the finding of new amphibians in Sri Lanka has increased significantly.[3] The first amphibian review in Sri Lanka in 1957 identified 35 species. In 1996 the number of amphibian species has raised to 53 based on research of museum collections and also a field survey. More than 250 species were proposed based on this field survey by Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi in 1998. However Meegaskumbura et. al revised the number to around 140 species,[4] and the discovery of over "new" 100 species has been criticised.[5] As at 2006, 102 descriptions of amphibian species have been published.[3] A single caecilian species has been identified but not yet described.

Sri Lanka harbours three endemic genera, Adenomus, Nannophrys, and Lankanectes.[3] Most of the new species is of the genus Philautus. The Philautus pardus and P. maia, the species known only from collections made prior to 1876 are described as new species in 2007.[6] Sri Lanka also ranked highest in Asia for having highest percentage of extinct and threatened amphibian species.[2] In the 20th century the country has lost 20% of its amphibians and more than half of remaining species is on the verge of extinction. Of world's 34 amphibian fauna extinct in last 500 years, 19 of them are from Sri Lanka.[3] The habitat loss is attributed as the main cause of threats while fragmentation, use of pesticides, and air pollution are among others.

Amphibians[edit]

Low Vulnerability Threatened Extinct Insufficient Data
Fl mammals lc.svg
Least Concern
Fl mammals nt.svg
Near Threatened
Fl mammals vu.svg
Vulnerable
Fl mammals en.svg
Endangered
Fl mammals cr.svg
Critically Endangered
Fl mammals ew.svg
Extinct in the Wild
Fl mammals ex.svg
Extinct
Fl mammals dd.svg
Data Deficient
Fl mammals nd.svg
Not Evaluated

Order Anura: Frogs[edit]

Common name Species

(Authority)

Endemicity Status
Family Bufonidae: True toads
Adenomus dasi
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 1998
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[7]
Adenomus kandianus
(Günther, 1872)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[8]
Adenomus kelaartii
(Günther, 1858)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[9]
Bufo atukoralei
Bogert & Senanayake, 1966
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[10]
Bufo kotagamai
Fernando & Dayawansa, 1994
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[11]
Common Indian Toad

Bufo melanosticus 01.JPG

Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Schneider, 1799
Fl mammals lc.svg
[12]
Duttaphrynus noellerti
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 1998
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[13]
Ferguson's toad

Bufo scaber.jpg

Duttaphrynus scaber
Schneider, 1799 (see Dubois & Ohler, 1999: 154)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[14]
Family Microhylidae: Narrow-mouthed frogs
Sri Lankan Painted Frog

PaintedFrog.jpg

Kaloula taprobanica
(Parker, 1934)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[15]
Microhyla karunaratnei
Fernando & Siriwardhane, 1996
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[16]
Ornate narrow-mouthed Frog

MicrohylaOrnata2.jpg

Microhyla ornata
(Duméril & Bibron, 1841)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[17]
Microhyla rubra
(Jerdon, 1854)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[18]
Microhyla zeylanica
Parker & Hill, 1949
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[19]
Ramanella nagaoi
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2001
Endemic
Fl mammals vu.svg
[20]
Ramanella obscura
(Günther, 1864)
Endemic
Fl mammals nt.svg
[21]
Ramanella palmata
(Parker, 1934)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[22]

RamanellaVariegataLeft.jpg

Ramanella variegata
(Stoliczka, 1872)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[23]
Uperodon systoma01.jpg Uperodon systoma
(Schneider, 1799)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[24]
Family Ranidae: True frogs
Indian Skipper frog

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis01.jpg

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis
(Schneider, 1799)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[25]
Green Pond Frog

Euphlyctis hexadactylus sal.jpg

Euphlyctis hexadactylus
(Lesson, 1834)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[26]
Zakerana greenii
(Boulenger, 1904)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[27]
Zakerana kirtisinghei
Manamendra-Arachchi & Gabadage, 1994
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[28]
Cricket Frog

Rana limnocharis sal.jpg

Fejervarya limnocharis
(Boie, 1835)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[29]
Jerdon's Bullfrog Hoplobatrachus crassus
(Jerdon, 1853)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[30]
Lankanectes corrugatus
(Peters, 1863)
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[31]
Nannophrys ceylonensis.jpg Nannophrys ceylonensis
(Günther, 1868)
Endemic
Fl mammals vu.svg
[32]
Nannophrys guentheri.jpg Nannophrys guentheri
Boulenger, 1882
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[33]
Nannophrys marmorata
Kirtisinghe, 1946
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[34]
Nannophrys naeyakai
Fernando, Wickramasingha & Rodrigo, 2007
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[35]
Hylarana aurantiaca
Boulenger, 1904
Fl mammals vu.svg
[36]
Gravenhorst's frog Hylarana gracilis
Gravenhorst, 1829
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[37]
Bronzed Frog

Rana temporalis.jpg

Hylarana temporalis
(Günther, 1864)
Endemic
Fl mammals nt.svg
[38]
Indian Burrowing frog

Tomopterna breviceps.jpg

Sphaerotheca breviceps
(Schneider, 1799)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[39]
Sphaerotheca rolandae
(Dubois, 1983)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[40]
Family Rhacophoridae: Shrub frogs
Philautus abundus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[41]
Philautus adspersus
(Günther, 1872)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[42]
Philautus alto
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[43]
Philautus asankai
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[44]
Philautus auratus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[45]
Philautus caeruleus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[46]
Philautus cavirostris
(Günther, 1869)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[47]
Philautus cuspis
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[48]
Philautus decoris
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[49]
Philautus dimbullae
(Shreve, 1940)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[50]
Philautus eximius
(Shreve, 1940)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[51]
Philautus extirpo
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[52]
Philautus femoralis
(Günther, 1864)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[53]
Philautus fergusonianus
(Ahl, 1927)
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[54]
Philautus folicola
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[55]
Philautus frankenbergi
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[56]
Philautus fulvus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[57]
Philautus hallidayi
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals vu.svg
[58]
Philautus halyi
(Boulenger, 1904)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[59]
Philautus hoffmanni
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[60]
Philautus hoipolloi
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[61]
Philautus hypomelas
(Günther, 1876)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[62]
Philautus leucorhinus
(Lichtenstein, Weinland & Von Martens, 1856)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[63]
Philautus limbus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[64]
Philautus lunatus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[65]
Philautus macropus
(Günther, 1869)
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[66]
Philautus malcolmsmithi
(Ahl, 1927)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[67]
Philautus microtympanum
(Günther, 1859)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[68]
Philautus mittermeieri
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[69]
Philautus mooreorum
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[70]
Philautus nanus
(Günther, 1869)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[71]
Philautus nasutus
(Günther, 1869)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[72]
Philautus nemus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[73]
Philautus ocularis
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[74]
Philautus oxyrhynchus
(Günther, 1872)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[75]
Philautus papillosus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[76]
Philautus pleurotaenia
(Boulenger, 1904)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[77]
Philautus poppiae
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[78]
Philautus popularis
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[79]
Philautus procax
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[80]
Philautus regius
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals dd.svg
[81]
Philautus reticulatus
(Günther, 1864)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[82]
Philautus rugatus
(Ahl, 1927)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[83]
Philautus rus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals nt.svg
[84]
Philautus sarasinorum
(Müller, 1887)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[85]
Philautus schmarda
(Kelaart, 1854)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[86]
Philautus semiruber
(Annandale, 1913)
Endemic
Fl mammals dd.svg
[87]
Philautus silus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[88]
Philautus silvaticus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[89]
Philautus simba
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[90]
Philautus sordidus
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals nt.svg
[91]
Philautus stellatus
(Kelaart, 1853)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[92]
Philautus steineri
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[93]
Philautus stictomerus
(Günther, 1876)
Endemic
Fl mammals nt.svg
[94]
Philautus stuarti
Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[95]
Philautus temporalis
(Günther, 1864)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[96]
Philautus variabilis
(Günther, 1859)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[97]
Philautus viridis
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[98]
Philautus zal
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[99]
Philautus zimmeri
(Ahl, 1927)
Endemic
Fl mammals ex.svg
[100]
Philautus zorro
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[101]
Polypedates cruciger
Blyth, 1852
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[102]
Polypedates eques
Günther, 1858
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[103]
Polypedates fastigo
Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2001
Endemic
Fl mammals cr.svg
[104]
Polypedates longinasus
(Ahl, 1931)
Endemic
Fl mammals en.svg
[105]
Indian Tree Frog

Polypedates maculatus.jpg

Polypedates maculatus
(Gray, 1834)
Fl mammals lc.svg
[106]

Order Gymnophiona: Caecilians[edit]

Common name Species

(Authority)

Endemicity Status
Family Ichthyophiidae: Asiatic tailed caecilians

CaecilianNHM.png

Ichthyophis glutinosus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Endemic
Fl mammals lc.svg
[107]
Ichthyophis orthoplicatus
Taylor, 1965
Endemic
Fl mammals vu.svg
[108]
Ichthyophis pseudangularis
Taylor, 1965
Endemic
Fl mammals vu.svg
[109]
Ichthyophis sp.
Endemic

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Species richness of inland and marine fauna in Sri Lanka." (PDF). The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IUCN Sri Lanka and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. 2007. p. 3. ISBN 978-955-8177-63-1. 
  2. ^ a b "The state of amphibians in Sri Lanka". iucn.org. IUCN. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d Bambaradeniya, Channa N.B., ed. (2006). The fauna of Sri Lanka : status of taxonomy, research and conservation (PDF). IUCN Sri Lanka and Government of Sri Lanka. pp. 125–131. ISBN 955-8177-51-2. 
  4. ^ Meegaskumbura, M.; Bossuyt, F.; Pethiyagoda, R.; Manamendra-Arachchi, K.; Bahir, M.; Milinkovitch, M. C.; Schneider, C. J. (2002). "Sri Lanka: An Amphibian Hot Spot" (PDF). Science 298 (5592): 379. doi:10.1126/science.298.5592.379. PMID 12376694. 
  5. ^ Chaitra, M. S.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Shanker, Kartik (10 April 2004). "The biodiversity bandwagon: the splitters have it" (PDF). Current Science 86 (7): 897. 
  6. ^ Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Schneider, Christopher J.; Pethiyagoda, Rohan (25 January 2007). "New species amongst Sri Lanka’s extinct shrub frogs (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae: Philautus)". Zootaxa 1397: 1–15. ISSN 1175-5326. 
  7. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Adenomus dasi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  8. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Adenomus kandianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  9. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Adenomus kelaartii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  10. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Channa Bambaradeniya (2004). "Bufo atukoralei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  11. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Bufo kotagamai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  12. ^ Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan (2004). "Duttaphrynus melanostictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  13. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Duttaphrynus noellerti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  14. ^ Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Bufo scaber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  15. ^ Robert Inger, Vivek Ashok Gour-Broome, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Sushil Dutta (2004). "Kaloula taprobanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  16. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Microhyla karunaratnei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  17. ^ Sushil Dutta, Tej Kumar Shrestha, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Debjani Roy (2004). "Microhyla ornata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  18. ^ Anand Padhye, Anslem de Silva, Sushil Dutta, Tej Kumar Shrestha, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sabitry Bordoloi (2004). "Microhyla rubra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  19. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Microhyla zeylanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  20. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Ramanella nagaoi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  21. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Ramanella obscura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  22. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Ramanella palmata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  23. ^ Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Ramanella variegata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  24. ^ Das, I., Dutta, S., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., de Silva, A. & Sharif Khan, M. (2004). "Uperodon systoma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  25. ^ Muhammad Sharif Khan, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Sergius Kuzmin, Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Mozafar Sharifi (2008). "Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  26. ^ Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Duttaphrynus melanostictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  27. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Fejervarya greenii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  28. ^ Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Fejervarya kirtisinghei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  29. ^ van Dijk, P.P., Iskandar, D., Inger, R., Wai Neng Lau, M., Zhao Ermi, Geng Baorong, Dutta, S., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., de Silva, A., Sabitry Bordoloi, Yoshio Kaneko, Masafumi Matsui & Sharif Khan, M. (2004). "Fejervarya limnocharis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  30. ^ Anand Padhye, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Sushil Dutta, Tej Kumar Shrestha, Sabitry Bordoloi (2004). "Hoplobatrachus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  31. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Lankanectes corrugatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  32. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Nannophrys ceylonensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  33. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Nannophrys guentheri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  34. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2008). "Nannophrys marmorata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  35. ^ Samantha Fernando (2008). "Nannophrys naeyakai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  36. ^ S.D. Biju, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Hylarana aurantiaca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  37. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Hylarana gracilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  38. ^ S.D. Biju, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Hylarana temporalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  39. ^ Annemarie Ohler, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Peter Paul van Dijk, Guinevere Wogan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Tej Kumar Shrestha, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Sphaerotheca breviceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  40. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta (2004). "Sphaerotheca rolandae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  41. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus abundus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  42. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta (2004). "Philautus adspersus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  43. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus alto". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  44. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus asankai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  45. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus auratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  46. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus caeruleus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  47. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus cavirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  48. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus cuspis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  49. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus decoris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  50. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus dimbullae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  51. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus eximius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  52. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus extirpo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  53. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, S.D. Biju (2004). "Philautus femoralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  54. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus fergusonianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  55. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus folicola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  56. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus frankenbergi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  57. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus fulvus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  58. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus hallidayi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  59. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus halyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  60. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Philautus hoffmanni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  61. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus hoipolloi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  62. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus hypomelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  63. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, S.D. Biju, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus leucorhinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  64. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus limbus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  65. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus lunatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  66. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus macropus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  67. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus malcolmsmithi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  68. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Philautus microtympanum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  69. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus mittermeieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  70. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus mooreorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  71. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus nanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  72. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus nasutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  73. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus nemus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  74. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus ocularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  75. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus oxyrhynchus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  76. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus papillosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  77. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus pleurotaenia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  78. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus poppiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  79. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus popularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  80. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus procax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  81. ^ Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Pethiyagoda, R., Karunarathna, S. & Angulo, A. (2009). "Philautus regius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  82. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Philautus reticulatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  83. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus rugatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  84. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus rus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  85. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Sushil Dutta, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus sarasinorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  86. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Philautus schmarda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  87. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus semiruber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  88. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus silus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  89. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus silvaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  90. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus simba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  91. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus sordidus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  92. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Sushil Dutta, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus stellatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  93. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus steineri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  94. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Sushil Dutta, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus stictomerus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  95. ^ Madhava Meegaskumbura, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2006). "Philautus stuarti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  96. ^ S.D. Biju, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi (2004). "Philautus temporalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  97. ^ S.D. Biju, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Sushil Dutta (2004). "Philautus variabilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  98. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus viridis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  99. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus zal". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  100. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Philautus zimmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  101. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda (2004). "Philautus zorro". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  102. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Channa Bambaradeniya (2004). "Polypedates cruciger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  103. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Polypedates eques". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  104. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Polypedates fastigo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  105. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva (2004). "Polypedates longinasus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  106. ^ Sushil Dutta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Chelmala Srinivasulu, S.P. Vijayakumar, Debjani Roy, Saibul Sengupta, Annemarie Ohler, Ghazi S.M. Asmat (2004). "Polypedates maculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  107. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, David Gower, Mark Wilkinson, Oommen V. Oommen (2004). "Ichthyophis glutinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  108. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, David Gower, Mark Wilkinson, Oommen V. Oommen, Alex Kupfer (2004). "Ichthyophis orthoplicatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  109. ^ Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, David Gower, Mark Wilkinson, Oommen V. Oommen (2004). "Ichthyophis pseudangularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 March 2010.