List of animal names

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Mother sea otter with sleeping pup, Morro Bay, California

Many animals, particularly domesticated, have been given specific names for males, females, young, and groups.

The best known source of many of the bizarre words used for collective groupings of animals is The Book of Saint Albans, an essay on hunting published in 1486 and attributed to Dame Juliana Berners.[1]

Most terms used here may be found in common dictionaries and general information web sites.[2][3][4]

Generic terms[edit]

The terms in this table apply to many or all taxa in a particular biological family, class, or clade.

Animal Young Female Male Collective noun Collateral adjective Trivial name
Aves chick hen cock flock avian bird
Bovidae calf cow (bred), heifer (not bred) bull, steer (castrated) herd bovine cattle; cows
Canidae puppy, pup[5] bitch dog pack canine dog
Equidae colt (male), filly (female), foal jenny (asses), mare (other equids) jack (asses), stallion (other equids), gelding (castrated horse) herd equine horse
Felidae kitten, cub queen tom clowder feline cat
Osteichthyes fry, fingerling ? ? school, shoal piscine, ichthyic bony fish

Terms by species or taxon[edit]

Animal Young Female Male Collective noun Collateral adjective Culinary noun for meat
A
Aardvark cub sow boar orycteropodian
Albatross chick N/A N/A flock[6]
rookery[7]
gam (when searching for mates)[8]
?
Alligator hatchling cow bull congregation[9] eusuchian
Alpaca cria ? ? herd camelid
Ant larva
pupa
queen
worker
gyne
drone army[10]
bike[10]
colony[10][11]
nest[9]
swarm[10]
formic
myrmicine
Anteater pup sow boar N/A ?
Antelope calf[12] doe buck herd[10][13]
cluster[10][13]
tribe[10][13]
alcelaphine
bubaline
antilopine
Ape infant N/A N/A shrewdness[2][9][13][14]
troop[9][10][13]
simian
Armadillo pup
baby
sow boar N/A cingulatan
Ass/Donkey foal jenny jack herd[10]
coffle[10][13]
drove[9][10][13]
pace[10][11][13]
asinine
B
Baboon infant N/A ? flange[15][note 1]
tribe[citation needed]
troop[2][9][15]
?
Badger cub
kit
sow boar cete[2][9][11][15]
clan[citation needed]
colony[15]
company[citation needed]
musteline
Barracuda ? ? ? school[16] percesocine
Bat pup N/A N/A cloud[15][17]
colony[11][15]
flock[18]
pteropine
noctillionine
Bear cub[19] sow boar sleuth[9][11][15]
sloth[9][11][15]
ursine
Beaver kit
kitten
pup
N/A N/A family[9]
colony[9][15]
Bee larva
pupa
queen
worker [note 2]
drone cast (a second swarm)[15]
cluster (of workers around the queen)[15]
colony[15]
drift[2][15]
erst[2][15]
grist[9][15]
hive[2][9][15]
nest[9]
rabble[15]
stand[15]
swarm[2][9][15]
apic
apian
apiarian
Bison calf cow bull herd bovine
bubaline
Boar (wild pig)
Also see Pig
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
? ? herd[15]
singular[9][15]
sounder[9]
?
Buffalo, African (for American buffalo, see Bison) calf cow, heifer bull herd[9][11][15]
troop[9]
gang[9][11][15]
obstinancy[9][11][15]
?
Butterfly caterpillar
larva
pupa
chrysalis
? ? flight[15]
flutter[9]
rabble[15]
pieridine
pierine
lepidopteran
C
Camel calf cow bull caravan[9]
flock[9]
herd
train[9]
camelid
cameline
Capybara pup ? ? ? ?
Caribou calf ? ? herd rangiferine
Cassowary hatchling
chick
? ? N/A ratite
Cat kitten
kit
molly
queen
pussy
tom
gib (castrated male)[20]
clowder[2][9]
cluster[9]
clutter[21]
glaring[2][9]
pounce[9]
kindle (kittens)[22]
litter (kittens)
feline
Caterpillar ? ? ? army[9] ?
Cattle[note 3] calf[23] cow[24] bull herd[9]
drove[9]
mob[citation needed]
team (Oxen)
bovine[note 4]
taurine (male)
vaccine (female)
vituline (young)
beef
veal
Chamois calf doe bull herd rupicaprine
Cheetah cub ? ? coalition (male)[25] ?
Chicken chick hen
pullet
rooster
cock
cockerel
capon (castrated male)
flock
brood[9]
peep (chicks)[9]
clutch (eggs)
galline poultry
Chimpanzee infant empress blackback troop[citation needed]
group[citation needed]
harem[citation needed]
panine
Chinchilla kit velvet
sow
boar
bull
herd[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
chinchilline
Chough chick ? ? chattering[2][14][26]
clattering[2][14][27]
corvine
Clam larva ? ? bed[citation needed] ?
Cobra ? ? ? quiver[28] elapid
Cockroach nymph ? ? intrusion[28] blattid
Cod codling
sprat[citation needed]
? ? school
gadoid
gadine
Cormorant chick
shaglet
? ? gulp[28]
flight
Coyote cub
pup
whelp
bitch dog pack
train[citation needed]
band[citation needed]
canine
Crab N/A hen
jenny
cock
jimmy
cast[citation needed]
consortium[citation needed]
cancrine
Crane chick
colt[29]
? ? herd
sedge[11]
sege[30]
siege[31]
alectorine
Crocodile hatchling cow bull bask[9]
congregation
float[9]
nest
crocodilian
Crow ? ? ? horde[citation needed]
hover[citation needed]
murder[2][9]
corvine
Curlew ? ? ? herd[2][14] ?
D
Deer calf[12]
fawn
doe
hind
cow[12]
buck
stag
bull[12]
hart (red deer)
bunch[32]
herd[32]
mob[32]
rangale[32]
clash[citation needed]
gang[citation needed]
leash[citation needed]
(buck) brace[citation needed]
(roe) bevy[citation needed]
cervine
elaphine
venison
humble (organ meat)
Dinosaur hatchling
juvenile
cow bull herd (herbivores)
pack (carnivores)
dinosaurian
Dog pup[5]
puppy
whelp[33]
bitch
dam
dog
stud
sire
pack (wild)[11][32]
kennel[32]
legion[citation needed]
mute[11]
litter (young)[34]
cowardice (curs)[11][35]
comedy (boxers)[36][37]
cry (hounds)[38]
canine
Dogfish ? ? ? troop[32] ? capeshark (USA)
rock salmon (UK)
flake (UK, AUS)
huss (UK)
rigg (UK)
kahada (CAN)[39]
Dolphin calf
pup
cow bull school[32]
pod
herd
team[32]
alliance (male)[citation needed]
party (female)[citation needed]
delphine
Donkey - See Ass
Dotterel ? ? ? trip[2][11] ?
Dove chick hen cock arc[9]
bevy[citation needed]
cote
dole[2][32]
dule[9][32]
flight[2][9][32]
paddling[citation needed]
piteousness[2][32]
pitying[9]
columbine
Dragonfly nymph queen king
drake
cluster
flight
anisopteran
Duck
Also see Mallard
duckling duck
hen
drake On land
flock
herd
badling[11]
brace[11]
safe[2]
sord[32]
sore[32]
waddling[32]

On water
bunch[2][32]
paddling[2][32]
raft[2][32]

In flight
skein[32]
string[32]
team[11][32]
anatine
fuliguline
poultry
Dugong calf cow bull herd dugongine
Dunlin chick ? ? fling[2] ?
E
Eagle eaglet
fledgling
N/A N/A convocation[9][11] aquiline
Echidna puggle
(in common use, but not scientifically endorsed)
? ? tachyglossine
Eel leptocephalus (larva)
elver (juvenile)
N/A N/A array[citation needed]
bed[citation needed]
cell[citation needed]
fry[citation needed]
pipe[citation needed]
swarm[citation needed]
anguilline
Eland calf cow bull herd ?
Elephant calf[23] cow[24] bull[40] herd
memory[citation needed]
parade[citation needed]
elephantine
proboscine
proboscidean
Elephant seal calf cow bull herd
pack
arrangement[citation needed]
miroungan
Elk (wapiti) calf[12] cow[12] bull[12] gang[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
cervine venison
Emu chick
hatchling
? ? mob[citation needed] ?
F
Falcon eyass/eyas falcon tiercel
tercel
terzel
cast[citation needed] acciptrine
Ferret kit jill hob busyness[14]
business[9][11]
cast[citation needed]
fesnyng[citation needed]
fesynes[citation needed]
musteline
Finch chick hen cock charm[citation needed]
quiver
fringilline
Fish fry
fingerling
? ? draft[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
run
school
shoal

When caught
catch
drought[citation needed]
haul
piscine
Flamingo ? ? ? stand[citation needed]
flamboyance[citation needed]
phoenicopterine
Fly maggot ? ? business[citation needed]
cloud[citation needed]
swarm
dipterous
Fox cub[19]
kit
pup[5]
vixen tod
dog
reynard
earth[citation needed]
lead[citation needed]
leash[9][11]
skulk[9][11]
troop[citation needed]
vulpine
Frog polliwog
tadpole
froglet
- - army[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
knot[citation needed]
bundle[citation needed]
ranine
G
Gaur calf cow bull herd bovine
gaurine
garabeef
Gazelle calf[12] cow[12] bull[12] herd gazelline
Gerbil pup doe buck horde cricetine
Giant Panda cub sow boar sleuth[41] ailuropodine
Giraffe calf cow bull herd
corps
tower[42]
giraffine
Gnat larva ? ? cloud[9][11]
horde[9][11]
swarm[9]
?
Gnu calf cow bull herd
implausibility[citation needed]
Goat kid nanny
doe
doeling
billy
buck
buckling
[note 5]
drove[citation needed]
flock[citation needed]
herd
mob
tribe[citation needed]
trip[citation needed]
caprine
hircine
chevon
cabrito
mutton
Goose gosling goose gander On land
corps[citation needed]
flock
gaggle
herd

In flight
skein[2]
team[2]
wedge[2]
anatine
anserine
poultry
Goldfinch ? ? ? charm[citation needed] cardueline
Goldfish ? ? ? glint[citation needed]
troubling[citation needed]
?
Gorilla infant N/A blackback
silverback
troop
band
whoop
simian
Goshawk ? ? ? flight[14] ?
Grasshopper nymph ? ? cloud
swarm
caeliferian
Grouse ? ? ? covey[citation needed] tetraonine
Guanaco chulengo ? ? ? camelid
Guinea fowl keet hen cock confusion[citation needed]
rasp[43]
flock[44]
numidine poultry
Guinea pig pup sow boar herd ? cuy
Gull chick
hen cock colony
flock
larine
H
Hamster pup doe buck horde cricetid
Hare leveret doe
jill
buck
jack
band
down[45]
drove[45]
flick[45]
husk[45]
leverine
leporine
Hawk eyas hen tiercel boil[9][11]
cast[9][11]
kettle[9][11] [note 6]
accipitrine
falconine
Hedgehog hoglet
piglet
pup
sow boar array[45] erinaceine
Heron chick hen cock flight[45]
sedge[9][11][45]
sege[30][45]
siege[9][11][31][45]
ardeidine
Herring ? ? ? army[11][45]
glean[45]
shoal[45]
clupeidean
Hippopotamus calf cow bull bloat[9][11][45]
herd[45]
thunder[28]
hippopotamine
Hornet larvae
pupae
queen drone nest[11]
swarm
vespine
Horse foal
colt (male)
filly (female)
gelding (castrated male)
mare
dam
stallion
stud
stable[9]
stud[11]
harras[11]
herd (wild horses)[9]
band (wild horses)[9]
team (work horses)[9][11]
rag (colts)[11]
string (ponies)[11]
field (racehorses)
equine
Human baby
child
girl
boy
woman man group
family
band
crowd
clan
tribe
human long pig[46]
(See cannibalism)
Hummingbird chick hen cock charm[citation needed] trochiline
trochilidine
Hyena cub
pup
whelp
bitch dog clan[citation needed]
cackle[9][11]
hyenine
I
Ibex kid nanny billy ? ?
Ibis chick ? ? ? threskiornithine
J
Jackal pup ? ? pack ?
Jaguar cub ? ? prowl[47]
leap[47]
?
Jay ? ? ? band[citation needed]
party[11]
scold[11]
corvine
Jay, Blue chick hen cock charm corvine
Jellyfish planula
polyp
ephyra[48]
sow boar bloom
fluther[2]
smack[2][11]
smuth[7]
scyphozoan
K
Kangaroo joey flyer
doe
jill
roo
boomer
buck
jack
court
herd
mob[citation needed]
troop[11]
macropodine
Kingfisher chick ? ? ? Alcedine
Koala joey doe buck colony[citation needed]
phascolarctine
Komodo dragon hatchling
chick
calf
cow
hen
bull
cock
bank[citation needed] varanine
Kookabura chick ? ? ? Halcyonine
Kouprey calf cow bull herd sauveline
bovine
Kudu calf cow bull herd tragelaphine
L
Lapwing chick ? ? deceit[11][14]
desert[2]
vanelline
Lark chick hen cock exaltation[2][14] alaudine
Lemur infant ? ? congress[citation needed]
conspiracy[citation needed]
plot[citation needed]
lemurine
Leopard cub leopardess leopard leap[2][9][11]
lepe[2]
pardine
Lion cub[19] lioness lion pride
sawt
troop[citation needed]
leonine
Llama cria ? ? herd
flock
camelid
Lobster ? hen[3] cock[3] pod[49] homarine
Locust nymph N/A N/A cloud
host
plague[citation needed]
swarm
caelifera
Loris infant colony[50] lorisine[51]
Louse nymph N/A N/A colony
pediculine
Lyrebird chick hen cock musket[citation needed] menurine
M
Magpie chick hen cock flock
charm[citation needed]
gulp[citation needed]
murder[citation needed]
tiding[citation needed]
tittering[citation needed]
tribe[citation needed]
garruline
Mallard
Also see Duck
duckling hen greenhead[52] flush[citation needed]
lute[citation needed]
puddling[citation needed]
anatine poultry
Manatee calf cow bull herd manatine
sirenian
Mandrill infant N/A N/A horde simian
Mantis nymph ? ? ? ?
Marten ? ? ? richness[citation needed] ?
Meerkat pup N/A N/A clan[citation needed]
gang[citation needed]
mob[citation needed]
?
Mink cub
kit
sow boar ? musteline
Mole pup sow boar company[citation needed]
labour[citation needed]
movement[citation needed]
talpine
Mongoose pup ? ? ? herpestine
Monkey infant N/A N/A tribe[citation needed]
troop[2]
simian
Moose calf[12] cow[12] bull[12][40] herd cervine venison
Mouse kitten
pup

As pet food
pinky/fuzzy/crawler/hopper[53]
doe buck colony
harvest
horde
mischief[citation needed]
nest
murine
Mosquito nymph
wriggler
tumbler
N/A N/A scourge[citation needed]
swarm
cloud
aedine
anopheline
Mule foal molly
john
barren[citation needed]
pack[citation needed]
span[citation needed]
?
N
Narwhal calf - - blessing[citation needed] -
Newt eft[54] - - - pleurodeline
Nightingale chick hen cock flock
route[citation needed]
watch[citation needed]
philomelian
O
Octopus fry ? ? consortium[55] octopodine
Okapi calf cow bull herd okapine
Opossum joey jill jack passel didelphine
Oryx calf ? ? ? ?
Ostrich hatchling
chick
hen cock flock
troop
ratite
struthious
Otter pup
whelp
sow boar romp[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
family[citation needed]
raft[citation needed]
musteline
lutrine
Owl fledgling
owlet
? parliament[9]
stare[citation needed]
strigine
Ox calf cow bull
steer
herd
yoke
team
drove[citation needed]
bovine
Oyster spat ? ? bed[citation needed]
cast[citation needed]
hive[citation needed]
ostracine meat
P
Panther cub pantheress ? ? pantherine
Parrot chick hen cock company[citation needed]
flock
pandemonium[citation needed]
psittacine
Partridge chick hen
chantelle
cock bevy[citation needed]
covey[citation needed]
perdicine
Peafowl chick
peachick
peahen peacock party[citation needed]
muster[citation needed]
pride[citation needed]
ostentation (peacocks)[citation needed]
pavonine poultry
Pelican chick
nestling
? ? pod[9] pelecanine
Penguin chick
nestling
? ? rookery[citation needed]
huddle[citation needed]
waddle
(on land) colony
(in water) raft[56]
spheniscine
Pheasant chick hen cock nest[citation needed]
nye[citation needed]
(brood) nide[citation needed]
(take-off) bouquet[citation needed]
(in flight) Guff
phasianine
Pig
Also see Boar
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
barrow (castrated male)[57]
gilt (young female that has not given birth)[58]
sow boar drift[9][11][59]
drove[9][11]
team (hogs)[citation needed]
passel (hogs)[citation needed]
parcel (hogs)[citation needed]
litter (piglets)
porcine
suilline
pork
ham
bacon
Pigeon squab
squeaker
hen cock flight[citation needed]
flock
pullastrine squab
Polar Bear cub sow boar ? ursine
Pony- See Horse
Porcupine pup sow boar prickle[citation needed] hystricine
Porpoise calf cow bull crowd[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
pod
school
shoal
phocoenine
Prairie Dog pup sow boar coterie[citation needed]
town[citation needed]
?
Q
Quail chick hen cock bevy[citation needed]
covey[citation needed]
?
Quelea chick hen cock flock
queline
Quetzal nestling ? ? ? trogonine
R
Rabbit bunny
kit
kitten
nestling
doe
jill
buck
jack
colony[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
bury[citation needed]
drove[citation needed]
trace[citation needed]
leash[citation needed]
trip[citation needed]
(domestic) herd[citation needed]
(hare) down[citation needed]
husk[citation needed]
(young) litter
nest
leporine
Raccoon cub
kit
sow boar nursery[citation needed]
gaze[citation needed]
procyonine
Rail chick reeve ruff ? ralline
Ram
Also see Sheep
lamb ewe ram flock arietine
ovine
lamb
mutton
Rat calf[citation needed]
kitten[citation needed]
nestling[citation needed]
pup[5]
doe
cow
buck
bull
colony
horde
mischief[citation needed]
plague[citation needed]
swarm[citation needed]
murine
Raven chick hen cock unkindness corvine
Red deer calf hind stag herd ? venison
Red panda cub sow boar pack ailuirine
Reindeer (caribou) calf cow bull herd rangiferine
Rhinoceros calf cow bull crash[citation needed]
herd
ceratorhine
Rook ? ? ? building[2]
clamor[citation needed]
parliament[2][60]
?
S
Salamander tadpole
salamanderling[citation needed]
sow boar maelstrom[citation needed]
band[citation needed]
congress[citation needed]
caudatan
Salmon parr[61] hen cock run[citation needed] salmonine
Sand Dollar larva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
? ? ? clypeasteroid
Sandpiper ? ? ? fling[citation needed] scolopacine
Sardine ? ? ? family[citation needed] ?
Scorpion ? ? ? bed[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
?
Sea lion pup
calf
cow bull pod[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
herd
rookery[citation needed]
team[citation needed]
otarine
Sea Urchin larva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
? ? ? ?
Seahorse seafoal seamare seastallion shoal hippocampal
Seal pup[5] cow bull harem[citation needed]
herd
pod[citation needed]
rookery[citation needed]
phocine
Shark cub[19]
pup[62]
? bull school
shiver[citation needed]
selachian flake (AUS)
Sheep
Also see Ram
lamb
lambkin
cosset
ewe
dam
ram[note 5]
buck
down[citation needed]
drift
drove
mob
flock
fold
herd
trip[citation needed]
ovine lamb
mutton
hoggett
Shrew shrewlet sow boar colony
drove
soricine
Skunk kit sow boar[3] surfeit mephitine
Snail hood[citation needed]
rout[63]
walk[citation needed]
gastropodian escargot
Snake snakelet
hatchling (a newly hatched snake)
neonate (newborn)
N/A N/A nest[citation needed]
bed[citation needed]
den[citation needed]
knot[citation needed]
anguine
elapine
serpentine
viperine
ophidian
Sparrow chick ? ? flock passerine
Spider spiderling ? ? cluster[citation needed]
clutter[citation needed]
arachnine
arachnoid
Spoonbill chick ? ? ? plataleine
Squid chick hen cock audience[citation needed] tethidine calamari
Squirrel pup
kit
kitten
doe buck dray[citation needed]
scurry[28]
sciurine
Starling ? ? ? chattering[9][26]
murmuration[2][9][11][14]
sturnine
Stingray ? ? ? fever[citation needed] myliobatoid
Stinkbug nymph ? ? intrusion[citation needed] pentatomidae
Stork ? ? ? muster[citation needed]
mustering[citation needed]
ciconine
Swallow ? ? ? flight[citation needed]
gulp[citation needed]
hirundinine
Swan cygnet
flapper
pen cob bank[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
flock
game[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
team[citation needed]

In flight
flight[citation needed]
wedge[citation needed]
cygnine
T
Tapir calf cow bull herd
measure[citation needed]
tapirine
Tarsier infant doe buck herd
plot[citation needed]
troop[citation needed]
tarsiine
Termite larva cow bull brood[citation needed]
colony
nest
swarm
isopteran
Tiger cub[19]
whelp
tigress tiger ambush[9]
streak[28]
tigrine
Toad tadpole
toadlet
N/A N/A knot[9][11]
nest[citation needed]
lump[citation needed]}
ranine
batrachian
Trout fingerling hen cock hover[citation needed] ?
Turkey poult hen tom
gobbler
stag
jake (immature)
rafter[64][65]:235
gang[citation needed]
posse[citation needed]
? poultry
Turtle hatchling N/A N/A bale[citation needed]
dule[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
turn[citation needed]
chelonian
U
V
Vicuña calf cow bull posse
herd
cameline
Viper ? ? ? generation[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
viperine
Vulture ? ? ? venue[citation needed]
wake
committee
kettle
volt
?
W
Wallaby joey jill jack mob ?
Walrus calf cow bull herd
flock
pod[citation needed]
wealth
odobenine
Wasp larva queen
worker
drone swarm
hive
colony
nest
vespine
Water buffalo calf cow bull pot carabeef
Weasel pup
kit
bitch
doe
jill
buck
dog
hub
jack
gang[13]
sneak[13]
musteline
Whale calf[23] cow[24] bull gam[citation needed]
herd
mob[citation needed]
pod
school
cetacean
cetaceous
blubber
Wolf cub
pup[5]
whelp
bitch
she-wolf
dog pack
route[citation needed]
lupine
Wolverine kit
whelp
angeline wolverine pack
gang[citation needed]
mob[citation needed]
musteline
Wombat joey jill jack mob[citation needed] ?
Woodcock ? ? ? fall[citation needed] ?
Woodpecker chick ? ? descent[citation needed] picine
Worm wormlet ? ? bed[citation needed]
clat[citation needed]
clew[citation needed]
helminthic
vermian
Wren chick cow bull herd[citation needed]
cabinet[citation needed]
troglodytine
X
Y
Yak calf cow bull herd ?
Z
Zebra colt
foal
mare stallion herd[9][66]
cohort[66]
dazzle [67]
zeal[9][66]
zebrine
hippotigrine

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term "flange" was originally used to denote a group of baboons in a Not the Nine O'Clock News comedy sketch entitled "Gerald the Intelligent Gorilla" where it was used for comic effect. It has since been used in the scientific literature for a collection of baboons.
  2. ^ A worker bee is a sexually undeveloped female.
  3. ^ Castrated male cattle are steers in the United States, or bullocks in the United Kingdom. A young cow that has not given birth is a heifer. See Cattle for more names. Cows is often used informally to refer to cattle in general.
  4. ^ Bovine refers to all species of genus Bos.
  5. ^ a b A castrated male sheep or goat is a wether. See sheep for more names.
  6. ^ a "kettle" or "boil" is a group of hawks swirling and cris-crossing in a thermal air current, see "A Kettle of Hawks"

References[edit]

  1. ^ Woop Studios; Jay Sacher (2013), A Compendium of Collective Nouns: From an Armory of Aardvarks to a Zeal of Zebras, Chronicle Books, p. 9, ISBN 978-1-4521-2952-5 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Dictionary.com Animal Names". 
  4. ^ "Merriam Webster Dictionary". 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Pup"
  6. ^ National Geographic Animals: Albatross http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/albatross/
  7. ^ a b Ivan G. Sparkes, Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms ().
  8. ^ Riddell, Te Aorere. Toroa: The Royal Albatross. Huia, 2003. 11. Print.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br "San Diego Zoo". archived copy of Animal group names. Zoological Society of San Diego. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "AskOxford: A". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au "Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?". U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology By Valerius Geist, 1998, ISBN 0-8117-0496-3
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Beat about the Bush: Mammals, by Trevor Carnaby, published by Jacana Media, January 1, 2008, page 362. ISBN 978-1-77009-240-2.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Berners, Dame Juliana (1881 reproduction) [First published 1486]. The Boke of Saint Albans. Introduction by William Blades. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "AskOxford: B". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  16. ^ Thomson, Donald A. (2000). "school+of+barracuda" Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez : the rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California (Rev. ed., 1st University of Texas Press ed. ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-292-78155-9. 
  17. ^ Campbell, Charles A.R. (2002). "cloud+of+bats" Bats, mosquitoes and dollars. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-89875-932-7. 
  18. ^ Brown, Michael J. (1997). "flock+of+bats" Durio, a bibliographic review. New Delhi, India: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Office for South Asia. p. 62. ISBN 978-92-9043-318-7. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Cub"
  20. ^ Gib Definition 2
  21. ^ "AskOxford: C". Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  22. ^ Definition of kindle by the Free Online Dictionary
  23. ^ a b c "Calf"
  24. ^ a b c "Cow"
  25. ^ Caro, T.M. (1994). Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains : group living in an asocial species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-226-09434-2. 
  26. ^ a b Definition of Chattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  27. ^ Definition of Clattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  28. ^ a b c d e f Universe in Your Pocket by Joel Levy, published by Barnes & Noble, Inc.
  29. ^ Gray, p. 594
  30. ^ a b Definition of Sege by the Free Online Dictionary
  31. ^ a b Definition of Siege by the Free Online Dictionary
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "AskOxford: D". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  33. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/whelp
  34. ^ http://www.akc.org/enewsletter/akc_breeder/2009/fall/handbook.cfm
  35. ^ http://www.metaphordogs.org/Dogs/entries/coward.html
  36. ^ http://www.akc.org/breeds/boxer/index.cfm
  37. ^ http://www.the-puppy-dog-place.com/boxer.html
  38. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cry
  39. ^ "Shark utilization, marketing and trade". fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  40. ^ a b "Bull"
  41. ^ Munroe, Susan (2013). "Giant Pandas at the Toronto Zoo". Canada Onlibe. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  42. ^ Handley, Julia (2010). "tower+of+giraffes" Little things.. [S.l.]: Authorhouse. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4520-6170-2. 
  43. ^ Lynn-Allen, Lieut.-Colonel B. G. (1951). Shot-gun and Sunlight - The Game Birds of East Africa. London: Batchworth Press. 
  44. ^ Mobley, Jason A. (2009). "guinea+fowl"+flock Birds of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-7614-7775-4. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "AskOxford: H". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  46. ^ King, Alanna, ed. (1987). Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas. London: Luzac Paragon House. 
  47. ^ a b http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-a-group-of-jaguars-called
  48. ^ International Wildlife Encyclopedia By Robert Burton, 2002, vol. 8, ISBN 0-7614-7266-5, p. 1322
  49. ^ http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_group_of_lobsters_called
  50. ^ Bradley Trevor Greive, Mitsuaki Iwago (2003). Priceless : the vanishing beauty of a fragile planet. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7407-2695-8. 
  51. ^ McArdle,, John E. (1981). Functional morphology of the hip and thigh of the lorisiformes. Basel, München [usw.]: Karger. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-8055-1767-6. 
  52. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company, [1]
  53. ^ See Mouse#As food
  54. ^ Brockes, J. & A. Kumar. 2005. Newts. Current Biology. 15(2):R4244 pmid=15668151 url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204010322
  55. ^ http://quizzes.ask.com/What_is_a_group_of_octopuses_called
  56. ^ New Zealand Penguins - Frequently Asked Questions
  57. ^ Barrow Definition 3
  58. ^ Gilt Definition 2
  59. ^ Stephanie Strom (January 20, 2014). "Demand Grows for Hogs That Are Raised Humanely Outdoors". New York Times. 
  60. ^ Lilford, F.L.S. 1894-5. Notes on the Ornithology of Northhamptonshire and Neighborhood for 1893. Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society. Vol 8 p54.
  61. ^ Definition of Parr by the Free Online Dictionary
  62. ^ Florida Museum of Natural History. "Shark Biology". Retrieved 25 Jan 2014. 
  63. ^ Simpson, J. A. (1996). The Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford UK: Clarendon Press. p. 1620. ISBN 0-19-861258-3. 
  64. ^ Bartlett's Roget's Thesaurus (2003), ISBN 0316735876, ISBN 9780316735872, "Collective Names for Creatures", p. 90 (accessed 3 March 2014)
  65. ^ John G. Robertson (1991). Robertson's Words for a Modern Age: A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements, Senior Scribe Publications ISBN 0963091905, ISBN 9780963091901, Appendix M: Group Names, pp. 231-236 (accessed 3 March 2014). Page 231 states that "The nomenclature in italics were considered the proper terms for groups of beasts, fish, fowls, insects or whatever was designated and 'codified in the fifteenth century'.... [However, regarding non-italicized terms,] Many of the words in the following list have no authoritive basis and have been created to express possible names for the groups represented."
  66. ^ a b c "AskOxford: Z". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  67. ^ The dictionary definition of dazzle at Wiktionary

Further reading[edit]