List of animal rights advocates
Advocates of animal rights as well as activists for animal liberation hold the view that to deny the most basic needs of sentient creatures – such as the avoidance of pain – to non-human animals, on the basis of species membership alone, is a form of discrimination akin to racism or sexism. Many animal rights advocates argue that non-human animals should be regarded as persons and members of the moral community whose interests deserve legal protection.
The animal rights movement emerged in the 19th century, focused largely on opposition to vivisection, and in the 1960s the modern movement sprang up in England around the Hunt Saboteurs Association. In the 1970s, the Australian and American philosophers, Peter Singer and Tom Regan, began to provide the movement with its philosophical foundations. Singer argued for animal liberation on the basis of utilitarianism, first in 1973 in The New York Review of Books and later in his Animal Liberation (1975), while Regan developed a deontological theory of animal rights in several papers from 1975 onwards, followed by The Case for Animal Rights (1983).
A distinction persists within the movement – based on the utilitarian/deontological divide – between those who seek incremental reform, a position known as animal protectionism, and those on the abolitionist side, who argue that reform that aims to regulate, rather than abolish, the property status of animals is counter-productive.
The following is a list of notable animal rights advocates from all positions within the movement, from academics to activists, listed according to their country of birth.
|Name||Born||Image||Country of birth||Occupation||Source|
|Carol J. Adams||1951||US||Eco-feminist writer, author of The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990)|||
|Bryan Adams||1959||Canada||Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Douglas Adams||1952–2001||UK||Writer, campaigner for the Great Ape Project|||
|Casey Affleck||1975||US||Actor, animal rights activist|||
|Cleveland Amory||1917–1998||US||Founder of the Fund for Animals, president of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Pamela Anderson||1967||Canada||Model, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Michael Aufhauser||1952||Germany||Founder of Gut Aiderbichl, an animal sanctuary|||
|Greg Avery||1963||UK||Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns|||
|Alec Baldwin||1958||US||Actor, narrator of Meet Your Meat (2002)|||
|Matt Ball||US||Executive director of Vegan Outreach, co-author of The Animal Activist's Handbook (2009)|||
|Martin Balluch||1954||Austria||Co-founder of Vegane Gesellschaft Österreich, president of Verein Gegen Tierfabriken|||
|David Barbarash||Canada||Former spokesperson for the North American Animal Liberation Press Office|||
|Neal Barnard||US||President of Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine|||
|Shane and Sia Barbi||1963||US||Models|||
|Brigitte Bardot||1934||France||Former model, animal rights activist, founder of the Brigitte Bardot Foundation|||
|Kim Basinger||1953||US||Actress, model, animal rights activist|||
|Gene Baur||US||Founder of Farm Sanctuary|||
|Tom Beauchamp||US||Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University, co-author of The Human Use of Animals (1998)|||
|Marc Bekoff||1945||US||Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, co-founder with Jane Goodall of Ethologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Jeremy Bentham||1748–1832||UK||Philosopher, author of the oft-quoted "The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?"|||
|Steven Best||1955||US||Philosopher, former Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson|||
|Michela Vittoria Brambilla||1967||Italy||Politician|||
|Brigid Brophy||1929–1995||UK||Writer, author of an influential article, "The Rights of Animals," in The Sunday Times, London, 1965.|||
|Mel Broughton||1960||UK||Co-founder of the SPEAK campaign|||
|Ned Buyukmihci||UK||Doctor of veterinary medicine, founder of Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights|||
|Paola Cavalieri||Italy||Philosopher, campaigner for the Great Ape Project|||
|Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne||1623–1673||UK||Writer, anti-vivisectionist|||
|Cesar Chavez||1927–1993||US||Co-founder of the National Farm Workers Association|||
|Alan Clark||1928–1999||UK||Conservative Member of Parliament (1974–1992)|||
|Stephen R. L. Clark||1945||UK||Professor of philosophy at the University of Liverpool (1984–2009), author of The Moral Status of Animals (1977)|||
|Jean Clemens||1880–1909||US||Daughter of Mark Twain|||
|Frances Power Cobbe||1822–1904||UK||Founder of the National Anti-Vivisection Society and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection|||
|Alasdair Cochrane||1978||UK||Political theorist based at the University of Sheffield; author of An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory and Animal Rights without Liberation.|||
|Sue Coe||1951||UK||Artist, illustrator, author of "Cruel: Bearing Witness to Animal Exploitation" (2012)|||
|J. M. Coetzee||1940||South Africa||Novelist, recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature, author of The Lives of Animals (1999)|||
|Priscilla Cohn||US||Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Pennsylvania State University, associate director of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Rod Coronado||1966||US||Animal rights activist, formerly for the ALF, Earth First!, and ELF|||
|James Cromwell||1940||US||Actor, played the voice of the farmer in Babe (1995)|||
|Karen Davis||US||President of United Poultry Concerns, author of The Holocaust and the Henmaid's Tale (2005)|||
|David DeGrazia||US||Professor of Philosophy at George Washington University, author of Taking Animals Seriously (1996)|||
|Chris DeRose||1948||US||Founder of Last Chance for Animals|||
|Rukmini Devi||1904–1986||India||Dancer, founder of the Animal Welfare Board of India|||
|Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton||1878–1951||UK||Co-founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding||1882–1970||UK||Commander of RAF Fighter Command, president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Muriel Dowding, Baroness Dowding||1908–1981||UK||Founder of Beauty Without Cruelty|||
|Joan Dunayer||US||Author of Animal Equality (2001) and Speciesism (2004)|||
|John Feldman||1967||US||Musician, appeared in Behind the Mask (2006)|||
|Roger Fouts||1943||US||Primate researcher known for his work with Washoe the chimpanzee, adviser to the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Gary Francione||1951||US||Distinguished Professor of Law and Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Scholar of Law & Philosophy at Rutgers School of Law–Newark, leading abolitionist, author of Animals, Property, and the Law (2005)|||
|Lawrence Finsen||US||Professor of philosophy at University of Redlands, co-author of The Animal Rights Movement in America (1994)|||
|Bruce Friedrich||1969||US||Senior Director for Strategic Initiatives, Farm Sanctuary|||
|Maneka Gandhi||1956||India||Politician, founder of People for Animals|||
|Robert Garner||1960||UK||Professor of political theory at the University of Leicester; co-author of The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation? (2010)|||
|Juliet Gellatley||UK||Founder and director of Viva!|||
|Antoine Goetschel||1958||Switzerland||Lawyer, animal advocate for the canton of Zurich|||
|Jordan Halliday||1987||US||Animal Rights Activist, Grand Jury Resister & co-host of Which side Podcast|||
|Celia Hammond||UK||Former model, founder of the Celia Hammond Animal Trust|||
|Lizzy Lind af Hageby||1878–1963||Sweden||Founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society, known for the Brown Dog affair|||
|Lee Hall||ca. 1961||US||Lawyer, legal director of Friends of Animals|||
|Stevan Harnad||1945||Hungary||Canada Research Chair in Cognitive Sciences, Université du Québec à Montreal|||
|Alex Hershaft||1934||US||Founder of Farm Animal Rights Movement and the Chairman of the U.S. Animal Rights National Conference|||
|Barry Horne||1952–2001||UK||Animal rights activist, hunger striker|||
|V. R. Krishna Iyer||1915||India||Former judge of the Supreme Court of India|||
|Roberta Kalechofsky||1931||US||Writer, author of Animal Suffering and the Holocaust: The Problem with Comparisons (2003)|||
|Shannon Keith||US||Animal rights lawyer, director of Behind the Mask (2006)|||
|Kesha||1987||USA||Singer-songwriter and rapper|||
|Anna Kingsford||1846–1888||UK||Physician, anti-vivisectionist, author of The Perfect Way in Diet (1881)|||
|Marti Kheel||1948–2011||US||Ecofeminist writer, founder of Feminists for Animal Rights|||
|Niko Koffeman||1958||Netherlands||Senator, Party for the Animals|||
|Elizabeth Kucinich||1977||UK||Director of public affairs for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine|||
|Carla Lane||1928||UK||Television scriptwriter, ran Animaline animal sanctuary|||
|Gill Langley||1952||UK||Scientist, campaigner against the use of animals in research|||
|Ronnie Lee||1951||UK||Founder of the Animal Liberation Front|||
|Bob Linden||US||Host of Go Vegan Radio|||
|Ludvig Lindström||1975||Sweden||Animal rights activist, founder of Global Happiness Organization|||
|Andrew Linzey||1951||UK||Theologian, founder of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Rebecca Loades||1994||UK||Really cool dude|
|Linda McCartney||1941–1998||US||Photographer, musician, founder of Linda McCartney Foods|||
|Dan Lyons||UK||CEO, Centre for Animals and Social Justice|||
|Mary McCartney||1969||UK||Photographer, has taken photographs for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Paul McCartney||1942||UK||Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Stella McCartney||1971||UK||Designer, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Melody MacDonald||UK||Animal rights activist, author of Caught in the Act: The Feldberg Investigation (1994)|||
|Colin McGinn||1950||UK||Professor of philosopher, University of Miami|||
|Bill Maher||US||Comedian, board director of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Keith Mann||UK||Animal rights activist, author of From Dusk 'til Dawn: An Insider's View of the Growth of the Animal Liberation Movement (2007)|||
|Dan Mathews||US||Senior Vice-President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Brian May||1947||UK||musician/guitarist of Queen and founder of Save Me|||
|Lea Michele||US||Actress, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Moby||US||Musician, DJ, released Animal Rights (1996)|||
|Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson||1941||US||Former psychoanalyst, author of When Elephants Weep (1995)|||
|Mary Midgley||1919||UK||Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Newcastle University (retired), author of Animals And Why They Matter (1983)|||
|Heather Mills||1968||UK||Campaigner for Viva!|||
|Shaun Monson||1958||US||Director of Earthlings (2005)|||
|José Ferrater Mora||1912-1991||Spain||Philosopher, honoured by the Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Jesús Mosterín||1941||Spain||Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science at the University of Barcelona, honorary president of the Spanish Great Ape Project|||
|Ingrid Newkirk||1949||UK||Co-founder and President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|David Nibert||US||Abolitionist, Professor of Sociology at Wittenberg University|||
|Heather Nicholson||1967||UK||Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns|||
|Martha Nussbaum||1947||US||Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago|||
|Natasja Oerlemans||1969||Netherlands||Politician, Party for the Animals|||
|Kelly Overton||US||Executive Director of People Protecting Animals & Their Habitats|||
|Esther Ouwehand||1976||Netherlands||Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals|||
|Alex Pacheco||1958||US||Co-founder of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|David Pearce||UK||Philosopher, vegan and animal activist|||
|Jill Phipps||1964–1995||UK||Animal rights activist, campaigner against live export|||
|Joaquin Phoenix||1974||Puerto Rico||Actor, animal rights activist, narrator of Earthlings (2005)|||
|River Phoenix||1970–1993||US||Actor, animal rights activist|||
|Summer Phoenix||1978||US||Actress, animal rights activist|||
|Qiu Renzong||ca. 1933||China||Bioethicist|||
|Tom Regan||1951||US||Professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, author of The Case for Animal Rights (1983)|||
|Bernard Rollin||US||Professor of philosophy, animal sciences, and biomedical sciences at Colorado State University|||
|Craig Rosebraugh||1951||US||Writer, environmentalist, animal rights activist|||
|Mark Rowlands||1962||UK||Professor of Philosophy at the University of Miami, author of The Philosopher and the Wolf (2008)|||
|Nathan Runkle||ca. 1984||US||Founder and executive director of Mercy for Animals|||
|Richard D. Ryder||1964–1995||UK||Psychologist, coined the term "speciesism" in 1970|||
|Becky Sanstedt||ca. 1960||US||Animal rights activist, former investigator for Farm Sanctuary|||
|Steve Sapontzis||US||Professor emeritus of philosophy at California State University, East Bay, author of Morals, Reason, and Animals (1987)|||
|Isaac Bashevis Singer||1902–1991||Poland||Winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in Literature|||
|Henry Stephens Salt||1851–1939||UK||Civil-rights campaigner, author of Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (1894)|||
|Anuradha Sawhney||India||Head of Indian operations for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Peter Singer||1946||Australia||Philosopher, author of Animal Liberation (1975)|||
|Paul Shapiro||1979||US||Senior director of the Humane Society of the United States' Factory Farming Campaign|||
|Henry Spira||1927–1998||US||Animal rights activist, founder of Animal Rights International|||
|Kim Stallwood||UK||European director of the Animals and Society Institute|||
|Gary Steiner||US||John Howard Harris Professor of Philosophy at Bucknell University|||
|Pelle Strindlund||1971||Sweden||Writer, founding member of the Rescue Service|||
|Cass Sunstein||1954||US||Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs|||
|Elissa Sursara||1988||AUS||Wildlife expert, environmental correspondent and media personality|
|David Sztybel||Canada||Philosopher, writer|||
|Peter Tatchell||1952||Australia||Civil-rights activist|||
|Sunaura Taylor||1982||US||Artist and writer|||
|Marianne Thieme||1972||Netherlands||Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals|||
|Lynda Thomas||1981||Mexico||Retired musician/singer-songwriter, anonymous activist|||
|Darren Thurston||ca. 1970||Canada||Animal rights activist|||
|Bob and Jenna Torres||US||Writers, animal rights and vegan activists|||
|Andrew Tyler||UK||Director of Animal Aid|||
|Jane Velez-Mitchell||1955||US||Broadcast journalist|||
|John Vyvyan||UK||Writer, author of The Dark Face of Science (1971)|||
|Jerry Vlasak||1958||US||Physician, former Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson|||
|Waka Flocka Flame||1986||United States||Rapper|||
|Donald Watson||1910–2005||UK||Founder of the British Vegan Society|||
|Robin Webb||1945||UK||Spokesperson for the British Animal Liberation Press Office|||
|Betty White||1922||US||Actress, animal rights activist|
|Caroline Earle White||1833–1916||US||Co-founder of the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, founder of the American Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Liz White||Canada||Leader of the Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada|||
|Jon Wynne-Tyson||1924||UK||Founder of Centaur Press, author of The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights (1985)|||
|Steven M. Wise||1952||US||Law professor, author of Rattling the Case: Toward Legal Rights for Animals (2000)|||
|Ursula Wolf||1951||Germany||Philosopher, author of Das Tier in der Moral (1990)|||
|Roger Yates||1957||UK||Sociologist, co-founder of Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland|||
|Peter Daniel Young||US||Animal rights activist|||
|Gary Yourofsky||US||Animal rights activist|||
|Benjamin Zephaniah||1958||UK||Rastafari poet, honorary patron of the Vegan Society|||
- List of animal advocacy parties
- List of animal rights groups
- List of vegans
- List of vegetarians
- List of peace activists
- Taylor, Angus. Animals and Ethics: An Overview of the Philosophical Debate. Broadview Press, 2003, p. 15ff.
- Finsen, Susan and Finsen, Lawrence. "Animal rights movement," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
- For more about the history of the ideas, see Kean, Hilda. Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800. Reaktion Books, 1998.
- Also see:
- Singer, Peter. "Animal liberation", The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 5, 5 April 1973.
- "Food for Thought", letter from David Rosinger and a reply from Peter Singer, The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 10, 14 June 1973.
- Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation New York Review/Random House, 1975.
- Regan, Tom. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Oct., 1975), pp. 181-214.
- Regan, Tom. "McCloskey on Why Animals Cannot Have Rights", The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 104 (Jul., 1976), pp. 251-257.
- Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983.
- Francione, Gary L. and Garner, Robert. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?. Columbia University Press, 2010, p. 1ff, 103ff.
- Adams, Carol J. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum, 1990.
- Adams, Carol J. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum, 1994.
- "Bryan Adams on Animal Rights and Being Vegan", PETA, accessed 3 June 2012.
- Barnett, David. "So long, Douglas Adams, and thanks for all the books", The Guardian, 11 May 2011.
- "Casey Affleck, Summer Phoenix Wed", People, 5 June 2006.
- Greenwald, Marilyn S. Cleveland Amory: Media Curmudgeon & Animal Rights Crusader. University Press of New England, 2009.
- "Anderson saves stray from life on the streets", Toronto Sun, 15 May 2012.
- Aufhauser, Michael. Happy End for Rescued Dogs. teNeues, 2008.
- Pidd, Helen. "Yvonne the cow still on the run in Germany, but field of clues is found", The Guardian, 24 August 2011.
- "Gut Aiderbichl", accessed 2 June 2012.
- Boggan, Steve. "Money talks", The Guardian, 1 June 2006.
- "Alec Baldwin to receive award at PETA gala, USA Today, 22 August 2005.
- Weir, Tom. "Alec Baldwin says your butcher is just as bad as Vick", USA Today, 19 August 2009.
- Ball, Matt. "Living and working in defense of animals," in Peter Singer (ed). In Defense Of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006.
- Balluch, Martin. "How Austria Achieved a Historic Breakthrough for Animals," in Peter Singer (ed). In Defense Of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006.
- "Interview with A.L.F. Press Officer David Barbarash", No Compromise, Issue 17, accessed 21 May 2012.
- Wadman, Meredith. "Profile: Neal Barnard", Nature, 1 June 2006.
- "The Barbi Twins Make a Bold Statement for Animal Rights", Extra TV, 9 May 2010.
- Singer, Barnett. Brigitte Bardot: A Biography. McFarland, 2006, p. 109 ff.
- "Fondation Brigitte Bardot", accessed 23 May 2012.
- "Basinger is denied beagles", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 4 July 1997.
- Jones, Maggie. "The Barnyard Strategist", The New York Times, 24 October 2008, p. 2/5.
- "Tom Beauchamp - "Rights Theory and Animal Rights", Department of Philosophy, University of Calgary, accessed 5 June 2012.
- Callahan, Sharon. "Interview with Marc Bekoff", Anaflora, accessed 1 June 2012.
- "About the author", literati.net/Bekoff, accessed 2 June 2012.
- Sunstein, Cass R. "Introduction: What are Animal Rights?," in Sunstein, Cass R. and Nussbaum, Martha (ed.). Animal rights. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 3–4; also see Francione, Gary. "Animals—Property or Persons", p. 139, footnote 78, in the same volume.
- For the quote, see Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983, p. 95.
- Smallwood, Scott. "Britain Bans American Professor Who Speaks on Behalf of Animal Liberation Front", The Chronicle of Higher Education, 29 August 2005.
- (Italian) Brambilla, Michela Vittoria. Manifesto animalista, p. 0, at Google Books.
- Brophy, Brigid. "The Rights on Animals," The Sunday Times, 10 October 1965; reprinted in Brophy, Brigid. Don't Never Forget. Cape, 1966.
- Ryder, Richard. Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Berg, 2000, p. 5.
- Dear, Paula. "Anatomy of an animal rights protest", BBC News, 5 October 2004.
- Guither, Harold D. Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. SIU Press, 1998, p. 128.
- Cavalieri, Paola and Singer, Peter (eds). The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. St. Martin's Press, 1994.
- Shevelow, Kathryn. For the Love of Animals: The Rise of the Animal Protection Movement. Henry Holt and Company, 2008, p. 17ff.
- Puskar-Pasewicz, Margaret. Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism. Greenwood, 2010, p. 254.
- Lyall, Sarah. "Alan Clark, a British Scold, Is Dead at 71", The New York Times, 8 September 1999.
- Clark, Stephen R.L. The Moral Status of Animals. Oxford University Press, 1977.
- Clark, Stephen R.L. The Nature of the Beast. Oxford University Press, 1982.
- Clark, Stephen R.L. Animals and their Moral Standing. Routledge, 1997.
- Camfield, Greg. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 99.
- Buettinger, Craig. "Women and antivivisection in late nineteenth century America", Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Summer, 1997), pp. 857–872.
- "Alasdair Cochrane". The University of Sheffield. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Coe, Sue "Sue Coe Interview", 3x3 Magazine.
- Coetzee, J. M. "Animals can't speak for themselves — it's up to us to do it", The Age, 22 February 2007.
- "Associate Director", Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, accessed 28 May 2012.
- "Transcript of Prof. Priscilla Cohn's Live ARZone Guest Chat", Animal Rights Zone, 17 December 2011.
- "The Satya Interview: Freedom from the Cages", accessed 20 May 2012.
- Falcon, Mike and Shoop, Stephen A. "James Cromwell sows a meatless message", USA Today, 2008, accessed 3 June 2012.
- Davis, Karen. The Holocaust and the Henmaid's Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities. Lantern Books, 2005.
- DeGrazia, David. Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
- Lee, Felicia R. "How Dogs Are Abused in a Scheme for Profit", The New York Times, 26 February 2006, p. 2.
- "Remembering Rukmini Devi", The Hindu, 23 February 2004.
- Rappaport, Helen. "Lind-af-Hageby, Louise", Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2001.
- "The Lord Dowding Fund for Humane Research", ldf.org.uk, accessed 2 June 2012.
- Linzey, Andrew. "Dowding, Lady Muriel," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 1998, p. 139.
- Dunayer, Joan. Animal Equality : Language and Liberation. Ryce Pub, 2001.
- "Frequently Asked Questions", The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, accessed 25 May 2012: "By any reasonable definition chimpanzees should be categorized as a people."
- Fouts, Roger and Mills, Stephen Tukel. Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. Morrow, William, & Co., Inc., 1997.
- Blum, Deborah. "All in the Family", New Yorker, 12 October 1997.
- Francione, Gary. Animals, Property, and the Law . Temple University Press, 2005.
- Francione, Gary, and Garner, Robert. 'The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation? Columbia University Press, 2010.
- Rollin, Bernard E. "Ethics, animal welfare and ACUCs," in John P. Gluck, Tony DiPasquale, F. Barbara Orlans. Applied Ethics in Animal Research. Purdue University Press, 2002, p. 114.
- Heffern, Rich. "Bruce Friedrich: Advent and factory farms", National Catholic Reporter, 20 May 2012.
- Sengupta, Somini. "Indian Scion Speaks Out, and Uproar Follows Him", The New York Times, 2 April 2009.
- Garner, Robert and Francione, Gary. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?. Columbia University Press, 2010.
- "The green room: Juliet Gellatley, animal rights advocate", The Guardian, January 3, 2008.
- Hickman, Leo. "The lawyer who defends animals", The Guardian, 5 March 2010.
- "About Jordan Halliday", Which Side Podcast, accessed 30 November 2014.
- "About Celia Hammond", Celia Hammond Animal Trust, accessed 23 May 2012.
- Gålmark, Lisa (2000). "Women Antivivisectionists, The Story of Lizzy Lind af Hageby and Leisa Schartau," in Animal Issues, Vol 4, No 2, pp. 1–32.
- Kean, Hilda (1995). "The 'Smooth Cool Men of Science': The Feminist and Socialist Response to Vivisection", History Workshop Journal, 40: 16–38.
- Lansbury, Coral (1985). The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers, and Vivisection in Edwardian England. University of Wisconsin Press.
- Hall, Lee. On Their Own Terms: Bringing Animal-Rights Philosophy Down to Earth. Nectar Bat Press, 2010.
- "Where Animal Rights Can Go From Here: A Dialogue Between the Abolitionist Online and Lee Hall", Abolitionist Online, February 2008.
- Elise Desaulniers "I Am Ashamed to Have Been a Vegetarian for 50 Years", Huffington Post, May 30, 2013.
- "Holocaust Survivor Heads Animal Rights Group Alex Hershaft Throws Himself into Cause", The Baltimore Sun, November 24, 1996.
- "Barry Horne: The background", BBC News, 11 March 2003.
- Hall, Sarah. "Animal activists mourn their martyr", The Guardian, 6 November 2001.
- "Chrissie Hynde", Viva!, accessed 20 May 2012.
- Iyer, V. R. Krishna. Wandering in Many Worlds: An Autobiography. Pearson Education India, 2009, p. 85.
- Kalechofsky, Roberta. Autobiography of A Revolutionary: Essays on My Life as an Animal Rights Activist. Micah Publications, 1991.
- "Shannon Keith interview", Animal Liberation Front.com, accessed 20 May 2012.
- "Ke$ha: First Global Ambassador for Animals", Humane Society International, accessed 27 September 2012.
- Lansbury, Coral. The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers, and Vivisection in Edwardian England. University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, p. 91ff.
- "Vegetarianism and Ecofeminism: Toppling Patriarchy with a Fork", in Sapontzis, Steve F. (ed). Food for Thought: The Debate Over Eating Meat. Prometheus Books, 2004.
- Ross, Kate. "Soy Substitute Edges Its Way Into European Meals", The New York Times, 16 November 2011.
- "Animal rights", United States House of Representatives, accessed 4 June 2012.
- "Mrs. K wants to give the big apes a break", The Washington Post, 29 October 2009.
- Ellen, Barbara. "Going to a good home", The Observer, 16 November 2008.
- Vaziri, Aidin. "K.d. lang", San Francisco Chronicle, 16 May 2010.
- Tatchell, Peter. Animal research is poor science, interview with Gill Langley, Talking with Tatchell, accessed 20 May 2012.
- "Gill Langley: Profile", The Guardian.
- "Transcript of Ronnie Lee's Live Chat", Animal Rights Zone, 27 March 2010.
- "Transcript of Bob Linden's ARZone Guest Chat ~ 23/24 October 2010", Animal Rights Zone, 23 October 2010.
- "History", Global Happiness Organization, 23 May 2012.
- "Swedes strip off over 'cruel' Aussie wool", The Local, 18 September 2007.
- Linzey, Andrew. Animal Rights: A Christian Perspective. SCM Press, 1976.
- Linzey, Andrew. Christianity and the Rights of Animals. SPCK, 1987.
- Slater, Nigel. "When the McCartneys came for lunch", The Guardian, 29 April 2007.
- "Honorary Research Fellow: Dan Lyons", Department of Politics, University of Sheffield.
- "Mary McCartney Jamelia Ad", PETA, accessed 30 May 2012.
- "Sir Paul McCartney and PETA VP Dan Mathews Reflect on Two Decades of Activism", PETA, accessed 20 May 2012.
- MacDonald, Melody. Caught in the Act: The Feldberg Investigation. Jon Carpenter, 1994.
- McGinn, Colin. "Eating animals is wrong", London Review of Books, 24 January 1991.
- Booth, William. "A Real Live Wire; Enjoying a Long Run On HBO, Bill Maher Could Go On Zinging," The Washington Post, 9 March 2007.
- Mann, Keith. From Dusk 'til Dawn: An Insider's View of the Growth of the Animal Liberation Movement. Puppy Pincher Press, 2007.
- Brockes, Emma. "Dan Mathews of Peta: 'I've always been drawn to extremes'", The Guardian, 28 May 2009.
- Case, Philip (September 13, 2012). "Brian May named vice-president of RSPCA" Farmers Weekly (Reed Business Information). Retrieved 29 December 2013
- "Lea Michele And Alec Baldwin Team Up For The Animals", Radar, 1 September 2010.
- Ali, Lorraine. "Moby: Animal rights", Rolling Stone, 23 January 1997.
- "Food industry hits back at Moby's Thanksgiving ads", BrandRepublic, 22 November 2002.
- Konigsberg, Eric. "A Man With Opinions on Food With a Face", The New York Times, 14 April 2009.
- Midgley, Mary. Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature. Routledge, 1978.
- Midgley, Mary. Animals And Why They Matter: A Journey Around the Species Barrier. University of Georgia Press, 1983.
- "AR2008 Report", Animal Rights National Conference, accessed 20 May 2012.
- Monson, Shaun. Earthlings, 2005.
- "José Ferrater Mora", Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, accessed 26 May 2010.
- "Morrissey", PETA, accessed 20 May 2012.
- Bailey, Cathryn. "Africa Begins at the Pyrenees": Moral Outrage, Hypocrisy, and the Spanish Bullfight", Ethics & the Environment, Volume 12, Number 1, Spring 2007, pp. 23-37.
- Murray, L. "Ingrid Newkirk", Encyclopaedia Britannica Advocacy for Animals, 30 April 207.
- "Dr. Dave Nibert", University of Wittenberg, accessed 2 June 2012.
- "To her detractors, she is a merciless rabble-rouser. To her admirers, she's a selfless saviour of innocent animals", The Independent, 24 October 1999.
- Nussbaum, Martha. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Harvard University Press, 2006.
- "Natasja Oerlemans (PvdD)", Europa Kiest, accessed 23 May 2012.
- Overton, Kelly. "The Casualties of Green Scare", 'Counterpunch, 3–5 August 2007.
- "Esther Ouwehand", Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, accessed 23 May 2012.
- "Silver Spring Monkeys" in Marc Bekoff (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009, p. 317ff.
- "A World Without Suffering ~ An Interview with David Pearce", SARPS newsletter, August 1991.
- Phipps, Jill. "British justice", SARPS newsletter, August 1991.
- "Live exports that sparked protests", BBC News, 8 March 2006.
- "Joaquin Phoenix to Be Honored at San Diego Film Festival", Business Wire, 14 September 2005.
- Harmetz, Aljean. "River Phoenix Ranks Acting Below Animal Rights and Music", The New York Times, 5 January 1989.
- Dade, Chris. "Pink Calls Prince William 'Redneck' After Fox Hunting Letter", Digital Journal, 12 December 2009.
- Rachels, James. Created From Animals. Oxford University Press, 1990/.
- Li, Peter J. "China: Animal rights and animal welfare" in Marc Bekoff (ed.). Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009, pp. 119–120.
- Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983.
- Rollin, Bernard E. Animal Rights & Human Morality. Prometheus Books, 2006. Rollin, Bernard E. "Teleology and telos," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009, p. 554.
- Rosebraugh, Craig. The Logic of Political Violence: Lessons in Reform and Revolution. Arissa Media Group, 2003.
- Rowlands, Mark. ''Animal Rights: A Philosophical Defence. Macmillan/St Martin's Press, 1998.
- "Young and Motivated: Creating an Army of Advocates", Satya, June/July 2007.
- Godlovitch, Stanley; Godlovitch, Roslind; and Harris, John. Animals, Men and Morals: An Inquiry Into The Maltreatment of Non-humans. Grove Press, 1974.
- Wolfson, David J. "Beyond the Law: Agribusiness and the Systemic Abuse of Animals Raised for Food or Food Production", Animal Law, 2:123, 1995.
- Sapontzis, Steve F. Morals, Reason, and Animals. Temple University Press, 1987.
- "Morals, Reason, and Animals: Steve Sapontzis interviewed by Claudette Vaughan", abolitionist-online.com, accessed 29 May 2012.
- Singer, Isaac Bashevis. The Collected Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer. Cape, 1982. p. 271.
- Salt, Henry Stephens. Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress. Macmillan & Co, 1894.
- "Interview : Ms. Anuradha Sawhney", DevelopedNation.org, accessed 22 May 2012.
- Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. 1975.
- Montgomery, David. "Animal Pragmatism; Compassion Over Killing Wants to Make the Anti- Meat Message a Little More Palatable", The Washington Post, 8 September 2003.
- Lin, Doris. "Interview with Paul Shapiro, of The Humane Society of the United States", About.com, accessed 24 May 2012.
- Spira, Henry and Singer, Peter. "Ten Points for Activists" in Singer, Peter (ed.). In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell, 2006, introductory note by Peter Singer, pp. 214-215.
- Singer, Peter. Ethics Into Action: Henry Spira and the Animal Rights Movement. Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
- Francione, Gary. Rain without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement. Temple University Press, 1995, chapter 3.
- Munro, Lyle. "The Animal Activism of Henry Spira (1927-1998)", Society and Animals, Vol 10, Number 2, 2002, pp. 173–191.
- "Biography", kimstallwood.com, 24 April 2012.
- Steiner, Gary. Animals and the Moral Community: Mental Life, Moral Status, and Kinship. Columbia University Press, 2008.
- Strindlund, Pelle. "Butchers' Knives into Pruning Hooks: Civil Disobedience for Animals," in Peter Singer (ed.). In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell, 2006.
- Sunstein, Cass R. "The Rights of Animals: A Very Short Primer", The Law School, University of Chicago, accessed 5 June 2012.
- Sunstein, Cass R. "Can Animals Sue?" in Sunstein, Cass R. and Nussbaum, Martha. Animal Rights. Oxford University Press, 2004.
- "Dr David Sztybel", davidsztybel.info, accessed 25 May 2012.
- Sztybel, David. "René Descartes," "Distinguishing Animal Rights from Animal Welfare," and "Jainism" in Marc Bekoff (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
- Tatchell, Peter. "AIDS and animal rights", petertatchell.net, accessed 20 May 2012.
- Taylor, Angus. Animals and Ethics. Broadview Press, 2003.
- Taylor, Sunaura. "Beasts of Burden: Disability Studies and Animal Rights", Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 19, Number 2, Spring/Summer 2011, pp. 191-222.
- Nam, Julius. "A Platform of Compassion", Spectrum, 18 February 2008.
- Hernández, Nahim. "Lynda sigue luchando contra la bulimia", El Universal, 26 October 2000.
- Bell, Stewart. Animal rights activist accused of attacks in five American states, National Post, 21 January 2006.
- Torres, Bob and Torres, Jenna. Vegan Freak: Being Vegan in a Non-Vegan World (2005).
- Torres, Bob. Making A Killing: The Political Economy of Animal Rights (2007).
- Tyler, Andrew. "Non-animal magnetism", The Guardian, 2 November 2007.
- "Andrew Tyler", The Guardian, accessed 23 May 2012.
- Williams, Andrea. "Calamity Jane: Q&A with Jane Velez-Mitchell", Vegetarian Times, January/February 2012.
- Velez-Mitchell, Jane and Mohr, Sandra. Addict Nation: An Intervention for America. HCI, 2011, p. 40.
- Finsen, Lawrence and Finsen, Susan. The Animal Rights Movement in America. Twayne Publishers, 1994, p. xiv.
- Mozingo, Joe. "A Thin Line on Animal Rights", Los Angeles Times, 5 September 2006.
- Donovan, Josephine. "Animal Rights and Feminist Theory," in Josephine Donovan, Carol J. Adams, The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics: A Reader. Columbia University Press, 2007, p. 81.
- Maria Lauret, "Alice Walker's Life and Work: The Essays" in Harold Bloom, Alice Walker. Infobase Publishing, 2002, p. 84.
- Walker, Alice. Preface to Marjorie Spiegel, The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery. New Society Publishers, 1988.
- Bring, Ellen. "Moving Toward Coexistence: An Interview with Alice Walker," Animals' Agenda, April 1988.
- Walker, Alice. "Am I Blue?", Ms. magazine, July 1986.
- "Interview with Donald Watson - Vegan Founder", Foodsforlife.org.uk, accessed 20 May 2012.
- "Staying on Target and Going the Distance: An Interview with U.K. A.L.F. Press Officer Robin Webb", No Compromise, No. 22, accessed 21 May 2012.
- "Leaders", Canada Votes 2006, accessed 21 May 2012.
- Wynne-Tyson, Jon. The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights. Paragon House, 1985.
- Ryder, Richard. "Oxford Group" in Bekoff, Marc. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Welfare. Greenwood 2009, pp. 261–262.
- Wise, Steven M. Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Perseus Books, 2000. Wise, Steven M. Drawing the Line: Science and the Case for Animal Rights. Perseus Publishing, 2002.
- Wolf, Ursula. Das Tier in der Moral. Vittorio Klosterman, 1990.
- Wolf, Ursula. "Tierversuche als ethisches Problem," in Hans-Georg Ziebertz. Ethik und Unterricht. Luchterhand, 1991.
- "Bullies, Ads, and Being Vegan. ~ Dr. Roger Yates", Animal Rights Zone, 25 January 2012.
- "Peter Young Interview", No Compromise, issue 29, accessed 21 May 2012.
- "ADAPTT". Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Poetic Thoughts", Arkangel Magazine, 2002.
- Zephaniah, Benjamin. Foreword in Mann, Keith. From Dusk 'til Dawn: An Insider's View of the Growth of the Animal Liberation Movement. Puppy Pincher Press, 2007.
- Beauchamp, Tom and Frey, R.G. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Bekoff, Marc (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
- Linzey, Andrew (ed.). Animal Encyclopedia. University of Princeton Press (forthcoming).
- Linzey, Andrew (ed.). The Global Guide to Animal Protection. University of Illinois Press (forthcoming).
- Tobias, Michael Charles. "Life Force: The World of Jainism". Asia Humanities Press, 1992.
- Tobias, Michael Charles. "Ahimsa: Non-Violence," One-Hour Documentary, PBS, 1987.
- Tobias, Michael Charles, and Morrison, Jane Gray. "God's Country: The New Zealand Factor," Zorba Press, 2011.
- Tobias, Michael Charles, and Morrison, Jane Gray. "Sanctuary: Global Oases of Innocence," Foreword by Her Majesty the Queen of Bhutan; Preface by Ingrid Newkirk, Council Oak Books, 2008.
- Tobias, Michael Charles, and Ehrlich, Paul R. "Hope on Earth: A Conversation," University of Chicago Press, 2014.
- Tobias, Michael Charles, and Morrison, Jane Gray. "Why Life Matters: Fifty Ecosystems of the Heart & Mind," Springer New York, 2014.