List of antibiotics

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The following is a list of antibiotics, sorted by class. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior. In practice, both can prevent a bacterial infection.[1]

See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria.

Antibiotics by class
Generic name Brand names Common uses[2] Possible side effects[2] Mechanism of action
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin Neo-Fradin[3]
Netilmicin Netromycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin
Streptomycin Tuberculosis
Spectinomycin Trobicin Gonorrhea
Ansamycins
Geldanamycin Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics
Herbimycin
Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli
Carbacephem
Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Carbapenems
Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Note MRSA resistance to this class.)
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Doripenem Doribax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
Cefadroxil Duricef Good coverage against Gram-positive infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin (discontinued)
Cefalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
Cefaclor Distaclor Less Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefamandole Mandol (discontinued)
Cefoxitin Mefoxin (discontinued)
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat (UK)
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
Cefixime Suprax Improved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas. Reduced Gram-positive cover. But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefdinir Omnicef, Cefdiel
Cefditoren Spectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone [Unlike most third-generation agents, cefoperazone is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa] Cefobid (discontinued)
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime Vantin
Ceftazidime [Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa] Fortaz
Ceftibuten Cedax
Ceftizoxime Cefizox (discontinued)
Ceftriaxone [IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrhea] Rocephin
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Cefepime Maxipime

Covers pseudomonal infections.

  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)
Ceftaroline fosamil Teflaro Used to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ceftobiprole Zeftera Used to treat MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin Targocid (UK) Active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C. difficile inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis
Vancomycin Vancocin
Telavancin Vibativ
Lincosamides
Clindamycin Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acne Possible C. difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitis Bind to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
Lincomycin Lincocin
Lipopeptide
Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms Bind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
Macrolides
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Xithrone Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval (especially erythromycin)
  • Hearing loss (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA.
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin Dynabac (discontinued)
Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped
Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin Tao (discontinued)
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[4]
Spiramycin Rovamycine Mouth infections
Monobactams
Aztreonam Azactam Gram-negative bacteria Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Nitrofurans
Furazolidone Furoxone Bacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis
Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid Urinary tract infections
Oxazolidonones
Linezolid Zyvox VRSA Protein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
Posizolid Phase II clinical trials
Radezolid Phase II clinical trials
Torezolid Phase II clinical trials
Penicillins
Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ampicillin Principen (discontinued)
Azlocillin
Carbenicillin Geocillin (discontinued)
Cloxacillin Tegopen (discontinued)
Dicloxacillin Dynapen (discontinued)
Flucloxacillin Floxapen (Sold to European generics Actavis Group)
Mezlocillin Mezlin (discontinued)
Methicillin Staphcillin (discontinued)
Nafcillin Unipen (discontinued)
Oxacillin Prostaphlin (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pentids (discontinued)
Penicillin V Veetids (Pen-Vee-K) (discontinued)
Piperacillin Pipracil (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pfizerpen
Temocillin Negaban (UK) (discontinued)
Ticarcillin Ticar (discontinued)
Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin Both Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective againts non-recurrent acute Otitis media[5] rowspan="4" The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactam Zosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanate Timentin
Polypeptides
Bacitracin Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organisms. Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection) Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane[6]
Colistin Coly-Mycin-S Interact with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution.
Polymyxin B
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolone
Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system (uncommon), tendinosis (rare) inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription.
Enoxacin Penetrex
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Gemifloxacin Factive[7]
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Nalidixic acid NegGram
Norfloxacin Noroxin
Ofloxacin Floxin (discontinued), Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Raxar Withdrawn
Sparfloxacin Zagam Withdrawn
Temafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn
Sulfonamides
Mafenide Sulfamylon Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns) Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells cannot divide.
Sulfacetamide Sulamyd, Bleph-10
Sulfadiazine Micro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene
Sulfadimethoxine Di-Methox, Albon
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine (archaic) Prontosil
Tetracyclines
Demeclocycline Declomycin Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, *malaria *Note: Malaria is caused by a protist and not a bacterium.
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia (staining of teeth; potentially permanent)
  • transient depression of bone growth
inhibiting the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex.
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terramycin
Tetracycline Sumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
Clofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic
Dapsone Avlosulfon Antileprotic
Capreomycin Capastat Antituberculosis
Cycloserine Seromycin Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections
Ethambutol Myambutol Antituberculosis
Ethionamide Trecator Antituberculosis Inhibits peptide synthesis
Isoniazid I.N.H. Antituberculosis
Pyrazinamide Aldinamide Antituberculosis
Rifampicin (Rifampin in US) Rifadin, Rimactane mostly Gram-positive and mycobacteria Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine Binds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
Rifabutin Mycobutin Mycobacterium avium complex Rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
Rifapentine Priftin Antituberculosis
Streptomycin Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity As other aminoglycosides
Others
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)
Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin Meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Rarely: aplastic anemia. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Fosfomycin Monurol, Monuril Acute cystitis in women This antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of age Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acid Fucidin
Metronidazole Flagyl Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis Discolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicated Produces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins. This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa.
Mupirocin Bactroban Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts Inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS) causing inhibition of protein synthesis
Platensimycin
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid
Thiamphenicol Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes. Widely used in veterinary medicine. Rash. Lacks known anemic side-effects. A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Tigecycline Tigacyl Slowly Intravenous. Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissues infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Effective for gram positive and negative and also anaerob antibiotics, againts multi-resistant antibiotics bacteries such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp and Proteus spp Teeth discoloration and same side effects as Tetracycline. Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women. Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patients Similar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
Tinidazole Tindamax Fasigyn Protozoal infections Upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
Trimethoprim Proloprim, Trimpex Urinary tract infections
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses[2] Possible Side Effects[2] Mechanism of action

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. (1999) “Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance”, In: Microbiology Conceptsand Applications, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, U.S.A. pp. 478-479.
  2. ^ a b c d For common Uses and possible side effects reference is: Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition. Pocket (September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1.
  3. ^ "Neomycin Drug Information". uptodate. Retrieved 2/11/2012.  (subscription required)
  4. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter (March 2006). "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek". Internal Medicine News. 
  5. ^ "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean children". Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  6. ^ Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate K. John Stone and Jack L. Strominger
  7. ^ "List of Antibiotics". Retrieved February 7, 2014. 

See also[edit]