List of archaeological periods (Levant)

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The following is a refined listing of Levantive archeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions and extension into the modern historical period. The particular dates selected as the boundary between ages, as well as the period names for the historical era, are specific to Levantine archaeology and therefore are most accurate in that context. Beginning and ending dates of prehistoric ages are based on the introduction and prevalence of certain technologies, which varied from culture to culture (note: "BP" = "Before Present"); similarly, historical eras are named after cultures in whose sphere of influence the Levant was included. However, archaeologists studying other regions have sometimes found it useful to apply the same or similar eras to their fields of research (particularly prehistoric eras), and thus this list represents the most common interpretation of broad archaeological periods.

Stone Age
(2,000,000 BP – 3300 BCE)
Paleolithic
(2,000,000 BP – 8300 BCE)
Lower Paleolithic 2,000,000 BP300,000 BP
Middle Paleolithic 300,000 BP30,000 BP
Upper Paleolithic 30,000 BP12,000 BP
Epipaleolithic 12,000 BP – 8300 BCE
Neolithic
(8300 BCE – 4500 BCE)
Pre-pottery Neolithic 8300 BCE – 5500 BCE
Pottery Neolithic 5500 BCE – 4500 BCE
Chalcolithic
(4500 BCE – 3300 BCE)
Early Chalcolithic 4500 BCE – 4000 BCE
Late Chalcolithic (Ghassulian) 4000 BCE – 3300 BCE
Bronze Age
(3300 BCE – 1200 BCE)
Early Bronze Age
(3300 BCE – 2000 BCE)
Early Bronze Age I 3300 BCE – 3000 BCE
Early Bronze Age II 3000 BCE – 2700 BCE
Early Bronze Age III 2700 BCE – 2200 BCE
Early Bronze Age IV 2200 BCE – 2000 BCE
Middle Bronze Age
(2000 BCE – 1550 BCE)
Middle Bronze Age I 2000 BCE – 1750 BCE
Middle Bronze Age II 1750 BCE – 1650 BCE
Middle Bronze Age III 1650 BCE – 1550 BCE
Late Bronze Age
(1550 BCE – 1200 BCE)
Late Bronze Age I 1550 BCE – 1400 BCE
Late Bronze Age II A 1400 BCE – 1300 BCE
Late Bronze Age II B 1300 BCE – 1200 BCE
Iron Age
(1200 BCE – 586 BCE)
Iron Age I
(1200 BCE – 1000 BCE)
Iron Age I A 1200 BCE – 1150 BCE
Iron Age I B 1150 BCE – 1000 BCE
Iron Age II
(1000 BCE – 586 BCE)
Iron Age II A 1000 BCE – 900 BCE
Iron Age II B 900 BCE – 700 BCE
Iron Age II C 700 BCE – 586 BCE
Historical periods
(586 BCE – present)
Babylonian and Persian periods 586 BCE – 332 BCE
Hellenistic period
(332 BCE – 37 BCE)
Early Hellenistic 332 BCE – 167 BCE
Late Hellenistic 167 BCE – 37 BCE
Roman period
(37 BCE – 324 CE)
Early Roman 37 BCE – 132 CE
Late Roman 132 CE – 324
Byzantine period 324 – 638
Early Arab period (Umayyad and Abbasid) 638 – 1099
Crusader and Ayyubid periods 1099 – 1291
Late Arab period (Fatimid and Mamluk) 1291 – 1516
Ottoman period 1516 – 1917
Modern period 1917 – current

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