List of artificial objects on Mars

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The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Most are defunct after having served their purpose, but the Opportunity and the Curiosity rovers are still operational as of 2014. Curiosity is the most recent man-made object to land safely on Mars. The list does not currently include smaller objects such as springs, fragments, parachutes, heatshields. The landers of the MER rovers, or other mission objects may be included in the future.

Man-made object Image Nationality Landed Mass (kg) Status Location
Mars 2
Mars3 iki.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Failure during descent; crashed on surface 45°S 313°W / 45°S 313°W / -45; -313 (Mars 2) [1]
Mars 3
Mars3 iki.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Transmission failure 14.5 seconds after soft landing Sirenum Terra, 45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 (Mars 3) [2]
Mars 6
Mars6.gif
USSR 1973 635 Insufficient thrust during landing; crashed on surface Margaritifer Terra, 23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 (Mars 6) [3]
Viking 1 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982 Chryse Planitia, 22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 (Viking 1) [4]
Viking 2 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980 Utopia Planitia, 48°16′08″N 225°59′24″W / 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269; -225.990 (Viking 2) [5]
Mars Pathfinder lander & Sojourner rover
Lander and rover drawing.gif
United States 1997 360 Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997[6] Ares Vallis, 19°20′N 33°33′W / 19.33°N 33.55°W / 19.33; -33.55 (Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner) [7][8]
Mars Climate Orbiter
Mars Climate Orbiter 2.jpg
United States 1999 629 Destroyed by atmospheric stresses & friction.[9] Unknown
Mars Polar Lander & Deep Space 2
Mars polar lander.jpg
United States 1999 500 Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface Ultimi Scopuli, 76°S 195°W / 76°S 195°W / -76; -195 (Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2) [10][11]
Spirit rover (MER-A)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010 Gusev crater, 14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 (Spirit rover) [12][13]
Opportunity rover (MER-B)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Still in operation, 3757 sols Meridiani Planum, 1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover) [14][15]
Phoenix Mars Lander
Pia09344.jpg
United States 2008 350 Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008 Vastitas Borealis, unofficially named Green Valley, 68°09′N 125°54′W / 68.15°N 125.9°W / 68.15; -125.9 (Phoenix) [16]
Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)
Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover.jpg
United States 2012 900 Still in operation, 724 sols Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater, 4°36′0″S 137°12′0″E / 4.60000°S 137.20000°E / -4.60000; 137.20000
Total estimated dry mass (kg) 9,303
  • The Beagle 2 spacecraft may have hit Mars while attempting to land on 25 December 2003 and parts of the spaceship may have reached the surface of Mars; although it may have bounced off the Martian atmosphere, or missed the planet entirely. It is not confirmed to be on the surface of Mars. Beagle 2 was targeted for the Isidis Planitia basin (about 90 degrees East, 10 degrees North).[17]
  • Orbiters that could eventually enter include: MRO, 2001MO, ME, MGS, Phobos 2, Mars 2, Mars 3, and Mars 5 orbiters, and Mariner 9.

Image map of Mars landings[edit]

The following imagemap of the planet Mars has embedded links to geographical features in addition to the noted Rover and Lander locations. Click on the features and you will be taken to the corresponding article pages. North is at the top; Elevations: red (higher), yellow (zero), blue (lower).

Tharsis Montes Hellas Planitia Olympus Mons Valles Marineris Arabia Terra Amazonis Planitia Elysium Mons Isidis Planitia Terra Cimmeria Argyre Planitia Alba MonsMap of Mars
About this image

Spirit (2004) > Spirit

Opportunity (2004) > Opportunity

Pathfinder < Pathfinder/Sojourner (1997)

Viking 1 (1976) > Viking 1

Viking 2 (1976) > Viking 2

Phoenix < Phoenix (2008)

Mars 3 < Mars 3 (1971)

Curiosity (2012) > Curiosity

Examples[edit]

MER-A Spirit rover lander
MER-B Opportunity's heat shield

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  2. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  3. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 1 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  5. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 2 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  6. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder Rover". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  9. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Climate Orbiter". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  10. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Polar Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  11. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Deep Space 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  12. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Spirit Rover (MER-A)". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  13. ^ "ESA Mars Express - Spirit Rover landing site image and coordinates". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  14. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Opportunity Rover (MER-B)". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  15. ^ Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bollen, D.; Bell, J. F.; Brückner, J.; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Carr, M. H.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Des Marais, D. J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Folkner, W.; Gellert, R.; Glotch, T. D.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knoll, A. H. et al. (2006). "Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle Crater to Purgatory Ripple". Journal of Geophysical Research 111. doi:10.1029/2006JE002771. E12S12. Retrieved 2010-12-24.  Opportunity Rover (MER-B) coordinates on pg. 2.
  16. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Phoenix Mars Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  17. ^ "Beagle 2 Website - landing FAQs". Retrieved 2010-12-24.