Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship. Its creation dates to between the 8th and the 11th century, the only surviving manuscript dating to circa 1010. At 3183 lines, it is notable for its length. It has risen to national epic status in England.
Beowulf has been adapted a number of times in cinema, on the stage, and in books.
Cinema and television adaptations and references 
- 1981: Grendel Grendel Grendel
- 1995: Star Trek: Voyager: In the episode "Heroes and Demons", Ensign Harry Kim runs a holographic version of the Beowulf poem in which he plays the central character. Most of the episode takes place inside this Beowulf holonovel.
- 1998: Animated Epics: Beowulf 
- 1999: Beowulf, a science-fiction/fantasy film starring Christopher Lambert.
- 1999: The 13th Warrior, action movie directed by John McTiernan mixing Beowulf with the travels of Ibn Fadlan; this is a film based on Crichton's Eaters of the Dead (see below).
- 2005: Beowulf & Grendel, starring Gerard Butler and directed by the Icelandic-Canadian Sturla Gunnarsson.
- 2007: Grendel, a made-for television movie on the Sci Fi Channel (United States).
- 2007: Beowulf, a DVD release of an epic-length live dramatic performance of Beowulf by Benjamin Bagby in the original Old English, self-accompanied on a reconstructed Anglo-Saxon harp, with Modern English subtitles available on the DVD. Bagby continues to tour, offering stage performances and discussions throughout Europe and North America.
- 2007: Beowulf, a computer animated film directed by Robert Zemeckis and created through motion capture, a technique similar to that used by Zemeckis in The Polar Express. The manuscript was written by Roger Avary and Neil Gaiman. It deviates significantly from the original poem, most notably by making the dragon fought in the finale the offspring of Beowulf and Grendel's mother, whom he did not slay.
- 2008: Beowulf: Prince of the Geats 
- 2008: Outlander, a science fiction film starring James Caviezel.
Graphic novels 
M J Weller's Beowulf Cartoon
, (Writers Forum
/Visual Associations, 2004)
- Grendel: A song by Marillion is the B side to their first single, "Market Square Heroes" (1982). The recorded version of the song is 17:40 long, while the live versions regularly ran to over 20 minutes.
- The Lament for Beowulf: (1925), op. 25, by American composer Howard Hanson (1896–1981). Large-scale work for chorus and orchestra. Translation by W. Morris and A. Wyatt.
- Beowulf: Scyld's Burial (2009), by composer Ezequiel Viñao. For SATB and percussion quartet. Translation by E. Viñao.
- Beowulf: (2010) by historyteachers Set to 99 Luftballoons by Nena
- Beowulf: A Suite for Ancient Instruments (2000) by American composer John Craton (b. 1953). A multi-movement work depicting the life and exploits of Beowulf, scored for ancient instruments. The composer also created a version for modern orchestra in 2005.
Opera and theatre 
- 2008: Beowulf - A Thousand Years of Baggage: a SongPlay by Banana Bag & Bodice. Text by Jason Craig, Music by Dave Malloy
- 2007: Beowulf: The Heart Off Guard Theatre Company produced a musical adaptation for children of the Beowulf story at the Edinburgh Fringe. Directed by Guy Jones with a score by Michael Betteridge.
- 2006: Grendel: an opera composed by Elliot Goldenthal, directed by Julie Taymor, and commissioned by Los Angeles Opera; it was given its world premiere at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion on June 8, 2006, with bass Eric Owens starring in the title role.
- 2005: Beowulf: rock opera composed by Lenny Picket, lyrics by Lenny Pickett and Lindsey Turner, produced October–November 2005 by the Irish Repertory Theatre, directed by Charlotte Moore 
- 1993. Beowulf, op. 17, chamber opera (or dramatic cantata) in one act for a chorus of young voices, light soprano, light tenor and baritone soli, by Richard Lambert.
- 1984: Beowulf: adapted for live performance by the founding members of Theatre in the Ground.
- 1974: Beowulf: A Musical Epic: a rock opera by Victor Davies (music) and Betty Jane Wylie (libretto), with Chad Allen as Beowulf.
Popular culture 
- Stephen Notley's weekly strip Bob the Angry Flower ran a 10-part series entitled Rothgar. Bob attempted to take the place of Beowulf, using modern technology to help Hroðgar defeat Grendel; the ancient epic changed when Grendel was revealed as a sympathetic character.
- In 2006, Antarctic Press ran a manga adaptation of the Beowulf legend, written and drawn by David Hutchison.
- Speakeasy Comics: this series debuted a Beowulf monthly title featuring the character having survived into the modern era and now working alongside law enforcement in New York to handle superpowered beings.
- 1999-2000:The Collected Beowulf: by Gareth Hinds & Leslie Siddeley.
- 1975-1976: Beowulf Dragon Slayer, published by DC comics and edited by Dennis O'Neil, written by Michael Uslan and primarily illustrated by Ricardo Villamonte. Later, Beowulf appears in Wonder Woman #20 (2008).
- Issue #49 of the Animaniacs comic book featured a Pinky and the Brain story featuring Brain as Brainwulf, who, accompanied by Pinknarf (Pinky), attempts to defeat Grendel so that he can take over Denmark afterwards.
- IDW Publishing published a comic book adaptation of the 2007 Beowulf movie.
Board games 
Computer games 
- Beowulf: Viking Warrior: action adventure game based on the original story, by 4HEAD Studios; cancelled after Ubisoft announced Beowulf: The Game
- Beowulf: The Game: action adventure game based on the 2007 film, developed by Ubisoft coming for PC, PS3, Xbox 360 and PSP.
- Grendel's Cave: a MUD role playing fantasy game based on the original story.
- Beowulf (romanized on official sites as "Beowolf") is a character in Fire Emblem:Seisen no Keifu, he is portrayed as a mercenary interested only in money.
- In the expansion pack Bloodmoon for The Elder Scrolls 3: Morrowind the quest "The Mead Hall Massacre" parallels the story of Beowulf up to the killing of Grendel, known as the Udyrfrykte in game. In the sequel The Elder Scrolls 4: Oblivion players may encounter the Udyrfrykte Matron, a reference to Grendel's mother.
- ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1958). Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics. London: Oxford University Press. p. 127.
- ^ Kiernan, Kevin S. (1997). Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08412-8.
- ^ The Question of genre in bylini and Beowulf by Shannon Meyerhoff, 2006.
- ^ IMDB
- ^ Benjamin Bagby. "Beowulf: The Epic in Performance". Retrieved 2009-05-28.
- ^ Walter Quinn (2007-11-23). "Beowulf' movie takes poetic license -- and then some -- from the original text". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
- ^ Duane Dudek (2007-11-16). "The Real Beowulf". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
- ^ John V. Fleming (2007-11-29). "Good Grief, Grendel". The New Republic. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- ^ "Official site". Princeofthegeats.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ A Beowulf Handbook - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Whose Song Is Sung". Home.tiac.net. 2000-10-01. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Books : Fragile Things". Montreal Mirror. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Smoke and Mirrors: Short Fictions and Illusions, by Neil Gaiman". Sfreader.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Beowulf: a graphic novel - at". Garethhinds.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ 
- ^ "Beowulf: The Graphic Novel | Scholastic.com". Content.scholastic.com. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Kid Beowulf". Kid Beowulf. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ 
- ^ "View Data". Antarctic-press.com. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "MARILLION lyrics - Grendel". Oldielyrics.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "The lament for Beowulf, op. 25, for chorus of mixed voices and orchestra. Text from the Anglo-Saxon epic, (Musical score, 1925) [WorldCat.org]". Worldcatlibraries.org. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ http://www.craton.net/music/beowulf
- ^ "beowulf". Davemalloy.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ http://www.heartoffguard.co.uk/biographies.htm
- ^ Gardner, John. "Grendel". NPR article. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ Mangan, Timothy (June 9, 2006). "Opera: 'Grendel' is a monster of a show". The Orange County Register.
- ^ "BEOWULF: The Rock Opera at Irish Repertory Theatre October 7 - November 27, 2005/09/06". Broadwayworld.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ 
- ^ http://www.moremud.com
- ^ Henk Aertsen, “Beowulf”, in A Dictionary of Medieval Heroes: Characters in Medieval Narrative Traditions and Their Afterlife in Literature, Theatre and the Visual Arts, edited by Willem P. Gerritsen and Anthony G. Van Melle translated from the Dutch by Tanis Guest, 54–59 (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2000). ISBN 0-85115-780-7. P. 59.
- ^ "Beowulf". Victor Davies. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Bob the Angry Flower: Rothgar". Stephen Notley. 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- ^ "Beowulf 01 by David Hutchison". WOWIO. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ http://www.comicbookresources.com/news/newsitem.cgi?id=5282
- ^ http://www.thecomic.com/thecomic/beowulf.htm
- ^ "Dr. K's Guide to British Literature". Doctor-k100.blogspot.com. 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Toon Zone - Comics - Animaniacs - Issue #49". Comics.toonzone.net. 1999-04-14. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ 
- ^ Beowulf: The Legend, official page at Fantasy Flight Games.
- ^ Geddes, Ryan (2007-11-15). "Beowulf Game Canceled - PlayStation 3 News at IGN". Uk.ps3.ign.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "Beowulf - Available Now on DVD and HD DVD". Beowulfgame.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ Beowulf. "Grendel's Cave Home". Grendelscave.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "ファイアーエムブレムミュージアム −キャラクター紹介−". Nintendo.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
External links