List of astronauts educated at the United States Naval Academy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
James A. Lovell

Over 50 United States astronauts have graduated from the United States Naval Academy (USNA), more than from any other undergraduate institution.a[›][1] The Naval Academy is an undergraduate college in Annapolis, Maryland with the mission of educating and commissioning officers for the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The Academy is often referred to as Annapolis. Sports media refer to the Academy as "Navy" and the students as "Midshipmen"; this usage is officially endorsed.[2] During the latter half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th, the United States Naval Academy was the primary source of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps officers, with the Class of 1881 being the first to provide officers to the Marine Corps. Graduates of the Academy are also given the option of entering the United States Army or United States Air Force. Most Midshipmen are admitted through the congressional appointment system.[3] The curriculum emphasizes various fields of engineering.[4] Annapolis graduates who enter aviation and space-related fields have the opportunity to be selected for astronaut training by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

This list is drawn from graduates of the Naval Academy who became astronauts. The Academy was founded in 1845 and graduated its first class in 1846. The first alumnus to fly as an astronaut was Alan Shepard, class of 1945. As of March 2009, the most recent alumni to become an astronaut was Christopher Cassidy, class of 1993. Two alumni were part of Project Mercury, three part of Project Gemini, seven part of the Apollo program, three have walked on the moon, one was part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and forty-two were part of the Space Shuttle program.

In addition to the 52 astronauts who are alumni of the Academy, over 990 noted scholars from a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 45 Rhodes Scholars and 16 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include 1 President of the United States, 2 Nobel Prize recipients, and 73 Medal of Honor recipients.b[›]

Astronauts[edit]

"Class year" refers to the alumni's class year, which usually is the same year they graduated. However, in times of war, classes often graduate early. For example, the Class of 1943 actually graduated in 1942. (Note: The United States Air Force Academy did not graduate its first class until 1959, so a significant percentage of USNA graduates were commissioned in the US Air Force until that time.)
Name Class year Notability References
Shepard, AlanAlan Shepard 1945 Rear Admiral, World War II veteran, Navy test pilot, first U.S. Astronaut in space onboard Mercury-Redstone 3 and only Mercury Seven astronaut to walk on the Moon while commanding Apollo 14 a[›][5][6][7]
Schirra, WallyWally Schirra 1946 Only Astronaut to fly in America's first three space programs: Project Mercury (Mercury 8), Project Gemini (Gemini 6A), and Project Apollo (Apollo 7 Commander) a[›][8][9][10]
Irwin, JamesJames Irwin 1951 Served as an SR-71 Blackbird pilot and became a NASA astronaut, serving as the lunar module pilot on the Apollo 15, on which the first lunar rover was used; walked on the moon a[›][11][12][13]
Eisele, Donn F.Donn F. Eisele 1952 Test pilot, CMP on Apollo 7, the first Apollo program manned mission a[›][14][15][16]
Givens, EdwardEdward Givens 1952 Test pilot, died in an automobile crash before making a spaceflight a[›][17][18][19]
Lovell, JimJim Lovell 1952 Served in the Korean War, Navy test pilot, astronaut participating in Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8, and commanding the ill-fated Apollo 13, which he brought back safely a[›][20][21][22]
Stafford, Thomas PattenThomas Patten Stafford 1952 Pilot, Gemini 6A, Commanded Gemini 9A, Apollo 10, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project a[›][23][24][25]
Freeman, TheodoreTheodore Freeman 1953 Test pilot, died in a plane crash before making a spaceflight a[›][26][27][28]
Anders, WilliamWilliam Anders 1955 Astronaut, flew on Apollo 8; ambassador to Norway (1975–1977) a[›]c[›][29][30]
Duke, CharlesCharles Duke 1957 Lunar Module Pilot Apollo 16; walked on the moon a[›][31][32]
McCandless II, BruceBruce McCandless II 1958 Performed the first un-thethered spacewalk on STS-41-B and also flew on STS-31; son of Rear Admiral Bruce McCandless, Medal of Honor recipient of World War II, class of 1932 a[›][33][34]
Griggs, S. DavidS. David Griggs 1962 Performed an unscheduled spacewalk during STS-51-D a[›][35][36]
Springer, Robert C.Robert C. Springer 1964 Mission specialist on STS-29 and STS-38 a[›][37][38]
Creighton, John OliverJohn Oliver Creighton 1966 Pilot of STS-51-G, commanded STS-36 and STS-48 a[›][39][40]
Walker, DavidDavid Walker 1966 Pilot of STS-51-A, commanded STS-30, STS-53 and STS-69 a[›][41][42]
Buchli, JamesJames Buchli 1967 Mission specialist on STS-51-C, STS-61-A, STS-29 and STS-48 a[›][43][44]
Smith, Michael J.Michael J. Smith 1967 Pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during STS-51-L a[›][45][46]
Bolden, Jr., Charles F.Charles F. Bolden, Jr. 1968 Major General; United States Marine Corps test pilot; pilot of STS-61-C and STS-31; commanded STS-45 and STS-60; nominated in 2009 to be NASA Administrator a[›][47][48]
Coats, MichaelMichael Coats 1968 Pilot of STS-41-D, and commanded STS-29 and STS-39 a[›][49][50]
O'Connor, Bryan D.Bryan D. O'Connor 1968 Pilot of STS-61-B, and commanded STS-40 a[›][51][52]
Lounge, John M.John M. Lounge 1969 Mission specialist on STS-51-I, STS-26 and STS-35 a[›][53][54]
Cabana, Robert D.Robert D. Cabana 1971 Pilot of STS-41 and STS-53, commanded STS-65 and STS-88 a[›][55][56]
Culbertson, Jr., Frank L.Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. 1971 Pilot of STS-38, commanded STS-51 and International Space Station Expedition 3 a[›][57][58]
Leestma, DavidDavid Leestma 1971 Mission specialist on STS-41-G, STS-28 and STS-45 a[›][59][60]
Shepherd, WilliamWilliam Shepherd 1971 Mission specialist on STS-27, STS-41 and STS-52; commanded International Space Station Expedition 1 a[›][61][62]
Phillips, John L.John L. Phillips 1972 Mission specialist on STS-100 and STS-119; Flight Engineer of International Space Station Expedition 11 a[›][63][64]
Oswald, Stephen S.Stephen S. Oswald 1973 Pilot of STS-42 and STS-56, Commanded STS-67 a[›][65][66]
Reightler, Jr., Kenneth S.Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. 1973 Pilot of STS-48 and STS-60 a[›][67][68]
Readdy, William F.William F. Readdy 1974 Mission Specialist on STS-42, pilot of STS-51 and commanded STS-79 a[›][69][70]
Thorne, StephenStephen Thorne 1975 Test pilot, died in a plane crash before making a spaceflight a[›][71][72]
Linenger, Jerry M.Jerry M. Linenger 1977 Mission Specialist on STS-64, and long-duration spaceflight on the Mir space station a[›][73][74]
Thuot, Pierre J.Pierre J. Thuot 1977 Mission Specialist on STS-36, STS-49 and STS-62 a[›][75][76]
Bowersox, KenKen Bowersox 1978 Pilot of STS-50, commanded STS-61, STS-73, STS-82 and International Space Station Expedition 6 a[›][77][78]
Bursch, Daniel W.Daniel W. Bursch 1979 Mission Specialist on STS-51, STS-68 and STS-77; flight engineer of International Space Station Expedition 4 a[›][79][80]
Foreman, MichaelMichael Foreman 1979 Mission Specialist on STS-123 a[›][81][82]
Gorie, Dominic L. PudwillDominic L. Pudwill Gorie 1979 Pilot of STS-91 and STS-99; commanded STS-108 and STS-123 a[›][83][84]
Edwards, Jr., Joe F.Joe F. Edwards, Jr. 1980 United States Navy test pilot, pilot of STS-89 a[›][85][86]
Lopez-Alegria, MichaelMichael Lopez-Alegria 1980 Mission Specialist for STS-73, STS-92, and STS-113; commanded International Space Station Expedition 14. American record holder for space walks, with 10 a[›][87][88]
Hire, Kathryn P.Kathryn P. Hire 1981 Mission Specialist on STS-90 and STS-130 a[›][89][90]
Jett, Jr., Brent W.Brent W. Jett, Jr. 1981 Pilot of STS-72 and STS-81; commanded STS-97 and STS-115 a[›][91][92]
Lawrence, Wendy B.Wendy B. Lawrence 1981 Navy helicopter pilot and Mission Specialist for STS-67, STS-86, STS-91, and STS-114; daughter of William P. Lawrence, Superintendent of the Academy while she was a Midshipman a[›][93][94]
Loria, ChristopherChristopher Loria 1983 Assigned as the pilot of STS-113, but an injury resulted in medical disqualification from spaceflight a[›][95][96]
McCool, William CameronWilliam Cameron McCool 1983 Pilot of Space Shuttle Columbia, killed when the craft disintegrated during re-entry at the conclusion of STS-107 a[›][97][98][99]
Curbeam, RobertRobert Curbeam 1984 Mission Specialist on STS-85, STS-98 and STS-116 a[›][100][101]
Hobaugh, Charles O.Charles O. Hobaugh 1984 Pilot of STS-104 and STS-118; will command STS-129 a[›][102][103]
Zamka, George D.George D. Zamka 1984 Pilot of STS-120; will command STS-130 a[›][104][105]
Nowak, LisaLisa Nowak 1985 Mission Specialist on STS-121, terminated by NASA after arrest with attempted murder charge [106]
Frick, StephenStephen Frick 1986 Pilot of STS-110 and commanded STS-122 a[›][107][108]
Bowen, Stephen G.Stephen G. Bowen 1986 Mission Specialist on STS-126 a[›][109][110]
Williams, SunitaSunita Williams 1987 Flight Engineer of International Space Station Expeditions 14 and 15 a[›][111][112]
Ham, KennethKenneth Ham 1987 Pilot of STS-124 a[›][113][114]
Cassidy, ChristopherChristopher Cassidy 1993 Mission Specialist on STS-127 a[›][115][116]
Alan Shepard in spaceflight aboard Freedom 7
Charles M. Duke, Jr.
Charles Bolden
John L. Phillips
Ken Bowersox
Michael Lopez-Alegria
Wendy B. Lawrence
Sunita Williams

References[edit]

General

^ a: "Astronauts". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
^ b: "Notable Graduates". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
^ c: "United States Ambassadors". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 

Inline citations
  1. ^ "Astronaut Fact Book" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). January 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  2. ^ "The Official Web Site of Naval Academy Athletics". Navy Sports. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  3. ^ "Apply For Nomination". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  4. ^ "Academic Education". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  5. ^ "Alan B. Shepherd Class of 1945". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (Rear Admiral, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  7. ^ "Alan Shepard was 'a pretty cool customer'". CNN. 1998-07-22. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  8. ^ "Walter M. Schirra Class of 1946". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Walter M. Schirra (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  10. ^ "Wally Schirra, One of America's Seven Original Mercury Astronauts, Dead at 84". Fox News via Associated Press. 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  11. ^ "James Irwin Class of 1951". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  12. ^ "James F. Irwin (Colonel, USAF, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  13. ^ "Astronaut - James Irwin Gives Unique Picture". The Salvation Army. Retrieved 2009-02-21. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Donn F. Eisele Class of 1952". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Donn F. Eisele (Colonel, USAF, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  16. ^ "Class of 1993 - Ohio Veterans Hall of Fame". Ohio Veterans Services. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  17. ^ "Edward G. Givens Class of 1952". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  18. ^ "Edward G. Givens (Major, USAF)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  19. ^ Burgess, Colin; Kate Doolan (2003). Fallen Astronauts. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. xvii. ISBN 0-8032-6212-4. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  20. ^ "James A. Lovell Class of 1952". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  21. ^ "James A. Lovell, Jr. (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  22. ^ Townley, Alvin (26 December 2006). Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 80–86. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. 
  23. ^ "Thomas P. Stafford Class of 1952". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Thomas P. Stafford (Lieutenant General, USAF, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  25. ^ "Stafford, Thomas Patten (1930 - )". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  26. ^ "Theodore C. Freeman Class of 1953". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Theodore C. Freeman (Captain, USAF)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  28. ^ Burgess, Colin; Kate Doolan (2003). Fallen Astronauts. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-8032-6212-4. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  29. ^ "William Anders Class of 1955". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. [dead link]
  30. ^ "William A. Anders (Major General, USAF Reserve, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  31. ^ "Charles Moss Duke, Jr Class of 1957". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. [dead link]
  32. ^ "Charles M. Duke, Jr. (Brigadier General, USAF, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  33. ^ "Bruce McCandless Class of 1958". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-14. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Bruce McCandless II (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  35. ^ "David Griggs Class of 1962". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  36. ^ "S. David Griggs (Mr.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  37. ^ "Robert C. Springer Class of 1964". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  38. ^ "Robert C. Springer (Colonel, USMC, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  39. ^ "John O. Creighton Class of 1966". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  40. ^ "John O. Creighton (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  41. ^ "David M. Walker Class of 1966". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  42. ^ "David M. Walker (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  43. ^ "James F. Buchli Class of 1967". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  44. ^ "James F. Buchli (Colonel, USMC, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  45. ^ "Michael J. Smith Class of 1967". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Michael J. Smith (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  47. ^ "Charles F. Bolden Class of 1968". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  48. ^ "Charles F. Bolden, Jr. (Brig. General, USMC)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  49. ^ "Michael L. Coats Class of 1968". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  50. ^ "Michael L. Coats (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  51. ^ "Bryan D. O'Connor Class of 1968". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  52. ^ "Bryan D. O'Connor (Colonel, USMC, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  53. ^ "John M. Lounge Class of 1969". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  54. ^ "John M. "Mike" Lounge". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  55. ^ "Robert D. Cabana Class of 1971". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  56. ^ "Robert D. Cabana (Colonel, USMC, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  57. ^ "Frank L. Culbertson Class of 1971". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  58. ^ "Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  59. ^ "David C. Leestma Class of 1971". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  60. ^ "David C. Leestma (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  61. ^ "William M. Shepherd Class of 1971". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  62. ^ "William M. Shepherd (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  63. ^ "John L. Phillips Class of 1972". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  64. ^ "John L. Phillips (Ph.D.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  65. ^ "Stephen S. Oswald Class of 1973". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  66. ^ "Stephen S. Oswald (Mr.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  67. ^ "Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr Class of 1973". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  68. ^ "Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  69. ^ "William F. Readdy Class of 1974". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  70. ^ "William F. Readdy". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  71. ^ "Stephen D. Thorne Class of 1975". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  72. ^ "Stephen D. Thorne (Lieutenant Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  73. ^ "J.M. Linenger Class of 1977". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  74. ^ "J. M. Linenger, M.D., M.S.S.M., M.P.H., Ph.D. (Captain, Medical Corps, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  75. ^ "Pierre J. Thuot Class of 1977". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  76. ^ "Pierre J. Thuot (Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  77. ^ "Kenneth D. Bowersox Class of 1978". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  78. ^ "Kenneth D. Bowersox (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  79. ^ "Daniel W. Bursch Class of 1979". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  80. ^ "Daniel W. Bursch (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  81. ^ "Michael J. Foreman Class of 1979". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  82. ^ "Michael J. Foreman (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  83. ^ "Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie Class of 1979". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  84. ^ "Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  85. ^ "Joe Frank Edwards Jr Class of 1980". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  86. ^ "Joe Frank Edwards, Jr. (Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  87. ^ "Michael E. Lopez-Alegria Class of 1980". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  88. ^ "Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  89. ^ "Kathryn P. Hire Class of 1981". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  90. ^ "Kathryn P. (Kay) Hire (Captain, U.S. Navy Reserve)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  91. ^ "Brent W. Jett, Jr. Class of 1981". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  92. ^ "Brent W. Jett, Jr. (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  93. ^ "Wendy B. Lawrence Class of 1981". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  94. ^ "Wendy B. Lawrence (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  95. ^ "Christopher J. Loria Class of 1983". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  96. ^ "Christopher J. "Gus" Loria (Lieutenant Colonel, USMC)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  97. ^ "William C. McCool Class of 1983". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  98. ^ "William C. McCool (Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  99. ^ Burgess, Colin; Kate Doolan (2003). Fallen Astronauts. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. p. 254. ISBN 0-8032-6212-4. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  100. ^ "Robert L. Curbeam, Jr Class of 1984". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  101. ^ "Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. (Captain, USN, Ret.)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  102. ^ "Charles Owen Hobaugh Class of 1984". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  103. ^ "Charles Owen Hobaugh (Colonel, USMC)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  104. ^ "George D. Zamka Class of 1984". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  105. ^ "George D. Zamka (Colonel, USMC)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  106. ^ "Lisa M. Nowak (Captain USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  107. ^ "Stephen N. Frick Class of 1986". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  108. ^ "Stephen N. Frick (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  109. ^ "Stephen G. Bowen Class of 1986". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  110. ^ "Stephen G. Bowen (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  111. ^ "Sunita L. Williams Class of 1987". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  112. ^ "Sunita L. Williams (Captain, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  113. ^ "Kenneth T. Ham Class of 1987". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  114. ^ "Kenneth T. Ham (Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  115. ^ "Christopher J. Cassidy Class of 1993". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 2009-02-15. [dead link]
  116. ^ "Christopher J. Cassidy (Commander, USN)". NASA. Retrieved 2009-02-15.