List of astronomical observatories

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Legend
Space observatory
Gravitational-wave detector
Antimatter observatory
Airborne observatory
Radio observatory
Microwave observatory
Ground-based observatory
Solar observatory
Neutrino detector
Cosmic-ray observatory

This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location. The list also includes a final year of operation for many observatories that are no longer in operation. While other sciences, such as volcanology and meteorology, also use facilities called observatories for research and observations, this list is limited to observatories that are used to observe celestial objects.

Astronomical observatories are mainly divided into four categories: space based, airborne, ground based and underground based.

Many modern telescopes and observatories are located in space to observe astronomical objects in wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere (such as ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays) and are thus impossible to observe using ground-based telescopes.[1] Being above the atmosphere, these space observatories can also avoid the effects of atmospheric turbulence that plague ground based telescopes, although new generations of adaptive optics telescopes have since then dramatically improved the situation on the ground. The space high vacuum environment also frees the detectors from the ancestral diurnal cycle due to the atmospheric blue light background of the sky, thereby increasing significantly the observation time.

An intermediate variant is the airborne observatory, specialised in the infrared wavelengths of the EM spectrum, that conduct observations above the part of the atmosphere containing water vapor that absorbs them, in the stratosphere.

Historically, astronomical observatories consisted generally in a building or group of buildings where observations of astronomical objects such as sunspots, planets, asteroids, comets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies in the visible wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum were conducted. At first, for millennia, astronomical observations have been made with naked eyes. Then with the discovery of optics, with the help of different types of refractor telescopes and later with reflector telescopes. Their use allowed to dramatically increase both the collecting power and limit of resolution, thus the brightness, level of detail and apparent angular size of distant celestial objects allowing them to be better studied and understood. Following the development of modern physics, new ground based facilities have been constructed to conduct research in the radio and microwave wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, with radio telescopes and dedicated microwave telescopes.

Modern astrophysics has extended the field of study of celestial bodies to non electromagnetic vectors, such as neutrinos, neutrons and cosmic-rays or gravitational waves. Thus new types of observatories have been developed. Interferometers are at the core of gravitational wave detectors. In order to limit the natural or artificial background noise, most particle detector based observatories are built deep underground.

A[edit]

Satellite image of Arecibo Observatory
Name Established Location
Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory 1932 Abastumani, Georgia
Abu Reyhan-e Birooni Observatory 1976 Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) 1997 Earth–Sun L1 point
Aker Observatory 1995 Safford, Arizona, USA
Aldershot Observatory 1906 Aldershot, Hampshire, England
Algonquin Radio Observatory 1959 Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Observatory 1859 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Ametlla de Mar Observatory 1992 l'Ametlla de Mar, Catalonia, Spain
AMiBA 2006 Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA
Anderson Mesa Station 1959 Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Angell Hall Observatory 1927 Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Ankara University Observatory 1963 Gölbaşı, Ankara, Turkey
Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array 2002 Antarctica
Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory 1994–2005 Antarctica
ANTARES (telescope) 2008 In the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon
Apache Point Observatory Sunspot, New Mexico, USA
Apatity Cosmic-Ray Station Apatity, Russia
Apollo Observatory 1969 Dayton, Ohio, USA
Arcetri Observatory Arcetri, Florence, Italy
Arecibo Observatory 1963 Arecibo, Puerto Rico, USA
Argentine Institute of Radio Astronomy 1966 Berazategui Partido, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
Armagh Observatory 1790 Armagh, United Kingdom
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences 1954 Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
Ashton Observatory 1983 Baxter, Iowa, USA
Asiago Observatory 1942 Asiago, Italy
Astron (defunct) 1983–1989 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon 1867 Lisbon, Portugal
Astrophysical Institute Potsdam 1992 Potsdam, Germany
Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 2003 Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Chile
Australia Telescope Compact Array 1988 Narrabri, Australia
Australian Astronomical Observatory 1971 Coonabarabran, Australia

B[edit]

Name Established Location
Badlands Observatory 2000 Quinn, South Dakota, USA
Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope 1993 Baikal Lake, Russia
Baker Observatory 1980 Marshfield, Missouri, USA
Baksan Neutrino Observatory 1977 Prielbrusye, Baksan Valley, Russia
Ball State University Observatory Muncie, Indiana, USA
Barnard Observatory (defunct) 1859 Oxford, Mississippi, USA
Bareket observatory israel 1990 Macabim, Israel
Bayfordbury Observatory 1969 Hertfordshire, UK
Behlen Observatory 1972 Mead, Nebraska, USA
Beijing Astronomical Observatory 1958 Beijing, China
Beijing Ancient Observatory 1442 Beijing, China
Belgrade Observatory 1887 Belgrade, Serbia
Belogradchik Observatory 1961 Belogradchik, Bulgaria
Benmore Peak Observatory 1996 Mackenzie Basin, South Island, New Zealand
BeppoSAX (defunct) 1996–2003 Low Earth orbit
Bergisch Gladbach Observatory Bergisch Gladbach, Germany
Berlin Observatory 1711 Germany
Burrell Memorial Observatory 1940 Berea, Ohio, USA
Besançon Observatory 1882 Besançon, France
BESS 1993 Antarctic
Big Bear Lake Solar Observatory 1969 Big Bear City, California, USA
Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory 2010 Bisdee Tier, Spring Hill, Tasmania, Australia
Black Moshannon Observatory (defunct) 1972 Pennsylvania, USA
Blue Mesa Observatory (defunct) 1967 New Mexico, USA
Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) 1996 Youngchun, Republic of Korea
BOOTES 1985 Spain
Bordeaux Observatory 1878 Floirac, France
Bosscha Observatory 1923 Lembang, West Java, Indonesia
Boswell Observatory (defunct) 1883 Crete, Nebraska, USA
Bowman Observatory 1940 Greenwich, Connecticut, USA
Boyden Observatory 1889 Bloemfontein, South Africa
Bradstreet Observatory 1996 St. Davids, Pennsylvania, USA
Bradley Observatory 1950 Decatur, Georgia, USA
Braeside Observatory (defunct) 1976 Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Brera Observatory 1764 Milan, Italy
Brooks Observatory Toledo, Ohio, USA
Brooks Astronomical Observatory 1964 Mount Pleasant, Michigan, USA
Brorfelde Observatory Holbæk, Denmark
Bucknell Observatory Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, USA
Bucharest Observatory 1910 Bucharest, Romania
Byurakan Observatory 1946 Mount Aragats, Armenia

C[edit]

Name Established Location
Cagigal Observatory 1888 Caracas, Venezuela
Cagliari Observatory 1899 Cagliari, Sardinia
Calais Observatory (defunct) 1857 Calais, Maine
Calar Alto Observatory 1975 Almería, Spain
Caltech Submillimeter Observatory Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
Canopus Hill Observatory Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Capilla Peak Observatory Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
Capodimonte Observatory 1812 Naples, Italy
Carter Observatory 1937 Wellington, New Zealand
Catania Astrophysical Observatory Catania, Italy
Celestial Observatory Russellville, Arkansas, USA
Centennial Observatory 2004 Twin Falls, Idaho, USA
Cerro Armazones Observatory 1995 Atacama Desert, Chile
Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1962 Atacama Desert, Chile
Cerro Pachón Observatory 2000 Atacama Desert, Chile
Chabot Space & Science Center 1883 Oakland, California, USA
Chamberlin Observatory 1890 Denver, Colorado, USA
Changchun Astronomical Observatory Changchun, Jilin Province, China
Chandra X-ray Observatory 1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Chianti Polifunctional Observatory 2013 San Donato in Poggio, Florence, Italy
Chico Community Observatory Chico, California, USA
Cincinnati Observatory 1843 Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
City Observatory, Edinburgh 1818 Edinburgh, Scotland
Clarke Observatory 1897 / 1923 Dunkirk, New York / Alliance, Ohio, USA
Cloudcroft Observatory (defunct) 1962 New Mexico, USA
Coats Observatory 1883 Paisley, Scotland
Coit Observatory Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Collins Observatory 2003 Corning, New York, USA
Collm Observatory Leipzig, Germany
Colombo University Observatory 1920s Colombo, Sri Lanka
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (defunct) 1991–2000 Low earth orbit
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (defunct) 1991–2000 Low earth orbit
ÇOMÜ Ulupınar Observatory 2002 Çanakkale, Turkey
Concordia College Observatory Moorhead, Minnesota, USA
Consell Observatory 1987 Majorca, Spain
Copenhagen University Observatory 1861 Copenhagen, Denmark
Cordell–Lorenz Observatory Sewanee, Tennessee, USA
COROT 2006 Polar orbit
Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) 1999 Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Chile
Côte d'Azur Observatory 1988 France
Crane Observatory Topeka, Kansas, USA
Crawford Observatory 1880 Cork, Ireland
Creighton University Observatory (defunct) 1886–1955 Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory 1945 Ukraine
Črni Vrh Observatory 1975 Idrija, Slovenia
Cupillari Observatory La Plume, Pennsylvania, USA
CUASAR, University of Valencia observatory 2008 Aras de los Olmos, Valencia, Spain
Custer Observatory 1927 Southold, New York, USA

D[edit]

Name Established Location
Daniel S. Schanck Observatory (defunct) 1865 Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Daniel Scholl Observatory (defunct) 1886–1966 Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA
Dark Sky Observatory 1981 Phillips Gap, Wilkes County, North Carolina, USA
Darling's Observatory (defunct) 1917 Duluth, Minnesota, USA
Dearborn Observatory 1889 Evanston, Illinois, USA
Detroit Observatory 1854 Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
David Dunlap Observatory 1935 Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada
Dome C Antarctica
Dominion Observatory 1905 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1947 Saanich, British Columbia, Canada
Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory 1960 Okanagan Falls, British Columbia, Canada
Dunsink Observatory 1785 Dublin, Ireland
Dyer Observatory 1953 Brentwood, Tennessee, USA

E[edit]

Name Established Location
Effelsberg Radio Telescope 1972 Bonn, Germany
Ege University Observatory 1965 Kemalpaşa, Izmir, Turkey
Einstein Observatory (defunct) 1978 Low Earth orbit
Elginfield Observatory 1969 Middlesex Centre, Ontario, Canada
Ellis Observatory 2004 Sterling Hill Mining Museum, Ogdensburg, New Jersey, USA
Eskdalemuir Observatory 1908 Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland
European Gravitational Observatory 2003]] Cascina , Italy]]
European Southern Observatory
1962
  • 1969
  • 2005
  • 1999
Atacama Desert, Chile

F[edit]

Name Established Location
Fabra Observatory 1906 Barcelona, Spain
Fan Mountain Observatory 1966 Albemarle County, Virginia, USA
Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope 2013 Duyun, Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, China
Félix Aguilar Observatory 1965 San Juan, Argentina
Fernbank Observatory Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope 2008 Orbit
Fick Observatory 1966 Boone, Iowa, USA
Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (defunct) 1976 - 2011 New Salem, Massachusetts, USA
Flarestar Observatory San Gwann, Malta
Foggy Bottom Observatory 1951 Hamilton, New York, USA
Foothill Observatory Los Altos Hills, California, USA
Ford Observatory 1998 Ithaca, New York, USA
Fox Observatory Sunrise, Florida, USA
Fox Park Public Observatory 1999 Potterville, Michigan, USA
Francis Marion University Observatory 1982 Florence, South Carolina, USA
Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1968 Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA
Fremont Peak Observatory 1986 San Juan Bautista, California, USA
Frosty Drew Observatory 1980s Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA
Fuertes Observatory 1917 Ithaca, New York, USA

G[edit]

Name Established Location
Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) 2003 Caltech, JPL
Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory 1276 Dengfeng, Henan, China
Gauribidanur Radio Observatory 1976 Gauribidanur, Karnataka, India
Gemini Observatory 1999 Southern Operations Center: La Serena, Chile; Northern Operations Center: Hilo, Hawaii, USA
Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 1995 Pune, Maharashtra, India
Gifford Observatory 1912 Wellington, New Zealand
Girawali Observatory 2006 Pune, Maharashtra, India
Glen D. Riley Observatory 1973 Naperville, Illinois, USA
Godlee Observatory 1902 Manchester, England
Goodsell Observatory 1887 Northfield, Minnesota, USA
Goethe Link Observatory 1939 Brooklyn, Indiana, USA
Goldendale Observatory 1973 Goldendale, Washington, USA
Gornergrat (HFSJG) (defunct) 1967–2005 Gornergrat, Switzerland
Granat (defunct) 1989–1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Gran Telescopio Canarias 2006 Canary Islands, Spain
Grant O. Gale Observatory 1984 Grinnell, Iowa, USA
Green Bank Telescope, Green Bank, West Virginia, USA
Green Point Observatory, 1961 Sutherland, New South Wales, Australia
Grenfell Observatory 2012 Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Griffith Observatory 1935 Los Angeles, California, USA
Guillermo Haro Observatory 1972 Cananea, Sonora, Mexico

H[edit]

Name Established Location
HALCA (defunct) 1997–2005 Elliptical earth-centered orbit
Haleakala Observatory Maui, Hawaii, USA
Halley Observatory 1987 Heesch, Netherlands
Hamburg Observatory 1803 Hamburg, Germany
Hat Creek Radio Observatory 1950s Shasta County, California, USA
Hard Labor Creek Observatory Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Hartung–Boothroyd Observatory 1974 Ithaca, New York, USA
Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory 1961 Gauteng, South Africa
Harvard College Observatory 1839 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 1973 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Haute-Provence Observatory 1937 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France
Haystack Observatory 1964 Westford, Massachusetts, USA
Hector J Robinson Observatory 1964 Lincoln Park, Michigan, USA
Helsinki University Observatory 1834 Helsinki/Kirkkonummi, Finland
Herrett Observatory 2004 Twin Falls, Idaho, USA
Herschel Space Observatory 2009 Earth–Sun L2 point
Hidden Valley Observatory 1960s Rapid City, South Dakota, USA
High Energy Stereoscopic System 2002 Khomas Region, Namibia
Highland Road Park Observatory 1997 Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
Hinode 2006 Low Earth orbit
Hirsch Observatory 1942 Troy, New York, USA
Hobbs Observatory 1974 Fall Creek, Wisconsin, USA
Hoher List Observatory 1954 Daun, Germany
Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium 1954 Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
Hong Kong Observatory 1883 Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Hopkins Observatory 1838 Williamstown, Massachusetts, USA
Howell Observatory Starkville, Mississippi, USA
Hradec Králové Observatory 1961 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Huairou Solar Observing Station Beijing, China
Hubble Space Telescope 1990 Low Earth orbit
Hyde Memorial Observatory 1977 Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

I[edit]

Name Established Location
IceCube Neutrino Observatory 2010 Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Indian Astronomical Observatory 2001 Hanle, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias 1975 Canary Islands, Spain
INTEGRAL 2002 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) (defunct) January–November 1983 Earth orbit
Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) (defunct) 1995–1998 Earth orbit
Innsbruck Observatory Innsbruck, Austria
IRAM 30m telescope 1984 Pico Veleta, Spain
IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer 1988 Gap, Hautes-Alpes, France
Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 1979 La Palma, Spain
Iso-Heikkilä Observatory (defunct) 1935 (only amateur use since 1972) Turku, Finland
Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din 1577 Istanbul, Turkey
Istanbul University Observatory 1936 Istanbul, Turkey

J[edit]

Name Established Location
Jack C. Davis Observatory 2002 Carson City, Nevada, USA
Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University 1792 Cracow, Poland
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 1987 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
James Webb Space Telescope 2018 (planned) Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point
James Wylie Shepherd Observatory 2009 Montevallo, Alabama, USA
Jakarta Observatory 1968 Jakarta, Indonesia
Jantar Mantar 1727 Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Jena Observatory 1962 Jena, Germany
Jewett Observatory 1953 Pullman, Washington, USA
Jodrell Bank Observatory 1945 Cheshire, England
Jones Observatory 1936 Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA
Judson B. Coit Observatory Boston, Massachusetts, USA

K[edit]

Name Established Location
Khajeh Nasiredin Observatory ~1980 Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
Kamioka Observatory 1983 Hida, Gifu, Japan
Kanzelhoehe Solar Observatory 1943 Villach, Austria
Karl Schwarzschild Observatory 1960 Jena, Germany
Keck Observatory 1993 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
Keeble Observatory 1963 Ashland, Virginia, USA
Kennon Observatory 1939 Oxford, Mississippi, USA
Kepler Space Observatory (probably defunct) 2009 Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit
Kevola Observatory 1963 Kevola, Finland
Kielder Observatory 2008 Kielder Forest, Northumberland, England, United Kingdom
Kirkwood Observatory 1901 Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Kitami Observatory Hokkaidō, Japan
Kitt Peak National Observatory 1958 Tucson, Arizona, USA
Kleť Observatory 1957 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Kodaikanal Solar Observatory 1899 Palani, Tamil Nadu, India
Konkoly Observatory 1871 Budapest, Hungary
KOSMA observatory 1985–2010 Gornergrat, Switzerland
Kuffner observatory 1884 Austria
Kuiper Airborne Observatory (retired) 1974 14 km in the stratosphere
Kvistaberg Observatory Sweden
Kyung Hee Observatory 1992 Seoul, South Korea

L[edit]

24" Clark Telescope Dome at Lowell Observatory
Name Established Location
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble 2001 Grenoble, France
Observatorio de La Cañada (La Cañada Observatory) 2002 Ávila, Spain
Ladd Observatory 1891 Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Lake Afton Public Observatory 1979 Wichita, Kansas, USA
Lamont–Hussey Observatory (defunct) 1928 Bloemfontein, South Africa
Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 1898 Königstuhl, Heidelberg, Germany
La Plata Astronomical Observatory 1883 La Plata, Argentina
La Silla Observatory 1969 Atacama Desert, Chile
Large Millimeter Telescope Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico
Las Brisas Observatory 1979 Colorado, USA
Las Campanas Observatory La Serena, Chile
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope 2005 Global network
Laws Observatory 1880 Columbia, Missouri, USA
Leander McCormick Observatory 1885 Mount Jefferson, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Lee Observatory 1873 American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
Leiden Observatory 1633 Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands
Leipzig Observatory Leipzig, Germany
Leoncito Astronomical Complex 1986 Calingasta, San Juan, Argentina
Levenhagen Observatory Seattle, Washington, USA
Lick Observatory 1881 Mount Hamilton, San Jose, California, USA
LightBuckets (commercial observatory) 2007 Rodeo, New Mexico, USA
LIGO 1999 Hanford Site & Livingston Louisiana
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory 2005 Atacama Desert, Chile
Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory 1975 Mèrida, Venezuela
Long Wavelength Array 2010 Socorro, New Mexico, USA
Longa Vista Observatory 2010 Itatiba,SP, Brazil
Lowell Observatory
1894
  • 1959
Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Lulin Observatory 1999 Mount Lulin, Taiwan
Lund Observatory 1749 Lund, Sweden
Luoxue Mountain Cosmic Rays Research Center 1953 Luoxue Mountain, Yunnan Province, China
Lyon Observatory 1877 Saint-Genis-Laval, France

M[edit]

Name Established Location
Macalester College Observatory Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA
Magdalena Ridge Observatory (under construction) 2006 Socorro County, New Mexico, USA
Malakoff Tower 1845 Recife, Brazil
Majorca Observatory 1991 Majorca, Spain
Manastash Ridge Observatory 1972 Ellensburg, Washington, USA
Maragheh Observatory 1259 Maragheh, Iran
Margaret M. Jacoby Observatory 1978 Warwick, Rhode Island, USA
Maria Mitchell Observatory 1908 Nantucket, Massachusetts, USA
Marina Towers Observatory (Not In Use) 1989 Maritime Quarter, Swansea,Wales
Markree Observatory (defunct) 1837 County Sligo, Ireland
Marseille Observatory Marseille, France
Martz Observatory Chautauqua County, New York, USA
Mauna Kea Observatory 1967 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
Mauna Loa Solar Observatory Hawaii, USA
Maynard F. Jordan Observatory 1901 Orono, Maine, USA
McDonald Observatory Davis Mountains, Texas, USA
McKim Observatory 1884 Greencastle, Indiana, USA
McMath–Hulbert Solar Observatory 1930 Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA
MDM Observatory Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA
Mead Observatory 2001 Columbus, Georgia, USA
Mees Observatory Rochester, New York, USA
Mehalso Observatory Erie, Pennsylvania, USA
Melbourne Observatory 1862 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Melton Memorial Observatory 1928 Columbia, South Carolina, USA
Mendenhall Observatory 2002 Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
Menke Observatory 1994 Davenport, Iowa, USA
Metsähovi Observatory 1966 Kirkkonummi, Finland
Meudon Observatory 1876 Meudon, France
Meyer–Womble Observatory 1996 Mount Evans, Colorado, USA
Michigan State University Observatory 1969 East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées
 
  • 1878
  • 1733
Headquarters: Toulouse, France
Miller Observatory 1976 Maiden, North Carolina, USA
Mills Observatory 1935 Balgay Hills, Dundee, Scotland
MMT Observatory 1987 Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA
Modra Observatory 1988 Modra, Slovakia
Mohr Observatory (demolished) 1765-1780 Jakarta, Indonesia
Moletai Astronomical Observatory 1969 Moletai, Lithuania
Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) 1960 Bungendore, New South Wales, Australia
Mont Mégantic Observatory 1978 Mont Mégantic, Québec, Canada
Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy 1972 Monterey, California, USA
Montevideo National Observatory Montevideo, Uruguay, 34°54.6′S 56°12.8′W / 34.9100°S 56.2133°W / -34.9100; -56.2133
Moore Observatory 1978 Oldham County, Kentucky, USA
Morgan–Monroe Observatory 1966 Morgan–Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA
Morris Observatory 1973 North Manchester, Indiana, USA
Morrison Observatory Fayette, Missouri, USA
Moscow Cosmic-Ray Station Troitsk, Russia
Mount Stony Brook Observatory 1968 Stony Brook, New York, USA
Mounds Observatory Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Mount Abu Observatory Mount Abu, Rajasthan, India
Mount Burnett Observatory 1972 Mount Burnett, Victoria, Australia
Mount Cuba Astronomical Observatory Greenville, Delaware, USA
Mount Graham International Observatory 1993 Mount Graham, Arizona, USA
Mount John University Observatory 1965 Lake Tekapo, South Island, New Zealand
Mount Laguna Observatory 1968 San Diego, California, USA
Mount Lemmon Observatory Tucson, Arizona, USA
Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory Tasmania
Mount Stromlo Observatory 1911 Canberra, Australia
Mount Suhora Observatory 1987 Poland
Mount Wilson Observatory 1904 Mount Wilson, Los Angeles County, California, USA
Mountain Skies Observatory 1997 Lyman, Wyoming, USA
Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory 1957 Cambridge, England
Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory 2012 Murchison, WA, Australia

N[edit]

Name Established Location
Nachi-Katsuura Observatory Nachikatsuura, Wakayama, Japan
Nançay Radio Telescope 1965 Nançay, France
Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Research Centre 1958 Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
National Astronomical Observatory (Colombia) 1803 Bogotá, Colombia
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 1988 Headquarters: Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan
National Astronomical Observatory (Mexico) 1967 Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico
National Observatory (Brazil) 1827 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
National Observatory of Athens 1842 Athens, Greece
National Optical Astronomy Observatory
1982 Headquarters: Tucson, Arizona, USA
National Optical Observatory Turkey
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
1957 Headquarters: Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) 1903 Helwan, Egypt
National Solar Observatory Sunspot, New Mexico, USA & Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA
Naval Research Lab. Radio Sta. Sugar Grove, West Virigina, 38°31.2′N 79°16.4′W / 38.5200°N 79.2733°W / 38.5200; -79.2733
Naylor Observatory Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA
Neuchâtel Observatory 1858 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Nice Observatory 1879 Nice, France
Nizamia Observatory 1907 Hyderabad, India
Norman Lockyer Observatory 1912 Sidmouth, Devon, England
Nordic Optical Telescope 1988 Canary Islands, Spain
Norilsk Cosmic-Ray Station Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
Northern Arizona University Observatory Flagstaff, AZ, USA
North Georgia Astronomical Observatory Dahlonega, Georgia, USA
North Otago Astronomical Society Observatory Oamaru, South Island, New Zealand
Nyrölä Observatory 1997 Jyväskylän maalaiskunta, Finland

O[edit]

Name Established Location
O'Brien Observatory 1961 Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA
Observatoire du Pic de Château-Renard 1974 Saint-Véran, France
Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (Colombia) 1803 Bogotá, Colombia
Observatorio Astronomico Nacional Tonantzintla 1961 Tonantzintla, Mexico
Observatorio Solar Carl Sagan 2000 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Oil Region Astronomical Observatory Venango County, Pennsylvania, USA
Onan Observatory 1990 Norwood Young America, Minnesota, USA
Ondřejov Observatory 1898 Ondřejov, Czech Republic
Onsala Space Observatory 1949 Onsala, Sweden
Ooty Radio Telescope 1970 Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India
Orchard Hill Observatory 1965 Amherst, Massachusetts
Orioloromano Observatory 2007 Oriolo Romano, Italy
Orion 1 (defunct) 1971 Low Earth orbit
Orion 2 (defunct) 1973 Low Earth orbit
Otter Creek Observatory 1995 Meade County, Kentucky, USA
Oulu Cosmic-Ray Station Oulu, Finland
Owens Valley Radio Observatory Bishop, California, USA

P[edit]

Name Established Location
Pachmarhi Array of Cerenkov Telescopes (PACT) Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh, India
Palisades-Dows Observatory 1987 Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
Palomar Observatory 1948 Palomar Mountain, California, USA
Panzano Observatory Bologna, Italy
Paranal Observatory 1999 Cerro Paranal, Atacama desert, Chile
Paris Observatory 1667 Paris, France
Parkes Observatory 1961 Parkes, Australia
Paul Robinson Observatory 1965 High Bridge, New Jersey, USA
Peach Mountain Observatory 1950 Dexter, Michigan, USA
Perkins Observatory 1931 Delaware, Ohio, USA
Perth Observatory 1896 Perth, Australia
Pic du Midi Observatory 1878 Pic du Midi, Pyrenees, France
Pico dos Dias Observatory 1981 Minas Gerais, Brazil
Piera Observatory 1968 Barcelona, Spain
Pierre Auger Observatory 2004 Malargüe, Argentina
Pine Bluff Observatory 1958 Cross Plains, Wisconsin, USA
Pine Mountain Observatory 1965 Bend, Oregon, USA
Pistoia Mountains Astronomical Observatory 1990 Pian dei Termini (near San Marcello Pistoiese), Italy
Pollock Astronomical Observatory 2004 Hunting Valley, Ohio, USA
Portage Lake Observatory (defunct) 1948 Dexter, Michigan, USA
Poznań Observatory 1919 Poznań, Poland
Puckett Observatory Ellijay, Georgia, USA
Pula Observatory 1869 Pula, Croatia
Pulkovo Observatory 1839 Pulkovskiye Heights, Russia
Purple Mountain Observatory 1929 Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China

Q[edit]

Name Established Location
Quito Astronomical Observatory 1873 La Alameda Park, Quito, Ecuador

R[edit]

Name Established Location
Radcliffe Observatory 1772 Oxford, England. Moved to Durban, South Africa in 1939
Rainwater Observatory French Camp, Mississippi, USA
Ralph A. Worley Observatory 1964 Shreveport, Louisiana, USA
Rankin Science Observatory 1963 Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA
Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (defunct) 1971 Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington, USA
Red Barn Observatory 2006 Ty Ty, Georgia, USA
Red Buttes Observatory 1994 Laramie, Wyoming, USA
Riley Observatory 1974 Naperville, Illinois, USA
RIT Observatory Rochester, New York, USA
Ritter Observatory Toledo, Ohio, USA
Robert Brownlee Observatory Lake Arrowhead, California, USA
Robinson Observatory Orlando, Florida, USA
Robotic Lunar Observatory (defunct) 1995 Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Rogers Observatory 1981 Traverse City, Michigan, USA
Rolnick Observatory Westport, Connecticut, USA
Rome Observatory Italy
Rothney Astrophysical Observatory 1984 Priddis, Alberta, Canada
Royal Observatory, Greenwich 1675 Greenwich, England
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh 1896 Edinburgh, Scotland
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory 1979 (officially inaugurated in 1985) La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain.
Rosemary Hill Observatory Bronson, Florida, USA
Rozhen Observatory 1981 Peak Rozhen, Bulgaria.
Rutherford Observatory 1920s New York City, New York, USA
RT-32 1960 Irbene, Latvia.

S[edit]

Name Established Location
San Fernando Observatory (SFO) 1976 Sylmar, California, USA
Sayan Spectrographic Cosmic Ray Complex Irkutsk, Russia
SFA Observatory 1976 Nacogdoches, Texas, USA
Sagamore Hill Radio Observatory 1963 Hamilton, Massachusetts, USA
Shattuck Observatory 1854 Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Seven Hills Observatory 1996 Kearney, Nebraska, USA
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory 1958 Shamakhi, Azerbaijan
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory 1962 Shanghai, China
Sherzer Observatory 1878 Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA
Sheshan Astronomical Observatory 1900 Shanghai, China
Siding Spring Observatory Siding Spring, New South Wales, Australia
Sierra Nevada Observatory 1981 Sierra Nevada, Spain
Silesian Planetarium and Astronomical Observatory 1955 Chorzów / Katowice, Silesia, Poland
Simeiz Observatory Simeiz, Crimea, Ukraine
Skalnaté Pleso Observatory 1953 Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia
Skinakas Observatory 1984 Crete, Greece
Skylab 1973 low Earth orbit; re-entered in 1979
Smith Observatory 1880s Beloit, Wisconsin, USA
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 1890 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Sola Fide Observatory Austin, Minnesota, USA
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) 1996 Earth–Sun L1 point
Solar Space Telescope 2009 709 km SSO; life: 3 years
Sommers–Bausch Observatory 1949 Boulder, Colorado, USA
Sonnenborgh Observatory 1853 Utrecht, Netherlands
Sonoma State Observatory 1976 Rohnert Park, California, USA
South African Astronomical Observatory
  • Cape Town
  • Sutherland
  • 1820
  • 1972
Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) 2004 Cerro Pachón, Chile
South Pole Telescope 2007 Antarctica
Space Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope 2010 550 km LEO
Spanish National Observatory 1790 (Spain)
Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences Caucasus Mountains, Russia
Sperry Observatory 1967 Cranford, New Jersey, USA
Spitzer Space Telescope 2003 Heliocentric orbit
Springfield Observatory 1968 Springfield, Massachusetts, USA
Sproul Observatory Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA
Stardome Observatory 1967 Auckland, North Island, New Zealand
Starkenburg Observatory 1970 Heppenheim, Germany
Štefánik's Observatory 1928 Prague, Czech Republic
Steward Observatory
1916 Tucson, Arizona, USA
Stjerneborg 1581 Hven, Sweden
Stockholm Observatory 1749 Stockholm, Sweden
Stokesville Observatory Virginia, USA
Stonyhurst Observatory 1838 Lancashire, England
Strasbourg Observatory 1881 Strasbourg, France
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 2006 14 km in the stratosphere
Stull Observatory 1966 Alfred, New York, USA
Stuttgart Observatory 1920 Stuttgart, Germany
Submillimeter Array Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 1999 Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
Sunriver Observatory Sunriver, Oregon, USA
Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission 2004 Low Earth orbit
Sydney Observatory 1858 Sydney, Australia

T[edit]

Name Established Location
Table Mountain Observatory Angeles National Forest, Wrightwood, California, USA
Tacubaya Observatory 1882 Tacubaya, Mexico City, Mexico
Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory 1986 Taejon, South Korea
Tamke-Allan Observatory 1998 Roane County, Tennessee, USA
Tartu Observatory 1964 Tartumaa, Estonia
Teide Observatory 1964 Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Ten Acre Observatory Tribbey, Oklahoma, USA
Thai National Observatory 2013 Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai, Thailand
The Heights Observatory 1989 The Heights School, South Australia, Australia
Texas A&M Astronomical Observatory College Station, Texas, USA
Theodore Jacobsen Observatory 1895 Seattle, Washington, USA
Thompson Observatory 1968 Beloit, Wisconsin, USA
Tien Shan Mountain Cosmic-Ray Station Almaty, Kazakhstan
Tuorla Observatory 1952 Piikkiö, Finland
Trieste Observatory Trieste, Italy
Turin Observatory 1759 Pino Torinese, Italy

U[edit]

Name Established Location
Udaipur Solar Observatory Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope, second modification 1972 Shevchenkove, Ukraine
Ulugh Beg Observatory 1420s Samarkand, Uzbekistan
University of Alabama Observatory 1950 Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA
University of Alabama Observatory (Old) 1849–1890s Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA
University of North Alabama Observatory Florence, Alabama, USA
University of Illinois Astronomical Observatory 1896 Urbana, Illinois, USA
University of London Observatory 1929 London, England
University of Maryland Observatory College Park, Maryland, USA
University of Michigan-Dearborn Observatory 2007 Dearborn, Michigan, USA
University of New Hampshire Observatory 1985 Durham, New Hampshire, USA
University of Oklahoma Observatory Norman, Oklahoma, USA
Uppsala Astronomical Observatory 1741 Uppsala, Sweden
Urania (Antwerp) Hove, Belgium
Urania (Berlin) Berlin, Germany
Urania (Vienna) 1909 Vienna, Austria
Urania Observatory (Zürich) 1907 Zürich, Switzerland
Uraniborg 1572-1597 (demolished) Hven, Sweden
Urumqi Astronomical Observatory 1957 Urumqi, Xinjiang, China
U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO)[2] 1844
  • 1830–1844
  • 1955
Washington, D.C., USA

V[edit]

Very Large Array Radio Observatory
Name Established Location
Valongo Observatory 1924 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Vainu Bappu Observatory 1968 Kavalur, Tamil Nadu, India
Astronomical observatory of Aosta Valley 2003 Nus (Aosta Valley, Italy
Van Vleck Observatory 1914 Middletown, Connecticut, USA
Vanderbilt University Observatory Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Vartiovuori Observatory (defunct) 1819–1834 Turku, Finland
Vassar College Observatory 1865 Poughkeepsie, New York, USA
Vatican Observatory
1891
  • 1993
Headquarters: Castel Gandolfo, Italy
Veen Observatory 1970 Lowell, Michigan, USA
Vega–Bray Observatory 1990 Benson, Arizona, USA Vega–Bray Observatory 1990 Benson, Arizona, USA
Ventspils Starptautiskais Radioastronomijas Centrs Irbene, Latvia
Very Large Array 1980 Socorro, New Mexico, USA
Very Long Baseline Array 1993 Various locations
Vienna Observatory 1753 Vienna, Austria
Vilnius University Observatory 1753 Vilnius University, Lithuania
Višnjan Observatory 1978 Višnjan, Croatia
Vsetín Observatory 1950 Vsetín, Czech Republic

W[edit]

Name Established Location
Warner Observatory 1882 Rochester, New York, USA
Warner and Swasey Observatory 1919 Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Warren Rupp Observatory 1985 Mansfield, Ohio, USA
Warsaw University Observatory 1825 Warsaw, Poland
Washburn Observatory 1881 Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Weaver Student Observatory Monterey, California, USA
Weitkamp Observatory 1955 Westerville, Ohio, USA
West Mountain Observatory 1981 West Mountain (Utah) USA
Whitin Observatory 1901 Wellesley, Massachusetts, USA
Widener University Observatory 2004 Chester, Pennsylvania, USA
Wilder Observatory Amherst, Massachusetts, USA
Willard L. Eccles Observatory 2009 Frisco Peak, Utah, USA
William Brydone Jack Observatory 1851 Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Williams Observatory 1990 Boiling Springs, North Carolina, USA
Winer Observatory 1983 Sonoita, Arizona, USA
Winfree Observatory 1900 Lynchburg, Virginia, USA
Wise Observatory 1971 Negev, Israel
Witte Observatory 1984 Mediapolis, Iowa, USA
WIYN Observatory 1994 Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA
Wyoming Infrared Observatory 1975 Laramie, Wyoming, USA

X[edit]

Name Established Location
Xiangfen Astronomical Observatory 2100 B.C. Xiangfen County, Linfen City, Shanxi Province, China
Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory 1957 Urumqi, Xinjiang, China
XMM-Newton 1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Xujiahui Astronomical Observatory 1872 Shanghai, China

Y[edit]

The 40" refracting telescope at Yerkes Observatory
Name Established Location
Arctic Space Weather Center Yakutsk, Russia
Yale Student Observatory New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Yangbajing International Cosmic-Ray Observatory Yangbajing Valley, Tibet, China
Yantra Mandir 1724 New Delhi, Delhi, India
Yerevan Cosmic-Ray Station Yerevan, Armenia
Yerkes Observatory 1897 Williams Bay, Wisconsin, USA
York University Observatory Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Yuba City Astronomical Observatory 2010 Yuba City, California, USA
Yunnan Astronomical Observatory 1957 Kunming, Yunnan, China

Z[edit]

Name Established Location
Zimmerwald Observatory 1956 Zimmerwald, Switzerland


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chaisson, Eric; McMillan, Steve (2002). Astronomy Today, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall. 
  2. ^ http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/078.html

External links[edit]