List of autonomous areas by country

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Countries with at least one autonomous area

This list of autonomous areas arranged by country gives an overview of autonomous areas of the world. An autonomous area is defined as an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or has freedom from an external authority. It is typical for it to be geographically distant from the country, or to be populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies.[1] The autonomous areas differ from federal units and independent states in the sense that they, in relation to the majority of other sub-national territories in the same country, enjoy a special status including some legislative powers, within the state (for a detailed list of federated units, see Federated state#List of federal units by federation).[2]

This list includes areas that are internationally recognized, as well as some that are generally unrecognized.AB The definition of an autonomous area varies from country to country, so the native term as defined by the respective country's government is listed, and the English translation of the term is included.

Autonomous areas[edit]

Created by international agreements[edit]

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the treaty and year(s) indicated, if available) References
 China (PRC) 特別行政區 (Chinese, an official language of both Hong Kong and Macau)
região administrativa especial (Portuguese, another official language of Macau)
special administrative region (English, another official language of Hong Kong)
 Hong Kong (1997)  · Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984[3]
 Macau (1999)  · Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987[4]
[5]
 Finland itsehallinnollinen maakunta
autonomous province
 Åland (1922)  · Åland Treaty[6][7] [8]
 United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution Northern Ireland (1998)  · Good Friday Agreement (1998) [9]
West Bank and Gaza Strip
(status to be determined)
interim administrative authority  Palestinian National Authority (1994)  · Oslo Accords (1993)

Notes:

Created by internal statutes[edit]

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
 Antigua and Barbuda autonomous island Barbuda
 Australia regional authority Torres Strait Islands (1994)
 Azerbaijan muxtar respublika
autonomous republic
Nakhchivan (1924) [15][16]
 Burma self-administered zones Danu Self-Administered Zone · Kokang Self-Administered Zone  · Naga Self-Administered Zone  · Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone  · Pa-O Self-Administered Zone  · Wa Self-Administered Division (2011)
 Chile territorios especiales
special territories
Flag of Rapa Nui, Chile.svg Easter Island (2007)  · Juan Fernández Islands (2007) [17]
 China (PRC) 自治区 (zìzhìqū)
autonomous region
Guangxi (1949)  · Inner Mongolia (1947)  · Ningxia (1958)  · Xinjiang (1955)  · Tibet (1965) [5]
自治州 (zìzhìzhōu)
autonomous prefecture
Linxia · Gannan · Qiandongnan · Qiannan · Qianxinan · Enshi · Xiangxi · Yanbian · Haibei · Hainan · Huangnan · Golog · Gyêgu · Haixi · Ngawa · Garzê · Liangshan · Kizilsu · Bortala · Changji · Bayin'gholin · Ili · Dehong · Nujiang · Dêqên · Dali · Chuxiong · Honghe · Wenshan · Xishuangbanna [5]
自治县 (zìzhìxiàn)
autonomous county
over 110 (full list) [5]
自治旗 (zìzhìqí)
autonomous banner
Oroqin · Evenki · Morin [5]
 Democratic Republic of Congo interim administration Ituri Interim Administration (2003)
 Fiji autonomous region Rotuma [18]
 France collectivité territoriale
territorial collectivity
 Corsica (2003)
 Georgia avtonomiuri respublika
autonomous republic
Abkhazia (1991) ·  Adjara (1991) [19]
provisional administrative entity South Ossetia South Ossetia (2007) [20]
 Greece aftonomi monastiki politia
autonomous monastic state
Mount Athos (1913) [21]
 India autonomous district and territorial council Bodoland (2003)  · Chakma (1972)  · Dima Hasao (1970)  · Garo Hills (1952)  · Gorkhaland (2011)  · Jaintia Hills (1972)  · Karbi Anglong (1970)  · Kargil (1995)  · Khasi Hills (1952)  · Lai (1972)  · Leh (1995)  · Mara (1972)  · Tripura Tribal Areas (1982) and de facto autonomous area - North Sentinel Island (1947) [22]
 Indonesia daerah istimewa
special region
Yogyakarta (1950)  · Aceh (2005)
daerah otonomi khusus
special autonomous region
Papua (2000) · West Papua (2008)
 Iraq herema
autonomous region
Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdistan Region (1992) [23]
 Italy regione autonoma
autonomous region
 Aosta Valley (1948)  ·  Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1963)  ·  Sardinia (1948)  ·  Sicily (1946)  ·  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (1948) [8]`
provincia autonoma
autonomous province
Suedtirol CoA.svg South Tyrol (1972)  · Trentino CoA.svg Trentino (1972)
 Mauritius autonomous island  Rodrigues (2002) [24]
 Moldova unitate teritorială autonomă
autonomous territorial unit
 Găgăuzia (1995)  · Transnistria Transnistria (2005) [8]
 Nicaragua región autónoma
autonomous region
 Atlántico Norte (1986)  · Atlántico Sur (1986) [25]
 Pakistan Islami-Jamhouriyat-e-Kashmir
autonomous state
 Azad Kashmir (1948)
[19]
self-governing region Gilgit–Baltistan (1970) [26]
 Panama comarca indígena
indigenous territory
Emberá-Wounaan (1983)  · Kuna de Madugandí (1996)  · Kuna de Wargandí (2000)  · Flag of Kuna Yala.svg Kuna Yala (1938)  · Flag of Ngobe Bugle.svg Ngöbe-Buglé (1997) [27]
 Papua New Guinea autonomous region  Bougainville (2000) [28]
 Philippines rehiyong awtonomus
autonomous region
Flag of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.svg Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (1989) [29]
 Portugal região autónoma
autonomous region
 Azores (1976)  ·  Madeira (1976) [8]
 Russia respublika
(autonomous) republic
 Adygea ·  Altai Republic ·  Bashkortostan ·  Buryatia ·  Chechnya ·  Chuvashia ·  Dagestan ·  Ingushetia ·  Kabardino-Balkaria ·  Kalmykia ·  Karachay-Cherkessia ·  Karelia ·  Khakassia ·  Komi ·  Mari El ·  Mordovia ·  North Ossetia-Alania ·  Sakha Republic ·  Tatarstan ·  Tuva ·  Udmurtia [8]
avtonomnaya oblast
autonomous province
 Jewish Autonomous Oblast (1934) [8]
avtonomny okrug
autonomous district
 Chukotka ·  Khanty-Mansi ·  Nenets ·  Yamalo-Nenets [8]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis autonomous island  Nevis (1967) [30]
 São Tomé and Príncipe província
(autonomous) province
Príncipe (1995) [31]
 Serbia autonomna pokrajina
autonomous province
Kosovo and MetohijaB  ·  Vojvodina (1945) [32]
 South Korea teukbyeol jachido
autonomous province
Jeju-do (2006) [33]
 Tajikistan viloyat mukhtor
autonomous province
Gorno-Badakhshan (1925) [34]
 Tanzania Serikali ya Mapinduzi Zanzibar
revolutionary government
 Zanzibar (1964) [35]
 Trinidad and Tobago autonomous island Tobago
 Ukraine avtonomna respublika
autonomous republic
 Crimea (1992) [8]
 United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution  Scotland (1999) ·  Wales (1999)  · Northern Ireland [8]
 Uzbekistan respublika
(autonomous) republic
 Karakalpakstan

All territories called "autonomous"[edit]

In a number of countries, all territories or regions of a particular type are called "autonomous". Depending on the case, this may or may not reflect a special devolution of powers or freedom from external authority.

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 Bolivia departamento
(autonomous) department
Flag of Beni.gif Beni (2006)  · Flag of Pando.gif Pando (2006)  · Flag of Santa Cruz.gif Santa Cruz (2006)  · Flag of Tarija.gif Tarija (2006)  · Flag of La Paz.gif La Paz (2009)  · Flag of Cochabamba.gif Cochabamba (2009)  · Chuquisaca (2009) · Flag of Oruro.gif Oruro (2009) · Flag of Potosí.gif Potosi (2009) [36]
provincia autónoma
autonomous province
Gran Chaco [37]
municipio autónomo
autonomous municipality
Huacaya · Tarabuco · Mojocoya · Charazani · Jesús de Machaca · Pampas Aullagas · San Pedro de Totora · Chipaya · Salinas de Garci Mendoza · Chayanta · Charagua [38]
territorio indígena
indigenous territory
All native community lands (tierras comunitarias de origen): Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní, Central de Pueblos Nativos Guarayos, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Beni, Central Indigena de la Region Amazonica de Bolivia, Central Indigena de Pueblos Amazonicos de Pando, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Tropico de Cochabamba, Central de Pueblos Indigenas de La Paz, Organizacion de la Capitania Wehenayek Tapiete.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina entitet
entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994)  ·  Republika Srpska (1992) [39]
 Comoros île autonome
autonomous island
 Anjouan (2002)  · Grande Comore (2002)  ·  Mohéli (2002) [40]
 Spain comunidad autónoma (in Spanish)[41]
autonomia erkidego (in Basque)[42]
comunitat autònoma (in Catalan/Valencian)[43]
comunidade autónoma (in Galician)[44]
autonomous community
(nationalities and regions of Spain)
 Andalusia (1981)  ·  Aragon (1982)  ·  Asturias (1981)  ·  Balearic Islands (1983)  ·  Basque Country (1979)  ·  Canary Islands (1982)  ·  Cantabria (1982)  ·  Castile–La Mancha (1982)  ·  Castile and León (1983)  ·  Catalonia (1979)  ·  Extremadura (1983)  ·  Galicia (1981)  ·  La Rioja (1982)  ·  Madrid (1983)  ·  Murcia (1982)  ·  Navarre (1982)  ·  Valencian Community (1982) [8]
ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
 Ceuta (1995)  ·  Melilla (1995) [8]

Dependent territories with autonomy[edit]

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
 Australia self-governant territory  Norfolk Island (1979)
 Denmark rigsfællesskabet
autonomous region
 Faroe Islands (1948) ·  Greenland (1979) [8]
 France sui generis collectivité
collectivity sui generis
 New Caledonia (1999) [45]
 Netherlands autonoom land
autonomous country
 Aruba (1986) ·  Curaçao (2010) ·  Sint Maarten (2010)
 New Zealand state in free-association  Cook Islands (1965) ·  Niue (1974)
self-administering territory  Tokelau (1948) [45]
 United Kingdom crown dependency  Guernsey  ·  Isle of Man ·  Jersey [8]
British Overseas Territories  Falkland Islands  ·  Gibraltar  ·  Bermuda  ·  Cayman Islands  ·  British Virgin Islands  ·  Montserrat  ·  Anguilla [8]
 United States commonwealth  Puerto Rico (1952)  ·  Northern Mariana Islands (1978) [46]

Other entities called "autonomous"[edit]

A number of entities are also officially called "autonomous", though they do not have an exceptional freedom from external authority, and would not fall under the definition of autonomous area. They are listed here for clarity.

Capitals called "autonomous"[edit]

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 Argentina ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (1994) [47]
 Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh, along with independent cities under the same classification [48]
 Central African Republic commune autonome
autonomous commune
Bangui [49]
 Guinea-Bissau sector autónomo
autonomous sector
Bandeira Bissau.PNG Bissau Region [50]
 Indonesia daerah khusus ibukota
special capital region
Jakarta [51]
 Uzbekistan shahar
autonomous city
Tashkent (1918) [52]

Independent cities called "autonomous"[edit]

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh · Sihanoukville · Pailin · Kep [48]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lucas I. González (2008-02-11). "Political Power, Fiscal Crises, and Decentralization in Latin America: Federal Countries in Comparative Perspective (and some Contrasts with Unitary Cases)". Publius: the Journal of Federalism (Oxford University Press) 38 (2): 211. doi:10.1093/publius/pjn001. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  2. ^ Olausson, Pär M. (2007) Autonomy and Islands: A Global Study of the Factors that Determine Island Autonomy, Turku: Åbo Akademi University Press, pp. 21-25
  3. ^ Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, The Government of the HKSAR. "The Joint Declaration" and following pages, 1 July 2007.
  4. ^ http://bo.io.gov.mo/bo/i/88/23/dc/en/ Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macau
  5. ^ a b c d e "Provinces of China". Statoids. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  6. ^ (French) Edouard Gourdon, Histoire du Congrès de Paris, Paris, 1857, full text at google Print
  7. ^ Later confirmated by the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920 (which was later replaced by new legislations by the same name in 1951 and 1991) and the League of Nations in 1922 following the Åland crisis.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Benedikter, Thomas (2006-06-19). "The working autonomies in Europe". Society for Threatened Peoples. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  9. ^ http://www.nio.gov.uk/agreement.pdf
  10. ^ Treaty Concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen
  11. ^ Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1) Eur-lex.europa.eu.
  12. ^ http://www.currencyconverter.nm-devises.com/swiss-franc.html?lien=swiss-franc
  13. ^ It is legal tender in Campione d'Italia http://leg13.camera.it/_dati/leg13/lavori/stampati/sk0500/relazion/0257.htm
  14. ^ http://www.ezv.admin.ch/php/modules/dienstdokumente/ddContent.php?id=185595&id_doc=D25_d&lang=de
  15. ^ "Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh". BBC News. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  16. ^ Treaty of Moscow (1921) and Treaty of Kars (1921)
  17. ^ Constitucional act granting special status of Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands. As the special charter is being discussed, they remain being governed as provinces of the Valparaíso Region
  18. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10. .
  19. ^ a b "Regions of Georgia". Statoids. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  20. ^ "Sanakoev Appointed as Head of S.Ossetia Administration". Civil.ge. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  21. ^ "Departments of Greece". Statoids. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  22. ^ "The World's Working Regional Autonomies, Thomas Benedikter". Anthem Press. 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  23. ^ "Provinces of Iraq". Statoids. 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  24. ^ "Districts of Mauritius". Statoids. 2007-05-08. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  25. ^ "Departments of Nicaragua". Statoids. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  26. ^ "Autonomy Order for Gilgit–Baltistan". 
  27. ^ "Panama Provinces". Statoids. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  28. ^ "Provinces of Papua New Guinea". Statoids. 2005-06-01. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  29. ^ "Provinces of the Philippines". Statoids. 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  30. ^ See section 3 and 4 about Nevis Island Legislature and Administration in The Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order 1983. Published online by Georgetown University and also by University of the West Indies. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  31. ^ "Sao Tome and Principe". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  32. ^ "Districts of Serbia". Statoids. 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  33. ^ "Jeju City". Galbijim. 2007-04-08. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  34. ^ "Regions of Tajikistan". Statoids. 2005-10-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  35. ^ "Regions and territories: Zanzibar". BBC News. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  36. ^ Doug Hertzler. "Debunking Myths Part II: Bolivia’s Autonomy Initiatives". Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
  37. ^ "5 departamentos se suman a la autonomía; Gran Chaco la primera región autónoma". eju.tv. 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  38. ^ "Las autonomías indígenas avanzan a paso lento per seguro, entre consensos e interrogantes" Diálogos en Democracia, 21 March 2010 (Supplement to Pulso Bolivia).
  39. ^ "Bosnia and Herzegovina Government". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  40. ^ "Autonomous Islands of Comoros". Statoids. 2005-10-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  41. ^ Spanish (aka Castilian) is official in
  42. ^ Basque is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Basque Country and Navarre.
  43. ^ Catalan/Valencian is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Balearic Islands Valencian Community.
  44. ^ Galician is official in the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia.
  45. ^ a b Included on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  46. ^ December 2005 report of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status
  47. ^ Pinduli, Irene; Spivacow, R; Del Valle, E; Vidal, S; Negri, AL; Previgliano, H; Farías Edos, R; Andrade, JH; Negri, GM (2006-01-20). "Prevalence of urolithiasis in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, Argentina". Urological Research 34 (1): 8–11. doi:10.1007/s00240-005-0003-7. PMID 16425020. 
  48. ^ a b "Provinces of Cambodia". Statoids. 2005-05-13. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  49. ^ "Prefectures of the Central African Republic". Statoids. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  50. ^ "Regions of Guinea-Bissau". Statoids. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  51. ^ "Jakarta". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  52. ^ "Regions of Uzbekistan". Statoids. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2008-02-25.