List of bagpipes

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Northern Europe[edit]

Ireland[edit]

  • Uilleann pipes: Bellows-blown bagpipe with keyed or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators). The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: Carried by most Irish regiments of the British Army (except the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) until the late 1960s, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone.
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.

Great Britain[edit]

Kathryn Tickell playing a "16 keyed" Northumbrian smallpipe.
  • Great Highland Bagpipe: the world's most commonly played bagpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in staccato.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland Bagpipe", commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland, and in England near the Anglo-Scottish border. Conically bored, less raucous in timbre than the Highland pipes, but partially or fully chromatic.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern re-interpretation of an extinct instrument. Derived from the Northumbrian pipes by Colin Ross and others.
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are now attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.[1]
  • Welsh pipes (Welsh: pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton Veuze. Both are mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.
  • English bagpipes: with the exception of the Northumbrian smallpipes, no English bagpipes maintained an unbroken tradition. However, music enthusiasts are attempting to "reconstruct" various English bagpipes based on descriptions and representations, but no actual physical evidence.
  • Yorkshire bagpipes, known in Shakespeare's time, but now extinct
  • Lincolnshire bagpipes, a one-drone pipe extinct by 1850, with one reproduction made in the modern era
  • Lancashire bagpipes, widely mentioned in early-Modern literature and travel accounts
  • Zetland pipes: a reconstruction of pipes believed to have been brought to the Shetland Islands by the Vikings, though not clearly historically attested.

Finland[edit]

  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.
  • Pilai: a Finnish bagpipe, described in 18th century texts as similar to the Ukrainian volynka.

Estonia[edit]

Latvia[edit]

  • Dūdas: Latvian bagpipe, with single reed chanter and one drone.

Lithuania[edit]

  • Dudmaisis, or murenka, kūlinė, Labanoro dūda. A bagpipe native to Lithuania, with single reed chanter and one drone.

Sweden[edit]

Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general; the surviving säckpipa of the Dalarna region was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.

Sápmi (Lapland)[edit]

  • Walpipe, a Sami (Lapp) bagpipe. The sak-pipe is also identified as a second type of Sami pipe.

Southern Europe[edit]

Spain and Portugal[edit]

Gaita is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Castilian (Spanish), Portuguese, Basque, Asturian-Leonese, Galician, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used across the northern regions of Spain and Portugal and in the Balearic Islands. Just like "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes," each region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands have been formed in some traditions.

A piper with his gaita sanabresa

Italy[edit]

  • Zampogna (also called ciaramella, ciaramedda, or surdullina depending on style and or region): A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for doubled chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from zero to three drones (the drones usually sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote, though in some cases a drone plays the tonic).
  • Piva: used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia), Veneto and bordering regions of Switzerland such as Ticino. A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero.
  • Müsa: played in Pavia, Alessandria, Genova and Piacenza.
  • Baghèt: similar to the piva, played in the region of Bergamo, Brescia and, probably, Veneto.
  • Surdelina: a double-chantered, bellows-blown pipe from Naples, with keys on both chanters and drones

Malta[edit]

Greece[edit]


Eastern Europe[edit]

A Serbian bagpiper
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter (usually with wooden billy-goat head) that curves up at the end.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.
  • Cimpoi is the name for the Romanian bagpipes. Two main categories of bagpipes were used in Romania: with a double chanter and with a single chanter. Both have a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősíp, bőrduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.

Poland[edit]

Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
  • Dudy is the generic term for Polish bagpipes,[2] though since the 19th century they are usually referred to as kobza due to the confusion with koza and the relative obscurity of kobza proper in Poland. They are used in folk music of Podhale (koza), Żywiec Beskids and Cieszyn Silesia (dudy and gajdy), and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are four types of bagpipes:

The Balkans[edit]

Belarus[edit]

The Caucasus[edit]

Russia[edit]

Finno-Ugric Russia[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Western Europe[edit]

France[edit]

The boha of Gascony
  • Musette de cour: A French open ended smallpipe, believed by some to be an ancestor of the Northumbrian smallpipes, used for classical compositions in 'folk' style in the 18th Century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe.
  • Biniou (or biniou kozh "old style bagpipe"): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany, a Celtic region of northwestern France. It is the most famous bagpipe of France. The great Highland bagpipe is also used in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz ("great bagpipe").
  • Veuze, found in Western France around Nantes and into the Breton marshes.
  • Cabrette: bellows-blown, played in the Auvergne region of central France.
  • Chabrette (or chabretta): found in the Limousin region of central France.
  • Bodega (or craba): found in Languedoc region of southern France, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha: found in the regions of Gascony and Landes in southwestern France, notable for having no separate drone, but a drone and chanter bored into a single piece of wood.
  • Musette bressane: found in the Bresse region of eastern France
  • Cornemuse du Centre (or musette du centre): bagpipes of Central France) are of many different types, some mouth blown. They can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • Chabrette poitevine: found in the Poitou region of west-central France, but now extremely rare.
  • Caramusa: a small bagpipe with a single parallel drone, native to Corsica
  • Musette bechonnet, named from its creator, Joseph Bechonnet (1820-1900 AD) of Effiat.
  • Bousine, a small droneless bagpipe played in Normandy. (fr:Bousine)
  • Loure, a Norman bagpipe which gives its name to the French Baroque dance loure.
  • Pipasso, a bagpipe native to Picardy in northern France
  • Sourdeline, an extinct bellows-blown pipe, likely of Italian origin
  • Samponha, a double-chantered pipe played in the Pyrenees
  • Vèze (or vessie, veuze à Poitiers), played in Poitou

The Low Countries[edit]

Germany[edit]

  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schäferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag. (see: de:Schäferpfeife)
  • Marktsackpfeife: a bagpipe reconstructed from medieval depictions
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.

Switzerland[edit]

  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the Sackpfiffe was a common instrument in the folk music from the Middle Ages to the early 18th century, documented by iconography and in written sources. It had one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds.

Austria[edit]

  • Bock (literally, male goat): a bellows-blown pipe with large bells at the end of the single drone and chanter

Southwest Asia[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of: 1. Post - Skin (bag): Animal Skin, 2. Fisaktir - blowpipe: Wood or Bone, 3. Avlos - flute: Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds

Iran[edit]

  • Ney anban (Persian: نی انبان‎): a droneless double-chantered pipe played in Southern Iran

Arab states of the Persian Gulf[edit]

North Africa[edit]

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Egypt[edit]

Libya[edit]

  • Zukra (Arabic: زكرة‎): famous in Libya bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.

Tunisia[edit]

  • Mizwad (Arabic: مِزْود‎; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.

Algeria[edit]

  • Ghaita (غيطه): a type of bagpipe played in Algeria.
  • Tadghtita, a Berber bagpipe

South Asia[edit]

India[edit]

  • Mashak, a bagpipe of Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The term is also used for the Highland pipes which have displaced the traditional bagpipe over time, such as the mushak baja (Garhwali : मूषक बाजा): in Garhwal region. or masak-been (Kumaoni : मसकबीन): of the Kumaon Division.
  • Titti (bagpipe), a Telugu bagpipe of Adhra Pradesh
  • Sruti upanga, a bagpipe of Tamil Nadu primarily used for drone accompaniment

References[edit]

  1. ^ Woodhouse, Harry (1994). Cornish Bagpipes: Fact or Fiction?. Trewirgie: Dyllansow Truran. ISBN 1-85022-070-0. 
  2. ^ Dudy grają