Outline of economics

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics:

Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.

What type of thing is economics?[edit]

Economics can be described as all of the following:

  • Academic discipline – body of knowledge given to - or received by - a disciple (student); a branch or sphere of knowledge, or field of study, that an individual has chosen to specialise in.
  • Field of science – widely-recognized category of specialized expertise within science, and typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature. Such a field will usually be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published. There are many economics-related scientific journals.
    • Social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society.

Essence of economics[edit]

Branches of economics[edit]

Subdisciplines of economics[edit]

Methodologies or approaches[edit]

Multidisciplinary fields involving economics[edit]

Economies by region[edit]

History of economic thought[edit]

Economic history[edit]

Types of economies[edit]

Main articles: Economy and Economic system

An economy is the system of human activities related to the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area.

Economies, by political & social ideological structure[edit]

Economies, by scope[edit]

Economies, by regulation[edit]

Market forms[edit]

Main article: Market form
  • Perfect competition, in which the market consists of a very large number of firms producing a homogeneous product.
  • Monopolistic competition, also called competitive market, where there are a large number of independent firms which have a very small proportion of the market share.
  • Monopoly, where there is only one provider of a product or service.
  • Monopsony, when there is only one buyer in a market.
  • Natural monopoly, a monopoly in which economies of scale cause efficiency to increase continuously with the size of the firm.
  • Oligopoly, in which a market is dominated by a small number of firms which own more than 40% of the market share.
  • Oligopsony, a market dominated by many sellers and a few buyers.

General economic concepts[edit]

Persons influential in the field of economics[edit]

Economic historians[edit]

Nobel Memorial Prize–winning economic historians[edit]

  • Milton Friedman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1976 for "his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy".
  • Robert Fogel and Douglass North won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1993 for "having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change".
  • Merton Miller, who started his academic career teaching economic history at the LSE, won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1990 with Harry Markowitz and William Sharpe.

Other notable economic historians[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]