List of battlecruisers

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The United Kingdom's HMS Hood in Australia, 17 March 1924
Japan's Haruna in 1934, following her second reconstruction

During the first half of the 20th century, many navies constructed or planned to build battlecruisers: large capital ships with greater speed but less armor than dreadnought battleships. The first battlecruisers, the Invincible class, were championed by the British First Sea Lord John Fisher and appeared in 1908, two years after the revolutionary battleship HMS Dreadnought.[1] In the same year, Germany responded with its own battlecruiser, SMS Von der Tann.[2] Over the next decade, Britain and Germany built an additional twelve and six battlecruisers, respectively.[3] Other nations joined them: HMAS Australia entered service for the Royal Australian Navy in 1913,[4] Japan constructed four ships of the Kongō class from 1911 through 1915,[5] and in late 1912 Russia laid down the four Borodino-class battlecruisers, though they were never completed.[6] Two countries considered acquiring battlecruisers in this time, but chose not to: France looked at several battlecruiser design studies in 1913 and 1914,[7] and the United States ordered six Lexington-class battlecruisers in 1916 that were never built.[8]

The British and German battlecruisers were used extensively during World War I between 1914 and 1918, including in the Battles of Heligoland Bight and Dogger Bank, and most famously in the Battle of Jutland on 31 May and 1 June 1916, where one German and three British battlecruisers were sunk.[9] The Japanese battlecruisers did not see action during the war, as the German naval presence in the Pacific was destroyed by the British in the early months of the war. Britain and Germany attempted to build additional battlecruisers during the war—the Admiral class for the former, and the Mackensen and Ersatz Yorck classes for the latter—but changing priorities in favor of smaller warships prevented their completion.[10] At the end of the war, the German High Seas Fleet was interned and subsequently scuttled in Scapa Flow.[11]

In the immediate aftermath of World War I, Britain, Japan, and the United States all considered new battlecruiser construction, including the British G3 class, the Japanese Amagi class, and a revised version of the American Lexingtons. In the interest of avoiding another crippling naval arms race, the three countries, along with France and Italy, signed the Washington Naval Treaty in 1922, which included a moratorium on new capital ship construction. A clause in the treaty, however, gave the British, Japanese, and Americans a chance to convert several of their battlecruisers into aircraft carriers.[12][13][14] Only a handful of battlecruisers survived the arms limitation regime. In the 1930s, several navies considered new "cruiser killer" battlecruisers, including Germany's O class, the Dutch Design 1047, and the Soviet Kronshtadt class. The outbreak of World War II in September 1939 put a halt to all these plans.[15]

During the war, the surviving battlecruisers saw extensive action, and many were sunk. The four Japanese Kongō-class ships had been rebuilt as fast battleships in the 1930s, but all were sunk during the conflict.[16] Of the three British battlecruisers still in service, HMS Hood and Repulse were sunk, but Renown survived the war.[17][18] The only other battlecruiser in existence at the end of the Second World War was the ex-German Goeben, which had been transferred to Turkey during the First World War and served as Yavuz Sultan Selim.[19]

Several new wartime classes were proposed, including the American Alaska class and the Japanese Design B-65 class. The Alaskas were officially classified as "large cruisers", but many naval historians refer to them as battlecruisers. Only two of the American ships were built before the end of the war.[20] In the postwar drawdown of forces, Renown and the two Alaskas were withdrawn from service and eventually scrapped;[18][21] Yavuz Sultan Selim, the last surviving battlecruiser in the world, lingered on until the early 1970s, when she too was sent to the shipbreakers.[19] Only one country, the Soviet Union, considered building battlecruisers after the war. The three Stalingrad-class ships, championed by Joseph Stalin, were laid down in the early 1950s, but were cancelled after his death in 1953.[22]

Key[edit]

SMS Von der Tann, Germany's first battlecruiser

The list of battlecruiser classes includes all battlecruisers listed in chronological order by commission. Classes which did not enter service are listed by the date of cancellation or last work on the project.[N 1]

Main guns The number and type of the main battery guns
Armor The maximum thickness of the belt armor
Displacement Ship displacement at full combat load
Propulsion Number of shafts, type of propulsion system, and top speed generated
Service The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate
Laid down The date the keel began to be assembled
Commissioned The date the ship was commissioned[N 2]

Great Britain[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
HMS Invincible 8 × 12-inch (305 mm)[26] 6 inches (152 mm)[27] 20,420 long tons (20,748 t)[28] 4 screws, steam turbines, 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph)[29] 2 April 1906[30] 20 March 1909[30] Exploded at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916[31]
HMS Inflexible 5 February 1906[30] 20 October 1908[30] Sold for scrap, 1 December 1921[31]
HMS Indomitable 1 March 1906[30] 20 June 1908[30]
HMS Indefatigable 8 × 12-inch[26] 6 inches[27] 22,430 long tons (22,790 t)[28] 4 screws, steam turbines, 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph)[29] 23 February 1909[30] 24 February 1911[30] Exploded at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916[31]
HMS New Zealand 20 June 1910[30] 19 November 1912[30] Sold for scrap, 19 December 1922[32]
HMS Lion 8 × 13.5-inch (343 mm)[26] 9 inches (229 mm)[27] 30,820 long tons (31,315 t)[28] 4 screws, steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[29] 29 November 1909[30] 4 June 1912[30] Sold for scrap, 31 January 1924[32]
HMS Princess Royal 2 May 1910[30] 14 November 1912[30] Scrapped, beginning 13 August 1923[32]
HMS Queen Mary 8 × 13.5-inch[26] 9 inches[27] 31,844 long tons (32,355 t)[33] 4 screws, steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[29] 6 March 1911[30] 4 September 1913[30] Exploded at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916[32]
HMS Tiger 8 × 13.5-inch[26] 9 inches[27] 33,260 long tons (33,794 t)[33] 4 screws, steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[29] 6 June 1912[30] 3 October 1914[30] Sold for scrap, February 1932[32]
HMS Renown 6 × 15-inch (381 mm)[26] 6 inches[34] 32,220 long tons (32,737 t)[35] 4 screws, steam turbines, 31.5 kn (58.3 km/h; 36.2 mph)[29] 25 January 1915[36] 20 September 1916[36] Sold for scrap, August 1948[32]
HMS Repulse 25 January 1915[36] 14 November 1916[36] Sunk by Japanese air attack, 10 December 1941[32]
HMS Courageous 4 × 15-inch[26] 2 inches (51 mm)[34] 22,560 long tons (22,922 t)[35] 4 screws, steam turbines, 32 kn (59 km/h; 37 mph)[29] 28 March 1915[36] 28 October 1916[36] Sunk by U-29, 17 September 1939[32]
HMS Glorious 1 May 1915[36] 14 October 1916[36] Sunk by the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, 8 June 1940[32]
HMS Furious 2 × 18-inch (457 mm)[26] 22,890 long tons (23,257 t)[35] 8 June 1915[36] 26 June 1917[36] Sold for scrap, 15 March 1948[32]
HMS Hood 8 × 15-inch[26] 12 inches[34] 46,680 long tons (47,429 t)[35] 4 screws, steam turbines, 31 kn (57 km/h; 36 mph)[29] 1 September 1916[36] 15 May 1920[36] Sunk by the German battleship Bismarck, 24 May 1941
HMS Anson 9 November 1916[36] Suspended, March 1917[37] Cancelled, 27 February 1919[38]
HMS Howe 16 October 1916[36]
HMS Rodney 9 October 1916[36]
G3 battlecruiser 9 × 16-inch (406 mm)[39] 14 inches (356 mm)[39] 53,909 long tons (54,774 t)[39] 4 screws, steam turbines, 31 kn (57 km/h; 36 mph)[39] Ordered 26 October 1921[40] Cancelled, February 1922[41]

Germany[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
SMS Von der Tann 8 × 28 cm (11 in)[42] 25 cm (9.8 in)[43] 21,300 t (21,000 long tons)[43] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 27.75 knots (51 km/h)[42] 21 March 1908[44] 1 September 1910[44] Scuttled at Scapa Flow, 21 June 1919, wreck raised 1930s and scrapped at Rosyth[42]
SMS Moltke 10 × 28 cm[42] 28 cm[42] 25,400 t (25,000 long tons)[42] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 28.4 kn (52.6 km/h; 32.7 mph)[42] 7 December 1908[45] 30 August 1911[45] Scuttled at Scapa Flow, 21 June 1919, wreck raised 1927 and scrapped at Rosyth[46]
SMS Goeben 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[42] 28 August 1909[45] 2 July 1912[45] Transferred to the Ottoman Empire on 16 August 1914, scrapped, 1973[46]
SMS Seydlitz 10 × 28 cm[47] 30.5 cm[42] 28,550 t (28,100 long tons)[46] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 28.1 knots (51 km/h)[47] 4 February 1911[48] 22 May 1913[48] Scuttled at Scapa Flow, 21 June 1919, wreck raised 1928 and scrapped at Rosyth[47]
SMS Derfflinger 8 × 30.5 cm (12.0 in)[49] 31,200 t (30,700 long tons)[47] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 25.5 kn (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph)[47] 30 March 1912[50] 1 September 1914[50] Scuttled in Scapa Flow, 21 June 1919, wreck raised 1939, broken up after 1946[46]
SMS Lützow 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 26.4 kn (48.9 km/h; 30.4 mph)[47] May 1912[50] 8 August 1915[50] Scuttled after severe damage at the Battle of Jutland, 1 June 1916[46]
SMS Hindenburg 31,500 t (31,000 long tons)[47] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 26.6 kn (49.3 km/h; 30.6 mph)[47] 1 October 1913[50] 10 May 1917[50] Scuttled in Scapa Flow, 21 June 1919, wreck raised 1930, scrapped 1930–1932[46]
SMS Mackensen 8 × 35 cm (13.8 in)[51] 35,300 t (34,700 long tons)[51] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[51] 1914[51] Struck, 17 November 1919, broken up, 1922[51]
SMS Graf Spee 1915[51] Struck, 17 November 1919, broken up, 1921–22[51]
SMS Prinz Eitel Friedrich Broken up, 1921[51]
SMS Fürst Bismarck Struck, 17 November 1919, broken up, 1922[51]
Ersatz Yorck 8 × 38 cm (15 in)[52] 38,000 t (37,400 long tons)[52] 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines, 27.3 kn (50.6 km/h; 31.4 mph)[52] 1916[52] Scrapped 26 months before completion[52]
Ersatz Gneisenau Scrapped 26 months before completion[52]
Ersatz Scharnhorst Scrapped 26 months before completion[52]
O 6 × 38.1 cm (15.0 in)[53] 19 cm (7.5 in)[53] 35,400 long tons (36,000 t)[53][N 3] 3 screws, 8 × 24 cylinder diesel engines, 1 steam turbine, 35 kn (65 km/h; 40 mph)[53] Canceled after the outbreak of World War II[53]
P
Q

Japan[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
Kongō 8 × 14.0 in (356 mm)[5] 8.0 in (200 mm)[54] 27,500 long tons (27,941 t)[5] 4 screws, steam turbines, 27.5 kn (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph) (later 30.5 kn (56.5 km/h; 35.1 mph))[55] 17 January 1911 16 August 1913 Torpedoed in Formosa Strait, 21 November 1944[56]
Hiei 4 November 1911 4 August 1914 Scuttled following Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942[57]
Kirishima 17 March 1912 19 April 1915 Sank following Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 15 November 1942[58]
Haruna 16 March 1912 19 April 1915 Sunk by air attack, Kure Naval Base, 28 July 1945[58]
Amagi 8 × 16.0 in (406 mm)[14] 10.0 in (250 mm)[14] 46,000 long tons (46,738 t)[14] 4 screws, steam turbines, 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)[14] 16 December 1920 Reordered as aircraft carrier; damaged in earthquake; canceled and scrapped[14]
Akagi 6 December 1920 December 1923 Reordered and completed as aircraft carrier[14]
Atago 22 November 1921 Canceled and scrapped[14]
Takao 19 December 1921 Canceled and scrapped[14]
Yard number 795 (not named)[N 4] 9 × 12.2 in (310 mm)[59] 7.5 in (190 mm)[59] 34,000 long tons (35,000 t)[59] 4 screws, geared turbines, eight boilers, 34 kn (63 km/h; 39 mph)[59] 1945 (projected) Not ordered due to war
Yard number 796 (not named) 1946 (projected) Not ordered due to war

Russia/Soviet Union[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Fate
Izmail (Russian: Измаил) 8 × 14 in[60] 237.5 mm (9.4 in)[61] 36,646 long tons (37,234 t)[60] 4 screws, steam turbines, 26.5 kn (49.1 km/h; 30.5 mph)[60] 19 December 1912[62] 22 June 1915[62] Scrapped, 1931[63]
Borodino (Russian: Бородино) 19 December 1912[62] 31 July 1915[62] Sold for scrap, 21 August 1923[64]
Kinburn (Russian: Кинбурн) 19 December 1912[62] 30 October 1915[62] Sold for scrap, 21 August 1923[64]
Navarin (Russian: Наварин) 19 December 1912[62] 9 November 1916[62] Sold for scrap, 21 August 1923[64]
Kronshtadt (Russian: Кронштадт) 6 × 38 cm[65] 230 mm (9.1 in)[66] 42,831 t (42,155 long tons)[67] 3 screws, steam turbines, 32 kn (59 km/h; 37 mph)[66] 30 November 1939[68] Ordered scrapped, 24 March 1947[68]
Sevastopol (Russian: Севастополь) 5 November 1939[68] Ordered scrapped, 24 March 1947[68]
Stalingrad (Russian: Сталинград) 9 × 30.5 cm[69] 180 mm (7.1 in)[70] 42,300 t (41,632 long tons)[69] 4 screws, steam turbines, 35.5 kn (65.7 km/h; 40.9 mph)[71] November 1951[72] 16 March 1954[73] Hulk used as target and later scrapped[74]
Moscow (Russian: Москва) September, 1952[72] Scrapped, 1953[73]
Kronshtadt? (Russian: Кронштадт) October 1952[72] Scrapped, 1953[73]

United States[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Lexington (CV-2, ex-CC-1) 8 × 16 in[75] 7 in (178 mm)[75] 44,638 long tons
(45,354 t)[8]
4 screws, turbo-electric,
33 kn (61 km/h; 38 mph)[75]
8 January 1921[8] 3 October 1925[76] 14 December 1927[76] Sunk during the Battle of the Coral Sea, 8 May 1942[76]
USS Constellation (CC-2) 8 August 1920[8] Cancelled, 17 August 1923[8] and sold for scrap[77]
USS Saratoga (CV-3, ex-CC-3) 25 September 1920[8] 7 April 1925[78] 16 November 1927[78] Sunk as a target ship, 25 July 1946[78]
USS Ranger (CC-4) 23 June 1921[8] Cancelled, 17 August 1923[8] and sold for scrap, 8 November 1923[79]
USS Constitution (CC-5) 25 September 1920[8] Cancelled, 17 August 1923[8] and sold for scrap[80]
USS United States (CC-6) 25 September 1920[8] Cancelled, 17 August 1923[8] and sold for scrap, 25 October 1923[81]
USS Alaska (CB-1) 9 × 12 in[82] 9 in[82] 34,253 long tons
(34,803 t)[82]
4 screws, steam turbines
33 kn (61 km/h; 38 mph)[82]
17 December 1941[83] 15 August 1943[83] 17 June 1944[83] Sold for scrap, 30 June 1961[84]
USS Guam (CB-2) 2 February 1942[84] 12 November 1943[84] 17 September 1944[84] Sold for scrap, 24 May 1961[85]
USS Hawaii (CB-3) 20 December 1943[82] 3 November 1945[82] N/A Sold for scrap, 15 April 1959[85]
USS Philippines (CB-4) Cancelled, 24 June 1943[86]
USS Puerto Rico (CB-5)
USS Samoa (CB-6)

Australia[edit]

Main article: HMAS Australia (1911)
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
HMAS Australia 8 × 12 in[87] 9.0 in[87] 18,500 t (18,208 long tons)[87] 4 screws, steam turbines, 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph)[87] 23 June 1910[87] June 1913[87] Scuttled, 12 April 1924[87]

France[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
Gille's design 12 × 340 mm (13.4 in)[7] 11 in (280 mm)[7] 28,247 t (27,801 long tons)[7] 4 screws, steam turbines, 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)[7] Design study only[7]
Durand-Viel's design A 8 × 340 mm[7] 27,500 t (27,066 long tons)[7]
Durand-Viel's design B 12 × 370 mm (14.6 in)[7]

Netherlands[edit]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
Design 1047 9 × 28 cm[88] 9.0 in[89] 27,988 t (27,546 long tons)[89] 4 screws, steam turbines, 34 kn (63 km/h; 39 mph)[90] Cancelled after the German invasion in May 1940[91]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ The German Scharnhorst-class battleships and Deutschland-class cruisers and the French Dunkerque-class battleships are all sometimes referred to as battlecruisers. Since neither their operators nor a significant number of naval historians did/do not classify them as such, they are not included in this list.[23][24][25]
  2. ^ The table for Russia gives the date of launching rather than commissioning, since none of its battlecruisers were commissioned. Similarly, the United States' table gives dates of launch and commissioning for those ships that did enter service.
  3. ^ Figures here are reversed intentionally; following the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty in 1922, the use of long tons to calculate ship displacement was standardized.
  4. ^ As the ships were only in the design phase when canceled—no orders were placed and no construction had begun—the B-65s were never assigned actual names.[59]

Citations

  1. ^ Roberts, pp. 19–25
  2. ^ Herwig, p. 60
  3. ^ Gardiner & Gray, pp. 24–41, 151–155
  4. ^ "HMAS Australia (I)". Ship histories. Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Jackson, p. 48
  6. ^ McLaughlin 2003, pp. 332–337
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gardiner & Gray, p. 200
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gardiner & Gray, p. 119
  9. ^ Staff, pp. 8–37
  10. ^ Gardiner & Gray, pp. 41, 155–156
  11. ^ Herwig, p. 256
  12. ^ Hone, pp. 11–14
  13. ^ Burt (1993), pp. 314–315
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gardiner & Gray, p. 235
  15. ^ Sturton, p. 49
  16. ^ Gardiner & Gray, p. 234
  17. ^ Burt (1993), pp. 308–313
  18. ^ a b Burt (1986), pp. 301–302
  19. ^ a b Gardiner & Gray, p. 391
  20. ^ Gardiner & Chesneau, pp. 122, 178
  21. ^ Gardiner & Chesneau, p. 122
  22. ^ McLaughlin (2006), pp. 116, 119–120
  23. ^ Koop & Schmolke, p. 4
  24. ^ Gardiner & Chesneau, p. 259
  25. ^ Bidlingmaier, pp. 73–74
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Roberts, p. 83
  27. ^ a b c d e Roberts, p. 112
  28. ^ a b c Roberts, p. 44
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Roberts, p. 76
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Roberts, p. 41
  31. ^ a b c Roberts, p. 122
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Roberts, p. 123
  33. ^ a b Roberts, p. 45
  34. ^ a b c Roberts, p. 113
  35. ^ a b c d Roberts, p. 65
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Roberts, p. 63
  37. ^ Raven and Roberts, p. 75
  38. ^ Roberts, p. 61
  39. ^ a b c d Raven and Roberts, p. 101
  40. ^ Raven and Roberts, p. 98
  41. ^ Raven and Roberts, p. 108
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gröner, p. 54
  43. ^ a b Gröner, p. 53
  44. ^ a b Staff, p. 5
  45. ^ a b c d Staff, p. 12
  46. ^ a b c d e f Gröner, p. 55
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Gröner, p. 56
  48. ^ a b Staff, p. 21
  49. ^ Gröner, p. 57
  50. ^ a b c d e f Staff, p. 35
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gröner, p. 58
  52. ^ a b c d e f g Gröner, p. 59
  53. ^ a b c d e Gröner, p. 68
  54. ^ McCurtie, p. 185
  55. ^ Stille, p. 15
  56. ^ Wheeler, p. 183
  57. ^ Schom, p. 417
  58. ^ a b Stille, p. 20
  59. ^ a b c d e Garzke & Dulin (1985), p. 86
  60. ^ a b c McLaughlin 2003, pp. 243–244
  61. ^ McLaughlin 2003, p. 252
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h McLaughlin 2003, pp. 248–249
  63. ^ Breyer 1992, p. 114
  64. ^ a b c McLaughlin 2003, pp. 332–335
  65. ^ McLaughlin 2004, p. 111
  66. ^ a b McLaughlin 2004, p. 109
  67. ^ McLaughlin 2004, pp. 107, 112
  68. ^ a b c d McLaughlin 2004, pp. 112, 114
  69. ^ a b McLaughlin 2006, pp. 110–111
  70. ^ McLaughlin 2006, p. 114
  71. ^ McLaughlin 2006, p. 115
  72. ^ a b c McLaughlin 2006, p. 116
  73. ^ a b c McLaughlin 2006, p. 118
  74. ^ McLaughlin 2006, pp. 119–120
  75. ^ a b c Hone, p. 25
  76. ^ a b c "Lexington". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command (NH&HC). Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  77. ^ "Lexington Class (CC-1 through CC-6)". Navy Department, Naval Historical Center. 26 February 2004. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  78. ^ a b c "Saratoga". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NH&HC. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  79. ^ "Ranger". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NH&HC. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  80. ^ "USS Constitution (CC-5), 1918 Program – construction cancelled in 1923". Navy Department, Naval Historical Center. 20 February 2000. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  81. ^ "United States". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NH&HC. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  82. ^ a b c d e f Whitley, p. 276
  83. ^ a b c Garzke & Dulin (1976), p. 185
  84. ^ a b c d Garzke & Dulin (1976), p. 187
  85. ^ a b Whitley, p. 279
  86. ^ Garzke & Dulin (1976), p. 190
  87. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner & Gray, p. 26
  88. ^ Noot, p. 268
  89. ^ a b Noot, p. 270
  90. ^ Noot, pp. 253–256
  91. ^ Gardiner & Gray, p. 388

References[edit]

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