List of battles before 301

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Before 500 BC[edit]

Year Name Summary
c. 3100 BC Battle of Mahabharata The Pandavas defeats the Kauravas at Kurukshetra. This was the first battle in Indian history.
c. 2500 BC Battle of Banquan The Yellow Emperor defeats the Flame Emperor at Banquan, forming the Huaxia Tribe. This was the first battle in Chinese history.
c. 2500 BC Battle of Zhuolu The Yellow Emperor defeats Chi You at Zhuolu. This was the second battle in Chinese history.
c. 2271 BC Battle of Uruk King Sargon of Akkad defeats the Sumerian force led by king Lugal-Zage-Si at Uruk.
c. 1600 BC Battle of Mingtiao Tang of Shang defeats Jie of Xia, marking the beginning of the Shang dynasty.
c. 1500 BC Battle of the Ten Kings King Sudas defeats the invading Ten Kings in the Punjab region.
c. 1457 BC Battle of Megiddo Egyptian forces, led by Thutmose III, rout the Canaanite forces under the King of Kadesh.
c. 1300 BC Battle at Gibeah Biblical battle between the Israelite Tribe of Benjamin and the other tribes of Israel, regarding the death of a concubine.
c. 1274 BC Battle of Kadesh King Muwatallis of the Hittites surprise Ramesses II; the battle ends in a draw.
1269 BC Siege of Dapur Egyptian forces, led by Ramesses II, conquer Dapur.
c. 1184 BC Battle of Troy Troy falls after the ten-year Trojan War.
c. 1050 BC Battle of Mount Gilboa The Israelites fight against the Philistines; King Saul and his son Jonathan die.
c. 1046 BC Battle of Muye Decisive victory of the Zhou Dynasty against the Shang Dynasty.
925 BC Battle of Bitter Lakes Shoshenq I of Egypt defeats a Bedouin incursion after surprising the enemy at the shores of the Bitter Lakes.
925 BC Sack of Jerusalem (925 BC) The Egyptians capture and plunder the Israeli capital of Jerusalem.
913 BC Battle of Mount Zemaraim Judah under King Abijah defeats Israel under King Jeroboam I; 500,000 Israelites fall in a single battle.
853 BC Battle of Karkar Assyrian Shalmaneser III faces a military alliance of the king of Damascus and other rulers including Tyre.
733 BC Siege of Gezer (c.733 BC) The Assyrian king, Tiglath-Pilesser III takes Gazru (Gezer).
707 BC Battle of Ruge King Huan of Zhou defeated by the Zheng general Zhu Dan when King Huan of Zhou launched a campaigned against the Zheng principality.
693 BC Battle of Diyala River King Sennacherib of Assyria defeats the Elamites of Southern Iran, led by Mushezib-Marduk, at Diyala River.
691 BC Battle of Halule King Sennacherib of Assyria fights a rebel force, composed by Babylonians, Chaldeans, Aramaeans, Elamites and by the tribes of the Zagros; the battle ended in a draw, although the greatest losses were suffered by the Assyrians.
685 BC Battle of Deres Aristomenes of Messenia fights Sparta, with an unknown and disputed end.
682 BC Battle of the Great Foss Aristomenes, Androcles, Fidas and Aristocrates II of the alliance between Messenia and Arcadia are decisively defeated by the Spartans.
669 BC Battle of Hysiae The Argives defeat the Lacedaemonians.
652 BC Battle of Ulai Assyrians defeat an Elamite army at the Ulai River, clearing the way to Elam.
647 BC Battle of Susa King Assurbanipal of Assyria takes Susa from king Teumann of Elam, this meaning the end of the Elamites few years after.
635 BC Fall of Ashdod Psamtik I of Egypt takes Ashdod from the Neo-Assyrian Empire, after a 29-year siege.
632 BC Battle of Chengpu Duke Wen of Jin defeats the Chu commander Ziyu in the biggest battle of the Spring and Autumn Period.
616 BC Battle of Arrapha Babylonians led by king Nabopolassar defeat the Assyrians.
614 BC Fall of Assur Nabopolassar of Babylonia and Cyaxares of the Medes take and destroy Assur, capital of the Sin- Shar-Ishkun's Assyria.
612 BC Battle of Nineveh The Medes and Scythians join to sack Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
609 BC Battle of Megiddo Necho II of Egypt defeats and kills King Josiah of Judah.
608 BC Fall of Harran Nabopolassar of Babylonia takes the Assyrian city of Harran, ruled by Ashur-Uballit II.
605 BC Battle of Carchemish Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon begins reign by defeating Necho II of Egypt.
Battle of Hama Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon defeating Necho II of Egypt in Hama. According to Daniel 1:1 Nebuchadrezzar IItakes and despoils Jerusalem, under the rule of Jehoiakim of Judea but Daniel is written 167 BC and actually the siege was 599 BC.
597 BC Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC) Babylonia takes and despoils Jerusalem
595 BC Battle of Bi Part of the Spring and Autumn Period.
588 BC Battle of An Part of the Spring and Autumn Period.
587 BC Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) Babylonia takes and destroys Jerusalem.
585 BC Battle of Halys Last battle of the war between Lydians and Medes. A solar eclipse is perceived as an ill omen and the fighting stops.
575 BC Battle of Yanling Part of the Spring and Autumn Period.
551 BC Battle of the Median Border In one hand Cambyses II of Persia, Cyrus the Great and Harpagus tactically defeated the Medes; in the other hand were the Medes who defeated the Persians strategically.
Battle of Hyrba Cyrus the Great of Persia defeats Harpagus of Media, starting the Persian rebel alliance.
550 BC Battle of the Fetters Battle between Sparta and Arcadia.
Battle of Pasargadae Cyrus the Great of Persia defeats Astyages of Media, annexing Media to Persia.
547 BC Battle of Pteria Croesus and Cyrus the Great fight to a draw.
546 BC Battle of Thymbra Croesus of Lydia is defeated by Cyrus the Great of Persia.
545 BC Battle of The 300 Champions The Spartans defeat the Argives in a battle of 300 chosen champions. Only 3 survive.
540 BC Battle of Alalia Carthaginian and Etruscan fleets defeat Phocaeans.
539 BC-538 BC Battle of Opis Cyrus the Great defeats Nabonidus (or Belshazzar).
525 BC Battle of Pelusium Decisive victory of Cambyses II against Egyptians under Psamtik III - Egypt is annexed by the Achaemenid Empire.
509 BC Siege of Rome (509 BC)
508 BC Siege of Rome (508 BC) Etruscan forces besiege Rome, ending in a peace treaty; monarchy stays abolished in Rome.
506 BC Battle of Bai ju Forces of Wu under Sun Tzu, defeat the forces of Chu.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Name Summary
499 BC Siege of Naxos Battle between the Persians under Megabates and the Greek inhabitants of Naxos.
498 BC Siege of Sardis Battle between the people of Sardis and an alliance of Greeks from Ionia, Athens, and Eretria.
Battle of Ephesus Persian victory during the Ionian Revolt.
496 BC Battle of Lake Regillus Romans defeat either the Etruscans or the Latins.
494 BC Battle of Lade Persians defeat participants of the Ionian Revolt.
Battle of Sepeia Spartan forces of Cleomenes I defeat the Argives, fully establishing Spartan dominance in the Peloponnese.
490 BC Siege of Naxos (490 BC) The Persians destroy Naxos
Siege of Eretria The Persians under Datis and Artaphernes defeat the Eretrians.
Battle of Marathon Athens under Miltiades defeats the Persian expedition of Darius I of Persia and Artaphernes.
480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Persians under Xerxes defeat the Spartans under King Leonidas.
Battle of Artemisium Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet.
Battle of Salamis Greek ships under Themistocles and Eurybiades of Sparta defeat Persian fleet in the Bay of Eleusis.
Battle of Himera The Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelo of Syracuse, defeat the Carthaginians under Hamilcar.
479 BC Battle of Plataea Ends the Persian invasion of Greece; Pausanias, the Spartan commander of the Greek army, routs the armies of Mardonius.
Battle of Mycale Greeks under Leotychidas sail to Asia Minor, attack the Persian fleet, and defeat then 60,000 Persian troops.
478 BC Siege of Byzantium (478 BC) Byzantium lost by Persians.
Battle of Lize Yue defeats Wu, gaining much territory, during the Warring States period of Chinese history.
477 BC Battle of the Cremera The Etruscan city of Veii defeats the Roman Republic at Cremera.
475 BC Siege of Eion The Delian League takes Eion from the Persians.
474 BC Battle of Cumae The Syracusans under Hiero I defeat the Etruscans and end Etruscan expansion in southern Italy.
466 BC Battle of the Eurymedon Athenians under Cimon defeat the Persians in a great naval battle.
458 BC Battle of Mons Algidus Romans under Cincinnatus defeat the Aequi.
457 BC Battle of Tanagra The Spartans defeat the Athenians near Thebes, Greece.
Battle of Oenophyta The Athenians defeat the Thebans and take control of Boeotia.
454 BC Siege of Prosoptis Persia re-establishes control over Egypt.
453 BC Battle of Jinyang Decisive battle leading to the partition of the state of Jin into three smaller states of Zhao, Han and Wei which became among three of the seven warring states in China.
450 BC Siege of Citium Persia maintains control over Cyprus.
Battle of Salamis Athenians under Cimon defeat the Persian fleet at Cyprus.
447 BC Battle of Coronea The Athenians are driven from Boeotia.
446 BC Battle of Corbione Roman General Titus gains a victory over the Aequi tribes.
435 BC Capture of Fidenae Romans defeat the Veii.
433 BC Battle of Sybota Athenians and Corcyreans fight the Corinthians.
432 BC Battle of Potidaea Athens defeats Sparta, leading to the Peloponnesian War.
429 BC Battle of Spartolos Chalcidians and their allies defeat Athens.
Battle of Rhium Naval defeat of the Peloponnesians by Athens.
Battle of Naupactus Phormio defeats the Peloponnesian fleet.
427 BC Mytilenean revolt Athens ends Mytilenian revolt.
Battle of Plataea Sparta besieges and destroys Plataea.
426 BC Battle of Tanagra Athenians under Nicias defeat Tanagra and Thebes.
Battle of Olpae Athenians under Demosthenes defeat the Spartans in Aetolia.
Battle of Idomene Demosthenes of Athens defeats Ambracia.
425 BC Battle of Pylos Athenians under Demosthenes again defeat the Spartans, this time capturing a Spartan fleet and leaving a Spartan contingent isolated on the island of Sphacteria.
Battle of Sphacteria Demosthenes and Cleon capture the Spartans on Sphacteria.
424 BC Battle of Megara Athens encounters defeat at Megara.
Battle of Delium Another Athenian invasion of Boeotia is unsuccessful.
422 BC Battle of Amphipolis The Spartans under Brasidas defeat the Athenians under Cleon; both generals die.
418 BC Battle of Mantinea The Spartans under King Agis II defeat the Argives, Mantineans, and Athenians.
417 BC Battle of Hysiae Spartans march against Argos with their allies, yet fail to take the city itself, instead capturing Hysiae.
415 BC Battle of Melos Athens invades Melos.
415 BC Battle of Syracuse The Athenian expedition in Sicily, under Nicias and Demosthenes, encounters annihilation.
415 BC Sicilian Expedition Athens invades Sicily and is completely destroyed two years later in 413 BC.
411 BC Battle of Eretria Spartans defeat the Athenian fleet.
Battle of Syme Spartans defeat Athenian fleet; Persia is drawn into the Peloponnesian War.
Battle of Cynossema The Athenians under Alcibiades defeat the Spartan fleet.
410 BC Battle of Cyzicus The Athenian fleet, under the leadership of Alcibiades, destroys the Spartan fleet.
Battle of Abydos Athenian navy defeats Spartan fleet.
409 BC Battle of Selinus Dorian Greek city Selinus destroyed.
Battle of Himera (409 BC) Ionian Greek city Himera destroyed.
406 BC Battle of Notium The Spartans under Lysander defeat a segment of the Athenian fleet.
Battle of Mytilene Sparta defeats Athens.
Battle of Arginusae The final Athenian victory of the Peloponnesian War.
Siege of Akragas (406 BC) Dorian Greek city Akragas sacked.
405 BC Battle of Gela (405 BC) Dorian Greek city Gela sacked.
Battle of Aegospotami The final battle of the Peloponnesian War; Lysander destroys the navy of Athens led by Conon.
Sack of Camarina (405 BC) Carthaginians sack Sicilian Greek city of Camarina.
404 or 403 BC Battle of Phyle The Athenian exiles, seeking restore democracy in Athens, defeat the Spartans.
Battle of Munychia The Athenian exiles, in his search for democracy in Athens, defeat the oligarchic government of Athens.
403 BC Battle of Piraeus The Athenian exiles, led by Thrasybulus, are finally defeated by the Spartans of Pausanias, suffering both sides

tremendous casualties. Although, Piraeus and Athens are reunited and the democratic government of Athens is reestablished.

401 BC Battle of Cunaxa Artaxerxes II of Persia defeats the forces of Cyrus the Younger.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Name Summary
398 BC Siege of Motya Phoenician city Motya sacked.
397 BC Battle of Messene Ionian Greek city Messene sacked.
Battle of Catana (397 BC) Greek fleet defeated.
Battle of Syracuse (387 BC) Battle between Syracuse and Carthage. Part of the Sicilian Wars.
396 BC Battle of Veii Romans complete conquest of Etruscans
395 BC Battle of Haliartus The Spartan general Lysander is killed in a Spartan defeat by the Thebans
394 BC Battle of Nemea Spartans defeat the Thebans, Athenians, Argives and Corinthians.
Battle of Cnidus The Spartan fleet under Peisander is utterly destroyed by the Persian-Athenian fleet of Conon
Battle of Coronea King Agesilaus II of Sparta defeats the Thebans.
391 BC Battle of Lechaeum Iphicrates of Athens defeats Sparta during the Corinthian War.
390 BC Battle of the Allia The Gauls defeat the Romans, leading to the Gallic sack of Rome
389 BC Battle of the Elleporus Dionysius I of Syracuse defeats the Italiote League, securing his domination of Greek Southern Italy.
386 BC Siege of Rhegium Dionysius I of Syracuse conquers the city and sells the inhabitants into slavery.
376 BC Battle of Naxos The Athenians under Chabrias defeat the Spartans at sea.
375 BC Battle of Tegyra Pelopidas of Thebes defeats Sparta.
371 BC Battle of Leuctra Spartans under king Cleombrotus lose to the Thebans under Epaminondas - Cleombrotus is killed. This ends the period of Spartan domination of Greece
364 BC Battle of Cynoscephalae The Thebans under Pelopidas fight a drawn battle with Alexander of Pherae in Thessaly. Pelopidas is killed
362 BC Battle of Mantinea The Thebans and their allies, under Epaminondas, defeat the Spartans and Athenians, but Epaminondas himself is killed, ending the brief period of Theban domination
356 BC Battle of Embata Athenians under Chares, Iphicrates and Timotheos are defeated by the Chians at Chios, Greece.
353 BC Battle of Crocus Field Philip II of Macedon defeats the Phocians in the Third Sacred War
Battle of Guiling Tian Ji and Sun Bin of Qi defeat Pang Juan of Wei at HanDan during the Warring States period of China.
343 BC Battle of Pelusium Persians defeat Egyptian forces under Nectanebo II.
342 BC Battle of Mount Gaurus Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites
Battle of Maling Tian Ji and Sun Bin of Qi again defeat Pang Juan of Wei, this time at Dazhangija Town, at Shen County, in Henan Province.
341 BC Battle of Suessula The Roman Republic beats the Samnites, but is forced to withdraw due to the revolt of several of its Latin allies.
340 BC Battle of the Crimissus Timoleon defeats the Carthaginian invaders of Sicily
Siege of Byzantium by Philip II of Macedonia
339 BC Battle of Vesuvius Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus defeat the rebellious Latins.
338 BC 2 August - Battle of Chaeronea Philip of Macedon crushes Athens and Thebes in their struggle to maintain their independence
Battle of Trifanum Roman general T. Manlius Imperiosus decisively defeats the Latins.
335 BC Battle of Thebes Macedon defeats Thebans and razes the city.
334 BC Battle of the Granicus Alexander the Great defeats the Persian army in Western Asia Minor
333 BC Battle of Issus Alexander the Great defeats the main Persian army under King Darius III in northern Syria.
Siege of Gordium Parmenion, in the absence of Alexander, captures the city of Gordium from the Persian Achaemenid Empire, annexing all Anatolia to Macedon.
332 BC Siege of Tyre (332 BC) Alexander the Great besieges the city.
Siege of Gaza Alexander the Great, commander of the Macedonian forces and their Greek allies, takes Gaza from the Persian Batis, gaining Egypt.
331 BC Battle of Pandosia Alexander of Epirus, the uncle of Alexander the Great, is defeated and killed in Italy by the Samnites.
Battle of Megalopolis Antipater, Alexander's regent in Macedon and Greece, defeats the Spartans under King Agis III
Battle of Gaugamela 1 October Alexander the Great defeats Darius III in Mesopotamia and conquers Persia
330 BC Battle of the Persian Gate Persians fail to prevent Alexander the Great from taking Persepolis
327 BC Capture of Neapolis The Samnites take the city of Neapolis from Rome.
Siege of the Sogdian Rock Alexander the Great of the now Macedonian Empire takes the fortress of the Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes from the Sogdians, gaining all Sogdiana.
Siege of Aornos Alexander the Great takes the fortress of Aornos in the gorges of the Upper Indus.
326 BC Battle of the Hydaspes Alexander defeats the Indian King Porus
322 BC Battle of Crannon Lamian War
321 BC Battle of the Caudine Forks The Romans under Spurius Postumius and T. Verturius Calvinus are defeated by the Samnites under Gaius Pontius.
317 BC Battle of Paraitacene Antigonus Monophthalmus vs. Eumenes
316 BC Battle of Lautulae The Romans are defeated by the Samnites.
Battle of Gabiene Antigonus Monophthalmus vs. Eumenes
312 BC Battle of Gaza Ptolemy I of Egypt vs. Demetrius I Poliorcetes
311 BC Battle of Himera The Carthaginian general Hamilcar defeats the tyrant Agathocles of Syracuse, who is then besieged in Syracuse.
310 BC Battle of Lake Vadimo The Romans defeat the Etruscans.
306 BC Battle of Salamis in Cyprus (306 BC) Demetrius I Poliorcetes defeats the fleet of Menelaeus, brother of Ptolemy I
305 BC Battle of Bovianum The Roman consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius decisively defeat the Samnites to end the Second Samnite War.
305-304 BC Siege of Rhodes (305 BC) Rhodian commander Ares, alongside with his Seleucid and Ptolemaic allies, repels a siege of the Antigonids, led by Demetrius Poliorcetes.
301 BC Battle of Ipsus Antigonus Monophthalmus is defeated and killed by Seleucus and Lysimachus

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Name Summary
298 BC Battle of Camerinum The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio in the first battle of the Third Samnite War.
297 BC Battle of Tifernum Roman forces defeat the Samnites in Umbria.
295 BC Battle of Sentinum The Romans under Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus defeat the Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace
293 BC Battle of Aquilonia The Romans decisively defeat the Samnites.
Battle of Yique Qin forces defeat the allied states of Wei and Han, leading to Qin's further superiority in China.
284 BC Battle of Arretium A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls.
283 BC Battle of Lake Vadimo A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabello defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
282 BC Battle of Populonia Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
281 BC Battle of Corupedium Last battle in the wars of the Diadochi. Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus.
280 BC Battle of Heraclea First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious.
279 BC Battle of Asculum Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans, at a great cost.
Battle of Thermopylae (279 BC) A Greek alliance battles invading Gallic forces indecisively.
277 BC Battle of Lysimachia Macedonian Antigonid forces versus Gallic tribes that had settled in the Thracian Chersonese.
275 BC Battle of Beneventum Pyrrhus fights Rome one last time in this inconclusive draw, but elects to leave Italy afterwards.
274 BC Battle of the Aous Pyrrhus defeats Antigonus Gonatas of Macedon.
262 BC Battle of Agrigentum Carthaginian forces under Hannibal Gisco and Hanno are defeated by the Romans, giving them control of most of Sicily.
260 BC Battle of Changping Army of Qin under Bai Qi routed army of Zhao and massacred 500,000 prisoners of war. Military superiority of Qin over all other states of China. Unification became a matter of time.
Battle of the Lipara Islands A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians
Battle of Mylae A Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet, giving Rome control of the western Mediterranean.
258 BC Battle of Cos Naval victory of Antigonus II Gonatas over Ptolemy II
Battle of Sulci Minor Roman naval victory during First Punic War.
257 BC Battle of Tyndaris Sicilian town captured by Rome.
256 BC Battle of Cape Ecnomus A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus.
255 BC Battle of Adys The Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa
Battle of Tunis The Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured.
251 BC Battle of Panormus Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus.
249 BC Battle of Drepana Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat the fleet of Roman admiral Claudius Pulcher.
246 BC Battle of Andros Ptolemy III loses the Cyclades to Antigonus II of Macedonia.
241 BC Battle of the Aegates Islands Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War
239 BC Battle of the Bagradas River (239 BC) Hamilcar defeats mercenary troops, making it the first victory in the Mercenary Wars.
Battle of "The Saw" Hamilcar defeats a great mercenary army at Tunis.
238 BC Battle of Utica Rebellious Carthaginian mercenaries are defeated by the loyal troops of Hamilcar Barca
226 BC Battle of Dyme Sparta defeats the Achaean League decisively, resulting in a peace treaty.
225 BC Battle of Faesulae The Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy.
Battle of Telamon The Romans under Aemilius Papus and Caius Atilius Regulus defeat the Gauls.
222 BC Battle of Clastidium The Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls.
222 BC Battle of Sellasia Defeat of Cleomenes III of Sparta by Antigonus Doson of Macedon and the Achaean League
218 BC Siege of Saguntum Hannibal of Carthage lays siege on the city of Saguntum in Spain, marking the start of the Second Punic War.
Battle of Lilybaeum Roman naval forces under Amellius defeat the Carthaginians, ending their attempts to colonize Sicily.
Battle of Rhone Crossing Hannibal defeats the Volcae Gauls, staying undefeated in his march for Italy.
November Battle of the Ticinus Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a small cavalry fight.
Battle of the Trebia Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus, who had foolishly attacked.
Battle of Cissa Roman forces defeat a Catharginian army under Hanno, controlling the territory north of Ebro river.
217 BC 22 June Battle of Raphia Antiochus III the Great is defeated by Ptolemy IV.
24 June Battle of Lake Trasimene In an ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed.
Battle of Ebro River Roman naval forces destroy a Carthaginian fleet under Himilco, weakening Carthage's influence in Iberia.
Battle of Ager Falernus Hannibal defeats Roman forces under Quintus Fabius Maximus.
Battle of Geronium Hannibal fights Roman forces in Apulia, resulting in a strategic draw.
216 BC 2 August Battle of Cannae Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art.
First Battle of Nola The Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal.
215 BC Battle of Dertosa A Roman army under Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus and Publius Cornelius Scipio destroys Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal.
Second Battle of Nola Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal.
Battle of Cornus Roman forces under Torquatus defeat a Carthaginian army under Hamilcar in Sicily.
214 BC Third Battle of Nola Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal.
Battle of Beneventum Tiberius Gracchus' slave legions defeat Hanno (son of Bomlicar) and, therefore, deny Hannibal his reinforcements.
Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC) The forces Roman general Marcellus being kept at bay by the inventions of Archimedes.
212 BC Battle of Tarentum (212 BC) Hannibal defeats a Roman army in southern Italy, strengthening his situation in Italy.
First Battle of Capua Hannibal defeats the consuls Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes
Battle of Beneventum (212 BC) Quintus Fulvius Flaccus defeats Hanno the Elder in Southern Italy.
Battle of the Silarus Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula.
Battle of Herdonia Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius.
211 BC Battle of the Upper Baetis Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with the Carthaginians under Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca
Second Battle of Capua Hannibal is unable to break the Roman siege of the city.
210 BC Second Battle of Herdonia Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed
Battle of Numistro Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more
209 BC First Battle of Lamia Philip V of Macedon defeats an Aetolian force under Phyrrhias.
Second Battle of Lamia Philip V of Macedon again defeats Phyrrhias.
Battle of Asculum Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle
Battle of Tarentum (209 BC) Quintus Fabius Maximus defeats Hannibal's forces.
208 BC Battle of Baecula The Romans in Spain under P. Cornelius Scipio the Younger defeat Hasdrubal Barca
Siege of Bactra The Seleucid Empire defeats the Greco-Bactrians under Euthydemus
Battle of the Arius Antiochus III defeats the Greco-Bactrians
207 BC Battle of Grumentum The Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal, then escapes north to confront Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca, who has invaded Italy
Battle of Julu Xiang Yu destroys the main Qin army for control of China
Battle of the Metaurus Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army.
Battle of Cartagena (207 BC) Scipio Africanus Major destroys the Catharginian city of Cartagena in Iberia.
Battle of Mantinea Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Machanidas, who is killed
206 BC Battle of Ilipa Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Spain.
205 BC Battle of Jingxing Han Xin, with an army of 30,000 levies, defeats a numerically larger army of the Zhao near Jingxing (Jing Gorge)
Battle of Tao River Han Xin, positioning his army with a river behind them to make them fight to the death, defeats a Zhao army, killing Chen Yu and capturing Zhao Xie, the Prince of Zhao.
204 BC Battle of Crotona Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy.
Battle of Utica (204 BC) Scipio Africanus fights the Catharginians and Numidians, ending in a draw.
Battle of Wei River Han Xin defeats a joint Qi and Western Chu army by building a temporary dam, luring his enemies into the river, and opening the dam to drown them.
203 BC Battle of Utica (203 BC) Publius Cornelius Scipio decisively defeats Catharge under Hasdrubal.
Battle of Bagbrades The Romans under Scipio defeat the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal is sent to return to Africa.
Battle of Cirta Roman forces sack the Numidian capital, decisively defeating Catharge's ally.
Po Valley Raid Roman forces under Varus and Cethegus defeat Mago of Catharge, ending the Second Punic War in Italy.
202 BC Battle of Zama Scipio Africanus Major decisively defeats Hannibal in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War
Battle of Gaixia The Han forces led by Liu Bang, who was later to become Emperor of China, defeats their Chu opponents.
201 BC Battle of Chios (201 BC) Philip V of Macedon is defeated at sea by the Rhodians and Pergamenes
Battle of Lade (201 BC) Philip V of Macedon defeats Cleonaeus of Rhodes in naval battle.
200 BC Battle of Cremona Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul
Battle of Baideng The army of Han China, attempting to conquer the Xiongnu people living to the north, is defeated and the Chinese Emperor is almost captured.
Battle of Panium Antiochus III the Great secures the conquest of Syria and Israel from Egypt with this victory

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Name Summary
198 BC Battle of the Aous Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V
197 BC Battle of Cynoscephalae Romans under Flamininus decisively defeats Philip in Thessaly
194 BC Battle of Mutina Roman victory over the Gauls
Battle of Gythium With assistance from Rome, Rhodes and Macedon, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis
191 BC Battle of Thermopylae Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeat Antiochus III the Great and force him to evacuate Greece
190 BC Battle of the Eurymedon Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle.
Battle of Myonessus Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans
December - Battle of Magnesia (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war.
189 BC Battle of Mount Olympus Roman and Pergamum forces crushingly defeat the Galatians.
171 BC Battle of Callicinus Perseus of Macedon defeats a Roman army under Publius Licinius Crassus.
168 BC 22 June - Battle of Pydna Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus defeat and capture Macedonian King Perseus, ending the Third Macedonian War
167 BC Battle of Wadi Haramia Jewish rebels under Judas Maccabaeus deal a serious blow to the Seleucids, killing their leader Apollonius.
166 BC Battle of Beth Horon (166 BC) The Jewish rebel leader Judas Maccabaeus defeats the Seleucids.
Battle of Emmaus Judas Maccabeus again defeats the Seleucids
164 BC Battle of Beth Zur Another victory of Judas Maccabaeus over the Seleucids, leading to the recapture of Jerusalem by the rebels
162 BC Battle of Beth Zachariah The Seleucid regent Lysias defeats the Jewish rebels
161 BC Battle of Adasa In his last victory, Judas Maccabaeus defeats the Seleucid general Nicanor.
160 BC Battle of Elasa Jewish leader Judas Maccabaeus is defeated and killed by the Selucid army of Bacchides
148 BC Battle of Pydna The forces of the Macedonian pretender Andriscus are defeated by the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in the decisive engagement of the Fourth Macedonian War
146 BC Battle of Carthage (c.149 BC) ends - Scipio Africanus Minor captures and destroys Carthage, ending the Third Punic War
Battle of Corinth The Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of Critolaus, who is killed. Greece comes under direct Roman rule.
145 BC Battle of Antioch Ptolemy VI Philometor defeats the Seleucid usurper Alexander Balas, but is killed in the fighting
133 BC Siege of Numantia Roman forces under Scipio Aemilianus defeat the Celtiberians and sack their capital city.
Battle of Mayi Aborted ambush mission by the Han against invading Xiongnu forces.
129 BC Battle of Ecbatana The Seleucid King Antiochus VII Sidetes is defeated and killed by the Parthians under Phraates II, ending any pretense of Seleucid control over Media or Mesopotamia.
119 BC Battle of Mobei Han forces decisively defeat the Xiongnu army in the Gobi desert, more than 90,000 die.
112 BC Battle of Noreia Cimbrian victory during Cimbrian War.
108 BC Battle of the Muthul Roman forces under Caecilius Metellus defeat the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia
Battle of Loulan Han forces defeat Loulan.
105 BC 6 October - Battle of Arausio Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus
102 BC Battle of Aquae Sextae The Romans under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons
101 BC Battle of Vercellae The Romans under Marius defeat the Cimbri, who are entirely annihilated.

1st century BC[edit]

Year Battle Summary
89 BC Battle of Fucine Lake Roman forces under Lucius Porcius Cato are defeated by the Italian rebels in the Social War
89 BC Battle of Asculum The Roman army of C. Pompeius Strabo decisively defeats the rebels in the Social War.
88 BC Battle of the River Amnias Mithridatic forces defeat Nicomedes IV of Bithynia.
88 BC Battle of Mount Scorobas Mithridatic forces under Archelaus defeat the Romans under Manius Aquilius.
87 - 86 BC Siege of Athens and Piraeus Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeats combined forces of Athens and Pontus at Athens.
86 BC Battle of Tenedos Naval victory for Lucius Licinius Lucullus during the First Mithridatic War.
86 BC Battle of Chaeronea The Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces of Archelaus in the First Mithridatic War
85 BC Battle of Orchomenus Sulla again defeats Archelaus in the decisive battle of the First Mithridatic War.
83 BC Battle of Mount Tifata Sulla defeats the popular forces of Caius Norbanus in the First Roman Civil War.
82 BC Battle of the Colline Gate (November) Sulla defeats Samnites allied to the popular party in Rome in the decisive battle of the Civil War.
80 BC Battle of the Baetis River Rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias in Spain.|
74 BC Battle of Cyzicus Roman forces under Lucius Lucullus defeat the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus
72 BC Battle of Cabira Lucullus again defeats Mithridates, overrunning Pontus
69 BC Battle of Tigranocerta Lucullus defeats the army of Tigranes II of Armenia, who was harboring his father-in-law Mithridates VI of Pontus
68 BC Battle of Artaxata Lucullus again defeats Tigranes.
67 BC Battle of Korakesion Naval battle between pirates and Pompey's Fleet, ending in a decisive victory against piracy in the Mediterranean.
67 BC Battle of Jushi Han troops defeat the Xiongnu, seizing the city of Jiaohe.
66 BC Battle of the Lycus Pompey the Great decisively defeats Mithridates VI, effectively ending the Third Mithridatic War
62 BC Battle of Pistoria (January) The forces of the conspirator Catiline are defeated by the loyal Roman armies under Gaius Antonius.
58 BC Battle of the Arar (Saône) (June) Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii
58 BC Battle of Bibracte (July) Caesar again defeats the Helvetii, this time decisively.
58 BC Battle of Vosges (58 BC) September Caesar decisively defeats the forces of the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus near modern Belfort
57 BC Battle of the Axona (Aisne) Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones.
57 BC Battle of the Sabis (Sambre) Caesar defeats the Nervii.
53 BC Battle of Carrhae The Roman Triumvir Crassus is defeated and killed by the Parthians
52 BC Battle of Bovillae The gangs of Clodius and Milo clash surprisingly, leading to the death of Clodius.
52 BC Battle of Gergovia Caesar is defeated by the Gallic leader Vercingetorix
52 BC Battle of Alesia Caesar defeats Vercingetorix, completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul.
49 BC Siege of Massilia Caesar besieges and captures Massilia, resulting in the absorption of the city into the Republic.
49 BC Battle of Ilerda Caesar defeats the Spanish army of Pompey.
49 BC Battle of Utica (49 BC) C. Scribonius Curio defeats the Numidians in North Africa, cutting off supplies to Attius Varus.
49 BC Battle of the Bagradas River 24 August Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
48 BC Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC) 10 July Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.
48 BC Battle of Pharsalus Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
48 BC Battle of Nicopolis (48 BC) Pharnaces II of Pontus defeats a Roman army under Calvinus decisively.
47 BC Battle of the Nile In February, Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
47 BC Siege of Alexandria (47 BC) Ptolemy XIII lays an unsuccessful siege on Alexandria to defeat Caesar and Cleopatra VII.
47 BC May Battle of Zela Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)
46 BC Battle of Ruspina 4 January - Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus.
46 BC Battle of Thapsus 6 February Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
45 BC Battle of Munda 17 March In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Spain. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
43 BC Battle of Forum Gallorum 14 April - Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
43 BC Battle of Mutina 21 April - Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
42 BC First Battle of Philippi 3 October - The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
42 BC Second Battle of Philippi 23 October Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.
40 BC Battle of Perugia Mark Antony's brother Lucius Antonius and his wife Fulvia are defeated by Octavian. Fulvian is exiled.
36 BC Battle of Naulochus Octavian's fleet, under the command of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeats the forces of Sextus Pompey.
36 BC Battle of Zhizhi Han forces defeat the Xiongnu and kill their chieftain Zhizhi.
31 BC Battle of Actium 2 September - Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle near Greece
30 BC Battle of Alexandria 31 July - Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian's forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide.
11 BC Battle of the Lupia River Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany.

1st century[edit]

Year Battle Summary
9 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest The German leader Arminius defeats the Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus
16 Battle of the Weser River Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius
23 Battle of Kunyang After being sieged for 2 months, 9000 insurgents under Liu Xiu defeat 450,000 of Wang Mang's troops, ushering in the fall of Wang Mang and restoration of Han Dynasty.
43 Battle of the Medway Claudius and general Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins.
50 Battle of Caer Caradock The British chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by the Romans under Ostorius Scapula.
60-61 Battle of Camulodunum A British horde crushes most of the IX. Legion under Quintus Petillius Cerialis.
61 Battle of Watling Street The uprising of the British queen Boudica against the Romans is defeated by Suetonius Paullinus
62 Battle of Rhandeia Romans under Lucius Caesennius Paetus are defeated by a Parthian-Armenian army under King Tiridates of Parthia.
66 Battle of Beth Horon (66) Jewish rebels defeat a Roman legion, bringing about one of Rome's most severe defeats against rebels in their history.
67 Siege of Yodfat Roman forces under Vespasianus and Titus sack Yodfat after 47 days, killing most of its inhabitants and enslaving the rest.
67 Siege/Battle of Gamla
69 14 April Battle of Bedriacum Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeats Emperor Otho and seizes the throne.
69 24 October Second Battle of Bedriacum Forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.
69 Battle of Locus Castorum Armies of Emperors Otho and Vitellius clash in northern Italy, ending in victory for Otho's forces.
70 Siege of Jerusalem (70) Titus lays siege on Jerusalem for 7 months, killing tens of thousands of Jews and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem.
71 Battle of Stanwick Roman forces defeat the Brigantes.
73 Battle of Yiwulu Part of an expedition against the Xiongnu, ending in Han victory.
84 Battle of Mons Graupius The Romans under Agricola defeat the Caledonians.
87,88 First Battle of Tapae between the Roman emperor Domitian and the Kingdom of Dacia
89 Battle of Ikh Bayan Part of an expedition against the Xiongnu, decisive Han victory with massive amounts of prisoners taken

2nd century[edit]

Year Battle Description
101 Second Battle of Tapae Trajan defeats Decebalus, ending the Trajan's Dacian Wars.
102 Battle of Adamclisi Trajan defeats Dacians, Roxolani & Bastarnae in modern Romania.
106 Battle of Sarmizegetusa Trajan victorious in the siege of the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa.
165 Battle of Ctesiphon (165) Romans under Avidius Cassius defeat the Parthians, further weakening their Empire.
190 Battle of Xingyang Dong Zhuo emerges victorious against Cao Cao
191 Battle of Jieqiao Yuan Shao's infantry repulses a cavalry charge by rival warlord Gongsun Zan
191 Battle of Yangcheng Yuan Shao was beaten back by Sun Jian
191 Battle of Xiangyang (191) Liu Biao emerges victorious against Sun Jian
193 Battle of Cyzicus Septimius Severus, the new Emperor, defeats his eastern rival Pescennius Niger
193 Battle of Nicaea Severus again defeats Niger
193 Battle of Fengqiu Cao Cao emerges victorious against Yuan Shu
194 Battle of Issus Severus defeats Niger for the last time.
194 Battle of Yan Province Cao Cao and Lü Bu battle for control of the region
197 Battle of Lugdunum 19 February Emperor Septimius Severus defeats and kills his rival Clodius Albinus, securing full control over the Empire.
197 Battle of Wancheng Cao Cao flees after Zhang Xiu attacked
198 Battle of Ctesiphon (198) Roman forces under Septimius Severus capture the Parthian capital, fatally weakening the Empire, leading to the rise of the Sassanids
198 Battle of Xiapi Cao Cao and Liu Bei emerges victorious against Lü Bu
199 Battle of Yijing Yuan Shao emerges victorious against Gongsun Zan

3rd century[edit]

Year Battle Notes
200 Battle of Guandu Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao's numerically superior army and secures domination of the North China plain.
202 Battle of Bowang Liu Bei emerges victorious against Xiahou Dun
208 Battle of Xiakou Sun Quan emerges victorious against Huang Zu
208 Battle of Changban Cao Cao's cavalry catch Liu Bei's forces, disperse his army and capture most of his baggage train.
208 Battle of Red Cliffs War of Three Kingdoms
208 Battle of Yiling (208) Sun Quan emerges victorious against Cao Cao
209 Battle of Jiangling Sun Quan & Liu Bei emerge victorious against Cao Cao
211 Battle of Tong Pass Cao Cao emerges victorious against Ma Chao
213 Siege of Jicheng Ma Chao emerges victorious against Cao Cao
213 Battle of Lucheng Yang Fu emerges victorious against Ma Chao
215 Battle of Yangping Cao Cao emerges victorious against Zhang Lu
215 Battle of Baxi Zhang Fei emerges victorious against Zhang He
217 Battle of Nisibis (217) Parthian troops under Artabanus IV battle the new Roman Emperor Macrinus in Southern Turkey, ending in a draw.
217 Battle of Ruxu Sun Quan emerges victorious against Cao Cao
218 Battle of Antioch (218) Varius Avitus defeats Emperor Macrinus to claim the throne under the name Elagabalus.
219 Battle of Mount Dingjun Liu Bei emerges victorious against Cao Cao
219 Battle of Han River Liu Bei emerges victorious against Cao Cao
219 Battle of Fancheng Cao Ren emerges victorious against Guan Yu
222 Battle of Xiaoting Liu Bei's invasion of Wu is repulsed by Sun Quan's commander Lu Xun.
224 Battle of Hormizdegan Sassanid forces defeat the Parthians, killing King Artabanus IV and ending Parthian rule in the Middle East.
228 Xincheng Rebellion Sima Yi emerges victorious against Meng Da
228 Battle of Tianshui Shu emerges victorious against Wei
228 Battle of Jieting Part of the First Northern Expedition.
228 Battle of Shiting Wu emerges victorious against Wei
229 Siege of Chencang Wei emerges victorious against Shu
234 Battle of Wuzhang Plains Part of the Fifth Northern Expedition, Zhuge Liang dies.
238 Battle of Carthage Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax defeat and kill the usurper Gordian II.
243 Battle of Resaena Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I. Gordian is murdered before he can exploit his victory.
244 Battle of Misiche The Sassanids defeat Roman forces under Gordian III, who is subsequently killed.
244 Battle of Xingshi Shu emerges victorious against Wei.
250 Battle of Philippopolis King Cuiva of the Goths defeats a Roman army.
251 Battle of Abrittus The Goths defeat and kill the Roman Emperor Trajan Decius.
253 Battle of Barbalissos Sassanid forces under Shapur I defeat the Romans under Valerian, leading to their capture of Antioch.
255 Battle of Didao Wei emerges victorious against Shu.
259 Battle of Edessa King Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian
259 Battle of Mediolanum Emperor Gallienus defeats the Alamanni after their invasion of northern Italy, leading to the Romans retreating behind the Rhine.
267 Battle of Thermopylae (267) Roman forces unsuccessfully try to defend against the Heruli invasion of the Balkans.
268 Battle of Lake Benacus The Romans under Claudius II defeat the Alamanni.
269 Battle of Naissus Claudius II decisively defeats the Goths, earning the surname Gothicus.
271 Battle of Placentia The Emperor Aurelian is defeated by the Alemanni forces invading Italy.
271 Battle of Fano Aurelian defeats the Alemanni, who begin to retreat from Italy.
271 Battle of Pavia Aurelian destroys the retreating Alemanni army.
272 Battle of Immae Aurelian defeats the army of Zenobia of Palmyra.
272 Battle of Emesa Aurelian decisively defeats Zenobia.
274 Battle of Châlons Aurelian defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus, reestablishing central control of the whole empire.
285 Battle of the Margus The usurper Diocletian defeats the army of the Emperor Carinus, who is killed.
296 Battle of Callinicum The Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh.
298 Battle of Satala The Romans under the Caesar Galerius rout the Persians under Narseh.
298 Battle of Lingones The Caesar Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alemanni.
298 Battle of Vindonissa Constantius again defeats the Alemanni.

References[edit]