List of bids for the Summer Olympics

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The Summer Olympics are the world's largest multi-sport event, and are organized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) every four years. Selection of the host city is done at an IOC Session four to seven years prior to the tournament, in which the IOC members vote between candidate cities which have submitted bids. As of the selection of the 2016 Olympics, 28 games have been held in 22 cities in 19 countries. Bids have been made by 64 cities in 34 countries.

The bid process consists of two rounds. First, cities and national Olympic committees (NOCs) may show their interest and submit a preliminary bid, becoming applicant cities. Through analysis of the questionnaires, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. IOC's Executive Committee then selects a short-list of candidate cities. The candidate cities are investigated by the IOC Evaluation Committee, who make an evaluation report. These submit a more extensive bid book and are subject to additional evaluation, which is presented to the IOC members. Voting occurs as an exhaustive ballot, which may occur through multiple rounds until a single city holds a majority of the votes. IOC members from a candidate NOC may not vote in any round while their country remains in the election.

The first three games were not subject to bids; the first IOC Session, in 1894, awarded the first games to Athens (1896) and Paris (1900), respectively. The 1904 Olympics were initially awarded to Chicago, but then moved to St. Louis to be co-located with the World Fair. A system with bids was introduced ahead of the 1908 Olympics, and were awarded to Rome. After the 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy returned the games to IOC, which awarded them to London. The 1916 Olympics were awarded to Berlin, but canceled due to the First World War. The 1940 Olympics were originally awarded to Tokyo, but after the 1938 break-out of the Second Sino-Japanese War, they were returned to the IOC, who awarded them to Helsinki. The games, and the 1944 Olympics awarded to London, were ultimately canceled due to the Second World War. The 1956 Olympics were awarded to Melbourne, but Australian horse quarantine rules forced the equestrian events to be held in Stockholm. Three times there have been only a single bid, Stockholm in 1912, and Los Angeles in 1932 and 1984. Starting with the 2004 Olympics, only the highest-rated cities are short-listed for the final IOC vote.[1]

London will have hosted three games in 2012, while Athens, Los Angeles and Paris have hosted two games. London, Antwerp, Munich and Sydney are the only cities to never have failed at winning a bid. St. Louis is the only city to have hosted the games without submitting a bid. Helsinki, Minneapolis, Montreal and Munich have bid for both Summer and Winter Olympics; all but Minneapolis have succeeded at winning Summer bids, but none have held Winter Olympics. Detroit is the most unsuccessful city, having failed seven times. Los Angeles has made the most bids, succeeding twice and failing six times. Amsterdam, Budapest and Lausanne have all failed five times. The United States has made the most bids, having bid for 19 games, including all games from 1944 through 1984.[1]

By year[edit]

The following is a list of bids for the Summer Olympics, sorted by year. It consists of the year the games were held or scheduled to be held, the date the decision was made, the city and country which issued the bid, the votes at the IOC Session for each voting round, and the ultimate host of the games. The bid listed first for each games is the one selected by the IOC, whether or not it ultimately hosted the games.[1]

Year Session Bid(s) Vote Host
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5
1896 Athens
1900 Paris
1904 Chicago United States St. Louis
1908 Rome Italy London
London Great Britain
Milan Italy
Berlin Germany
1912 Stockholm Sweden Stockholm
1916 Berlin Germany Berlin (cancelled)
Alexandria Egypt
Amsterdam Netherlands
Brussels Belgium
Budapest Hungary
Cleveland United States
1920 Antwerp Belgium Antwerp
Amsterdam Netherlands
Lyon France
Atlanta United States
Budapest Hungary
Cleveland United States
Havana Cuba
Lyon France
Philadelphia United States
1924 Paris France Paris
Amsterdam Netherlands
Barcelona Spain
Los Angeles United States
Prague Czechoslovakia
Rome Italy
1928 Amsterdam Netherlands Amsterdam
Los Angeles United States
1932 4 October 1929 Los Angeles United States Los Angeles
1936 Berlin Germany 43 Berlin
Barcelona Spain 16
Alexandria Egypt
Budapest Hungary
Buenos Aires Argentina
Cologne Germany
Dublin Ireland
Frankfurt Germany
Helsinki Finland
Lausanne Switzerland
Nuremberg Germany
Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Rome Italy
1940 31 August 1936 Tokyo Japan Tokyo (cancelled)
Helsinki Finland
1944 London Great Britain London (cancelled)
Rome Italy
Detroit United States
Lausanne Switzerland
Athens Greece
Budapest Hungary
Helsinki Finland
Montreal Canada
1948 London Great Britain London
Baltimore United States
Lausanne Switzerland
Los Angeles United States
Minneapolis United States
Philadelphia United States
1952 21 June 1947 Helsinki Finland 14 15 Helsinki
Los Angeles United States 4 5
Minneapolis United States 4 5
Amsterdam Netherlands 3 3
Detroit United States 2
Chicago United States 1
Philadelphia United States 0
Athens Greece 0
Lausanne Switzerland 0
Stockholm Sweden 0
1956 28 April 1949 Melbourne Australia 14 18 19 21 Melbourne
Buenos Aires Argentina 9 12 13 20
Los Angeles United States 5 4 5
Detroit United States 2 4 4
Mexico City Mexico 9 3
Chicago United States 1
Minneapolis United States 1
Philadelphia United States 1
San Francisco United States 0
Montreal Canada 0
1960 15 June 1955 Rome Italy 15 26 35 Rome
Lausanne Switzerland 14 21 24
Detroit United States 6 11
Budapest Hungary 8 1
Brussels Belgium 6
Mexico City Mexico 6
Tokyo Japan 6
1964 26 May 1959 Tokyo Japan 30 Tokyo
Detroit United States 10
Vienna Austria 9
Brussels Belgium 5
1968 18 October 1963 Mexico City Mexico 30 Mexico City
Detroit United States 14
Lyon France 12
Buenos Aires Argentina 2
1972 25 April 1966 Munich West Germany 29 31 Munich
Madrid Spain 16 16
Montreal Canada 6 13
Detroit United States 6
1976 12 May 1970 Montreal Canada 25 41 Montreal
Moscow Soviet Union 28 28
Los Angeles United States 17
1980 13 October 1974 Moscow Soviet Union 39 Moscow
Los Angeles United States 20
1984 18 May 1978 Los Angeles United States Los Angeles
1988 30 September 1981 Seoul South Korea 52 Seoul
Nagoya Japan 27
1992 16 October 1986 Barcelona Spain 29 37 47 Barcelona
Paris France 19 20 23
Brisbane Australia 11 9 10
Belgrade Yugoslavia 13 11 5
Birmingham Great Britain 8 8
Amsterdam Netherlands 5
1996 18 September 1990 Atlanta United States 19 20 26 34 51 Atlanta
Athens Greece 23 23 26 30 35
Toronto Canada 14 17 18 22
Melbourne Australia 12 21 16
Manchester Great Britain 11 5
Belgrade Yugoslavia 7
2000 23 September 1993 Sydney Australia 30 30 37 45 Sydney
Beijing China 32 37 40 43
Manchester Great Britain 11 13 11
Berlin Germany 9 9
Istanbul Turkey 7
2004 5 September 1997 Athens Greece 32 38 52 66 Athens
Rome Italy 23 28 35 41
Cape Town South Africa 16 62 22 20
Stockholm Sweden 20 19
Buenos Aires Argentina 16 44
Istanbul Turkey
Lille France
Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Saint Petersburg Russia
San Juan Puerto Rico
Seville Spain
2008 13 July 2001 Beijing China 44 56 Beijing
Toronto Canada 20 22
Paris France 15 18
Istanbul Turkey 17 9
Osaka Japan 6
Bangkok Thailand
Cairo Egypt
Havana Cuba
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Seville Spain
2012 6 July 2005 London Great Britain 22 27 39 54 London
Paris France 21 25 33 50
Madrid Spain 20 32 31
New York City United States 19 16
Moscow Russia 15
Havana Cuba
Istanbul Turkey
Leipzig Germany
Rio de Janeiro Brazil
2016 2 October 2009 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 26 46 66 Rio de Janeiro
Madrid Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo Japan 22 20
Chicago United States 18
Baku Azerbaijan
Doha Qatar
Prague Czech Republic
2020 7 September 2013 Tokyo Japan 42 60 Tokyo
Istanbul Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid Spain 26 45
Baku Azerbaijan
Doha Qatar
Rome Italy

By city[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by city. It lists the national Olympic committee, the city, and the games for which failed and successful bid were submitted. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved. An asterix (*) indicates that the bid was not shortlisted.[1]

Country City Failed bids Successful bids
Argentina Buenos Aires 1936, 1956, 1968, 2004
Australia Brisbane 1992
Australia Melbourne 1996 1956
Australia Sydney 2000
Austria Vienna 1964
Azerbaijan Baku 2016*
Belgium Antwerp 1920
Belgium Brussels 1916, 1960, 1964
Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1936, 2004*, 2012* 2016
Canada Montreal 1944, 1956, 1972 1976
Canada Toronto 1996, 2008
China Beijing 2000 2008
Cuba Havana 1920, 2008*, 2012*
Czech Republic/Czechoslovakia Prague 1924, 2016*
Egypt Alexandria 1916, 1936
Egypt Cairo 2008*
Finland Helsinki 1936, 1944 (1940)dagger 1952
France Lille 2004*
France Lyon 1920, 1968
France Paris 1992, 2008, 2012 (1900), 1924
Germany Berlin 1908, 2000 1916dagger, 1936
Germany Cologne 1936
Germany Frankfurt 1936
Germany Leipzig 2012*
(West) Germany Munich 1972
Germany Nuremberg 1936
Great Britain Birmingham 1992
Great Britain London 1908, 1948, 2012
Great Britain Manchester 1996, 2000
Greece Athens 1944, 1952, 1996 (1896), 2004
Hungary Budapest 1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, 1960
Ireland Dublin 1936
Italy Milan 1908
Italy Rome 1924, 1936, 1944, 2004 1908dagger, 1960
Japan Nagoya 1988
Japan Osaka 2008
Japan Tokyo 1960, 2016 1940dagger, 1964, 2020
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 2008*
Mexico Mexico City 1956, 1960 1968
Netherlands Amsterdam 1916, 1920, 1924, 1952, 1992 1928
Puerto Rico San Juan 2004*
Qatar Doha 2016*
Russia/Soviet Union Moscow 1976, 2012 1980
Russia Saint Petersburg 2004
South Africa Cape Town 2004
South Korea Seoul 1988
Spain Barcelona 1936 1992
Spain Madrid 1972, 2012, 2016, 2020
Spain Seville 2004, 2008*
Sweden Stockholm 1952, 2004 1912, 1956
Switzerland Lausanne 1936, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1960
Thailand Bangkok 2008*
Turkey Istanbul 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012*, 2020
United States Atlanta 1920 1996
United States Baltimore 1948
United States Chicago 1952, 1956, 2016 (1904)dagger
United States Cleveland 1916, 1920
United States Detroit 1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972
United States Los Angeles 1924, 1928, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1976 1932, 1984
United States Minneapolis 1948, 1952, 1956
United States New York City 2012
United States Philadelphia 1920, 1948, 1952, 1956
United States San Francisco 1956
United States St. Louis (1904)
Yugoslavia Belgrade 1992, 1996

By country[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by national Olympic committee, listing the country and years it bid. Only countries which submitted bids with multiple cities are included. Successful bids are in boldface. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved.[1]

Country Years
Australia 1956, 1992, 1996, 2000
Belgium 1916, 1920, 1960, 1964
Canada 1944, 1956, 1972, 1976, 1996, 2008
Egypt 1916, 1936, 2008
France (1900), 1920, 1924, 1968, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012
Germany 1908, 1916dagger, 1936, 1972, 2000, 2012
Great Britain 1908, 1948, 1992 1996, 2000. 2012
Italy 1908dagger, 1924, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2004, 2020
Japan 1940dagger, 1960, 1964, 1988, 2008, 2016, 2020
Russia/Soviet Union 1976, 1980, 2004, 2012
Spain 1924, 1936, 1940, 1972, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020
United States (1904), 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984, 1996, 2012, 2016

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Retrieved 15 March 2011.