List of biofuel companies and researchers

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First generation biofuels[edit]

First generation biofuels use the edible parts of food plants as their carbon source feedstock. Due to this, the production of fuel from these crops effectively creates problems in regard to the global food production.

ADM Ölmühle Hamburg, part of Archer Daniels Midland. Germany.

Products: biodiesel.

Diester Industrie, part of Bunge Limited. France.

Products: biodiesel.

Jilin Fuel Ethanol, part of China National Petroleum Corporation. China.

LS9, Inc. South San Francisco, California, USA; Okeechobee, Florida, USA.

Technology: fermenters with genetically modified bacteria.
Feedstocks: sugar cane syrup; planned: celluslose agricultural residues.
Products: fuel oils, chemicals.

Second generation biofuels[edit]

Second generation biofuels use non-food substances as a feedstock carbon source. Example feedstocks include non-food plants, the inedible parts of food plants, and waste cooking fat. Unlike first generation biofuels they do not create problems in regard to the global food production.

Blue Marble Energy. Seattle, Washington, USA.

Technology: consortia of different non-GM bacteria.
Feedstocks: "nearly any organic biomass".
Products: methane, nitrogen compounds, hydrogen.

Chemrec. Stockholm, Sweden.

Technology: black liquor gasification.
Feedstocks: black liquor from sulfate process or sulfite process pulp mills.
Products: Biomethanol, BioDME.

DuPont Danisco. Vonore, Tennessee, USA.

Feedstocks: non-edible parts of plants.
Products: ethanol.

Fujian Zhongde, part of China Clean Energy. Fuqing, Fujian, China.

Feedstocks: waste vegetable oils.
Products: biodiesel, chemicals.

Green BioFuels Corporation, Miami, Florida, USA

Feedstocks: vegetable oil, animal fat, recycled cooking oil.
Products: biodiesel, glycerol.

Gushan Environmental Energy. Beijing, China; Shanghai, China; Mianyang, Sichuan, China; Handan, Hebei, China; Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Feedstocks: vegetable oil, animal fat, recycled cooking oil.
Products: biodiesel, glycerol, plant asphalt, erucic acid, erucic amide.

Biofuel Research Team (BRTeam), Iran.

BRTeam is a multi national research team (Iran, Malaysia, Sweden, USA, Belgium, UK), focused on various aspects of biofuel research in particular advanced reactor technologies.[1]

Second generation biofuels with additional advantages[edit]

Algae and cyanobateria fuels[edit]

The so-called "Third generation biofuels" (which are basically 2nd generation biofuels) have an additional advantage as they do not take up any space, and may also help to reduce seawater eutrophication. It uses algae to convert carbon dioxide into biomass.

Algae Cluster. Europe.[2]

Algenol. Bonita Springs, Florida, USA; Baltimore, USA; Lee County, Florida, USA.

Technology: algae grown in photobioreactors.
Feedstocks: seawater, sunlight, carbon dioxide.
Products: ethanol, freshwater.

Gevo, Douglas County, Colorado, USA.

Global Green Aglae, part of Global Green Solutions. El Paso, Texas, USA.

GreenFuel Technologies Corporation. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Ceased operations 2009.

Joule Unlimited. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Feedstocks: water, sunlight, carbon dioxide.
Technology: Modified cyanobacteria and bioreactors.
Products: diesel fuel.

PetroSun. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA.

Technology: pyrolysis of organics, algae.
Products: algal oil, hydrogen, charcoal fertiliser.

Sapphire Energy. San Diego, California, USA.

Technology: algae.
Feedstocks: sunlight, carbon dioxide.
Products: green crude.

Solazyme. South San Francisco, California, USA.

Technology: algae.
Feedstocks: plant matter.
Products: oils, including aviation fuel.

PowerFuel.de Kaufbeuren, Bavaria, Germany.

Technology: hyper-ionizing.
Feedstocks: UCO, CPO (used palm oil).
Products: oils, including ship, trucks fuels.

Others[edit]

So-called "fourth-generation biofuels" are second-generation biofuels that uses processes other than those used in first or second generation methods.

Some fourth generation technology pathways include: pyrolysis, gasification, upgrading, solar-to-fuel, and genetic manipulation of organisms to secrete hydrocarbons.[3]

GreenFuel Technologies Corporation

Technology: developed a patented bioreactor system that uses nontoxic photosynthetic algae to take in smokestacks flue gases and produce biofuels such as biodiesel, biogas and a dry fuel comparable to coal.[4]

Hydrocarbon plants or petroleum plants are plants which produce terpenoids as secondary metabolites that can be converted to gasoline-like fuels. Latex producing members of the Euphorbiaceae such as Euphorbia lathyris and E. tirucalli and members of Apocynaceae have been studied for their potential energy uses.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.brteam.ir Biofuel Research Team homepage
  2. ^ http://www.algaecluster.eu/
  3. ^ http://www.gtmresearch.com/report/third-and-fourth-generation-biofuels
  4. ^ "greenfuelonline.com". greenfuelonline.com. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  5. ^ Kalita, D (2008). "Hydrocarbon plant—New source of energy for future". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2): 455–471. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.008. ISSN 1364-0321. 
  6. ^ K. G. Ramawat (2010). Desert Plants: Biology and Biotechnology. Springer. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-3-642-02549-5. Retrieved 23 August 2010. 

See also[edit]