List of biophysicists
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Gary Ackers —
- David Agard —
- Christian B. Anfinsen — author of the postulate about spontaneous protein folding
- Robert L. (Buzz) Baldwin —protein folding
- David Baker —
- Adriaan (Ad) Bax (Dutch-born American, 1956– ) — development of methodology for NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy
- Georg von Békésy (Hungarian, 1899–1972) — research on the human ear
- Boris Pavlovich Belousov — known for discovery of Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
- Howard Berg (American, 1934–) — characterized properties of bacterial chemotaxis
- Helen M. Berman (American, 1943–) — pioneer in study of nucleic acid structure; head of the worldwide Protein Data Bank
- John Desmond Bernal (Irish-born English, 1901–1971) — X-ray crystallography of plant viruses and proteins
- Pamela J. Bjorkman (American, 1956-) — first X-ray crystallography of human histocompatibility complex; studies immune recognition, homologs of MHC proteins, and improved antibodies against HIV
- Steven Block (American, 1952–) — observed the motions of enzymes such as kinesin and RNA polymerase with optical tweezers
- Jagadish Chandra Bose (Indian, 1858–1937)
- Detlev Wulf Bronk (American, 1897–1975) 
- Axel Brunger — developed the free R cross-validation index and the X-PLOR/CNS software for macromolecular crystallography
- Carlos Bustamante (Peruvian-born American, 1951–) — known for single-molecule biophysics of molecular motors and biological polymer physics
- Charles Cantor —
- Donald Caspar — theory of quasi-equivalence in icosahedral viruses
- Alexander Chizhevsky — founder of heliobiology
- Steven Chu — Nobel laureate who helped develop optical trapping techniques used by many biophysicists
- Carolyn Cohen —
- Robert Corey — co-discoverer (with Linus Pauling) of the alpha helix and beta sheet structures in proteins
- Allan McLeod Cormack — development (with Godfrey Hounsfield) of computer assisted tomography
- Christoph Cremer — overcoming the conventional limit of resolution that applies to light based investigations (the Abbe limit) by a range of different methods like SPDM and SMI
- Francis Crick — co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Later participated in the Crick, Brenner et al. experiment which established the basis for understanding the genetic code.
- Johann Deisenhofer (German and American) — solved first three-dimensional structure of membrane protein
- Max Delbrück — discovered that bacteria become resistant to phages as a result of genetic mutations.
- Emilio Del Giudice (Italian, 1940—2014) — water research
- David DeRosier (American) — developed 3-D reconstruction methods for electron microscopy
- Friedrich Dessauer — research on radiation, especially X-rays
- Ken A. Dill (American, 1947—) — research on folding pathways of proteins.
- Christopher Dobson —
- Revaz Dogonadze — co-author (with Mikhail Volkenshtein and Zurab Urushadze) of the first quantum-mechanical model of enzyme catalysis, supported a theory that enzyme catalysis use quantum-mechanical effects such as tunneling.
- Gerald M. Edelman — Nobel laureate, structure of antibodies
- David Eisenberg —
- Donald Engelman —
- S. Walter Englander —
- Richard R. Ernst, developer of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- George Feher (1924) — photosynthesis mechanisms for plants and bacteria
- Julio M. Fernandez —
- Alan Fersht — pioneered work on protein folding
- Adolf Eugen Fick — responsible for Fick's law of diffusion and a method to determine cardiac output
- Joachim Frank — pioneered single-particle reconstruction in electron microscopy; studied structure and dynamics of ribosomes.
- Rosalind Franklin, pioneer of DNA crystallography and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA
- Clara Franzini-Armstrong —
- Hans Frauenfelder — pioneering work on experiment and theory to understand dynamic behavior in protein structure
- Luigi Galvani — discoverer of bioelectricity
- Walter (Wally) Gilbert — Nobel laureate; introduced intron/exon concept, proposed RNA world hypothesis
- Angela Gronenborn —member of National Academy of Sciences
- Martin Gruebele — Protein Folding
- Taekjip Ha (South-Korean-born American, 1968– ) — single-molecule biophysics
- Hermann von Helmholtz (Prussian-born German, 1821–1894) — first to measure the velocity of nerve impulses; studied hearing and vision
- Stefan Hell — developed the principle of STED microscopy
- Richard Henderson — scientist at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, developed the use of cryo-EM to study membrane protein structures.
- Wayne Hendrickson — developed robust methods of phasing and refinement for protein crystallography
- A.V. Hill (English, 1886–1977) — Nobel laureate, Hill coefficient for cooperativity in enzyme kinetics, physics of nerves and muscles
- Alan Hodgkin — mathematical theory of how ion fluxes produce nerve impulses (with Andrew Huxley)
- Dorothy Hodgkin (English, 1910–1994) — winner of the 1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, known for determining the structures of penicillin, vitamin B12, and insulin
- Alexander Hollaender (American, 1898–1986) — founded the science of radiation biology; early evidence for nucleic acid as the genetic material
- Barry H. Honig (American) — pioneered theory and computation for electrostatics in biological macromolecules
- John J. Hopfield — worked on error correction in transcription and translation (kinetic proofreading), and associative memory models (Hopfield net)
- Arthur L. Horwich — chaperonins
- Godfrey Hounsfield — development (with Allan Cormack) of computer assisted tomography
- Wayne L. Hubbell —
- Andrew Huxley — mathematical theory of how ion fluxes produce nerve impulses (with Alan Hodgkin)
- Hugh Huxley (English, 1924– ) — muscle structure and contraction
- Martin Karplus (American, 1930–) — research on molecular dynamical simulations of biological macromolecules.
- Bernard Katz (British, 1911–2003) — discovered how synapses work
- Ephraim Katzir —
- Walter Kauzmann was one of the first to recognize the role of hydrophobic effect in protein folding
- Jeffery W. Kelly — protein misfolding and aggregation
- John Kendrew (British, 1917–1997) — pioneer of protein crystallography
- Dorothee Kern —
- Aaron Klug (British, 1926–) — winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes
- Brian Kobilka (American, 1955– ) — winner of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (with Robert Lefkowitz) for his work on the structure and activity of G-protein-coupled receptors
- Stephen Kowalczykowski — "visual biochemistry" of DNA repair and homologous recombination
- John Kuriyan —
- Robert S. Langer — biotechnology, drug delivery, and tissue engineering; Wolf Prize in Chemistry; Priestley Medal
- Paul Lauterbur — development of magnetic resonance imaging
- Stephen D. Levene — DNA-protein Interactions, DNA looping, and DNA topology
- Michael Levitt —
- Karolin Luger — studies of chromatin and nucleosome structure.
- Roderick MacKinnon — determined first three-dimensional structure of voltage-gated transmembrane ion channel
- David H. MacLennan (Canadian) —
- Marvin Makinen — pioneer of the structural basis of enzyme action
- Peter Mansfield — development of magnetic resonance imaging
- Brian W. Matthews (Australian-born American) — explicated the energetic and structural effects of mutations in proteins, using phage T4 lysozyme studied by protein crystallography
- Ann McDermott — study of biological samples using solid-state NMR
- Peter D. Mitchell — discovered the chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis
- Manuel Morales (Honduran-born American, 1919-2009) — molecular basis of muscle contraction
- Hermann Joseph Muller — discovered that X-rays cause mutations
- Franklin Offner — professor emeritus at Northwestern University of professor of biophysics, biomedical engineering and electronics who developed a modern prototype of the electroencephalograph and electrocardiograph called the dynograph.
- Seiji Ogawa (Japanese, 1934—) — development of functional magnetic resonance imaging
- Wilma Olson Professor at Rutgers, pioneer in study of DNA structure
- Yuri Ovchinnikov (Soviet, 1934—1988)
- George Palade Nobel Laureate in physiology or medicine for protein secretion and cell ultra-structure from electron microscopy studies
- Linus Pauling — co-discoverer (with Robert Corey) of the alpha helix and beta sheet structures in proteins
- Max Perutz — pioneer of protein crystallography
- Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini — biophysicist and cognitive scientist; organized the first conference on biolinguistics
- Ernest C. Pollard — founder of the Biophysical Society
- Fritz-Albert Popp (German, 1938–)— biophoton research and coherence systems in biology
- Oleg Ptitsyn —protein folding
- Bernard Pullman — pioneered applications of Quantum Chemistry in Biology
- Sir George Radda (György Károly Radda) — early developer of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran — Famous for the Ramachandran plot of protein backbone conformation
- Venkatraman (Venki) Ramakrishnan (Indian-born American and British, 1952– ) — winner of 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (with Steitz and Yonath) for crystal structure of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome
- Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy — solid-state NMR
- Sir John Randall — X-ray and neutron diffraction of proteins and DNA
- Zihe Rao (Chinese) — structural biologist, member Chinese Academy of Sciences, president of Nankai University
- Nicolas Rashevsky —, former Editor of the first journal of mathematical and theoretical biophysics entitled " The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics " (1940—1973) and author of the two-factor model of neuronal excitation, biotopology and organismic set theory
- Frederic M. Richards —
- Jane Richardson (American, 1941—) — developed the ribbon diagram for representing the 3D structure of proteins
- Robert Rosen — theoretical biophysicist and mathematical biologist, author of: metabolic-replication systems, categories of metabolic and genetic networks, quantum genetics in terms of von Neumann's approach, non-reductionist complexity theories, dynamical and anticipatory systems in biology.
- Michael Rossmann —
- Benoit Roux —
- Erich Sackmann — founder of the bottom-up approach to understanding of the cell mechanics and adhesion
- Bert Sakmann — development of the patch clamp and single-channel recording (along with Erwin Neher)
- Francis O. Schmitt (American, 1903–1995)
- Timothy Springer —
- James Spudich — molecular motors
- Thomas A. Steitz —
- Lubert Stryer —
- Attila Szabo —
- Janet Thornton (British, 1949–) — Director of the European Bioinformatics Institute; early pioneer in structural and functional bioinformatics, including the development of ProCheck for structure validation and CATH for protein structure classification
- Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky — one of pioneers in radiation biology
- Ignacio Tinoco —
- Chikashi Toyoshima — Ca-ATPase ion pump
- Roger Tsien — Nobel laureate, green fluorescent protein
- Zurab Urushadze — co-author (with Mikhail Volkenshtein and Revaz Dogonadze) of the first quantum-mechanical model of enzyme catalysis, supported a theory that enzyme catalysis use quantum-mechanical effects such as tunneling.
- Jerome Vinograd — developed density gradient ultracentrifugation
- Steven Vogel — biomechanics
- Mikhail Volkenshtein — co-author (with Revaz Dogonadze & Zurab Urushadze) of the first quantum-mechanical model of enzyme catalysis, supported a theory that enzyme catalysis use quantum-mechanical effects such as tunneling.
- Douglas Warrick — specializing in bird flight (hummingbirds and pigeons)
- Arieh Warshel (Israeli-born American, 1940– ) — development of QM/MM approaches for a quantitative understanding of enzymatic reactions; introduction of molecular dynamics simulations in biology; introduction of consistent electrostatic calculations in proteins.
- James D. Watson — co-discoverer of the structure of DNA.
- Watt W. Webb — developer of multiphoton microscopy
- Gregorio Weber —
- John Wikswo — research on biomagnetism and cardiac electrophysiology
- Don Craig Wiley — applied molecular biophysics to study of viruses
- Maurice Wilkins (New Zealand-born British, 1916–2004) — pioneer of DNA crystallography and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA.
- Kurt Wüthrich Nobel Laureate in physiology or medicine for 2D-FT NMR of protein structure in solution
- King-Wai Yau (Chinese-born American, 1948– ) fundamental contributions to understanding the mechanisms of sensory transduction in rod, cone, and non-image visual systems and in olfaction
- Ada Yonath (Israeli, 1939– ) winner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (with Steitz and Ramakrishnan) for solving the crystal structure of the large subunit of the ribosome
- Douglas Youvan — light reactions of photosynthesis, genetic code, imaging spectroscopy and directed evolution
- List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Biophysics and computational biology)
- Heineken Prizes
- Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics
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