List of birds of Chile
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Chile. The avifauna of Chile includes a total of 479 species (324 non-passerines and 155 passerines), of which 12 are endemic (with 8 species belonging to the suborder Tyranni), 6 have been introduced by humans, and 88 are rare or accidental. 33 species are globally threatened. The list includes species recorded on Easter Island, Sala y Gómez, the Juan Fernández Islands and the Chilean Antarctic Territory.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Chile.
The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.
- (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Chile.
- (E) Endemic A species endemic to Chile.
- (I) Introduced A species introduced to Chile as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.
- (Ant) Antarctic A species recorded from the Chilean Antarctic Territory but not from Chile proper.
The rheas are large flightless birds native to South America. Their feet have three toes rather than four which allows them to run faster. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Lesser rhea Rhea pennata
The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family Tinamidae within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emu, and kiwi. There are 6 species which occur in Chile.
- Ornate tinamou Nothoprocta ornata
- Chilean tinamou Nothoprocta perdicaria (E)
- Andean tinamou Nothoprocta pentlandii
- Elegant crested tinamou Eudromia elegans
- Puna tinamou Tinamotis pentlandii
- Patagonian tinamou Tinamotis ingoufi
The penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. There are 10 species which occur in Chile.
- King penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus
- Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri (A)
- Gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua
- Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae (Ant)
- Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica
- Rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome
- Macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus
- Little penguin Eudyptula minor (A)
- Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti
- Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 5 species which occur in Chile.
- Pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps
- White-tufted grebe Rollandia rolland
- Great grebe Podiceps major
- Silvery grebe Podiceps occipitalis
- Hooded grebe Podiceps gallardoi (A)
The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 9 species which occur in Chile.
- Wandering albatross Diomedea exulans
- Southern royal albatross Diomedea epomophora
- Waved albatross Phoebastria irrorata
- Gray-headed albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma
- Chatham albatross Thalassarche eremita
- Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophris
- Buller's albatross Thalassarche bulleri
- Shy albatross Thalassarche cauta
- Sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca (A)
- Light-mantled albatross Phoebetria palpebrata
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 33 species which occur in Chile.
- Antarctic giant petrel Macronectes giganteus
- Hall's giant petrel Macronectes halli
- Southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides
- Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica (A)
- Cape petrel Daption capense
- Snow petrel Pagodroma nivea (Ant)
- Great-winged petrel Pterodroma macroptera
- White-headed petrel Pterodroma lessonii
- Phoenix petrel Pterodroma alba
- Mottled petrel Pterodroma inexpectata (A)
- Kermadec petrel Pterodroma neglecta
- Herald petrel Pterodroma heraldica
- Juan Fernández petrel Pterodroma externa
- Defilippe's petrel Pterodroma defilippiana
- Gould's petrel Pterodroma leucoptera
- Stejneger's petrel Pterodroma longirostris
- Blue petrel Halobaena caerulea
- Salvin's prion Pachyptila salvini (A)
- Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata
- Slender-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri
- Fairy prion Pachyptila turtur (A)
- Gray petrel Procellaria cinerea
- White-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis
- Westland petrel Procellaria westlandica (A)
- Kerguelen petrel Aphrodroma brevirostris
- Pink-footed shearwater Puffinus creatopus
- Flesh-footed shearwater Puffinus carneipes (A)
- Greater shearwater Puffinus gravis
- Buller's shearwater Puffinus bulleri
- Sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus
- Christmas shearwater Puffinus nativitatis
- Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus
- Little shearwater Puffinus assimilis
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 10 species which occur in Chile.
- Gray-backed storm petrel Garrodia nereis
- Wilson's storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus
- White-vented storm petrel Oceanites gracilis
- White-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina
- Black-bellied storm petrel Fregetta tropica
- White-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria
- Polynesian storm petrel Nesofregetta fuliginosa
- Wedge-rumped storm petrel Oceanodroma tethys
- Markham's storm petrel Oceanodroma markhami
- Ringed storm petrel Oceanodroma hornbyi
The diving petrels are small auk-like birds found in the southern oceans. They feed on krill, copepods and small fish and squid. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Peruvian diving petrel Pelecanoides garnotii
- Magellanic diving petrel Pelecanoides magellani
- Common diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus
- Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda
- White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus (A)
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Boobies and gannets
- Peruvian booby Sula variegata
- Masked booby Sula dactylatra
- Nazca booby Sula granti
- Red-footed booby Sula sula (A)
- Brown booby Sula leucogaster
The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 6 species which occur in Chile.
- Neotropic cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus
- Rock shag Phalacrocorax magellanicus
- Guanay cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
- Antarctic shag Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis (Ant)
- Imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps
- Red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi
Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Great frigatebird Fregata minor
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The Ardeidae family contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-neeecked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 10 species which occur in Chile.
- Cocoi heron Ardea cocoi
- Great egret Ardea alba
- Tricolored heron Egretta tricolor (A)
- Little blue heron Egretta caerulea
- Snowy egret Egretta thula
- Pacific reef heron Egretta sacra (A)
- Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
- Striated heron Butorides striata (A)
- Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax
- Stripe-backed bittern Ixobrychus involucris
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Ibises and spoonbills
The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 5 species which occur in Chile.
- Andean ibis Theristicus branickii
- Black-faced ibis Theristicus melanopis
- White-faced ibis Plegadis chihi
- Puna ibis Plegadis ridgwayi
- Roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja (A)
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis
- Andean flamingo Phoenicopterus andinus
- Puna flamingo Phoenicopterus jamesi
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are adapted to aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 30 species which occur in Chile.
- Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- White-faced whistling duck Dendrocygna viduata (A)
- Black-bellied whistling duck Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- Black-necked swan Cygnus melanocorypha
- Coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba
- Andean goose Chloephaga melanoptera
- Upland goose Chloephaga picta
- Kelp goose Chloephaga hybrida
- Ashy-headed goose Chloephaga poliocephala
- Ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps
- Flightless steamer duck Tachyeres pteneres
- Flying steamer duck Tachyeres patachonicus
- Muscovy duck Cairina moschata (I)
- Torrent duck Merganetta armata
- Chiloe wigeon Anas sibilatrix
- Yellow-billed teal Anas flavirostris
- Spectacled duck Anas specularis
- Crested duck Anas specularioides
- Yellow-billed pintail Anas georgica
- White-cheeked pintail Anas bahamensis
- Puna teal Anas puna
- Silver teal Anas versicolor
- Blue-winged teal Anas discors (A)
- Cinnamon teal Anas cyanoptera
- Red shoveler Anas platalea
- Rosy-billed pochard Netta peposaca
- Southern pochard Netta erythrophthalma (A)
- Black-headed duck Heteronetta atricapilla
- Andean duck Oxyura ferruginea
- Lake duck Oxyura vittata
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 13 species which occur in Chile.
- White-tailed kite Elanus leucurus
- Long-winged harrier Circus buffoni (A)
- Cinereous harrier Circus cinereus
- Chilean hawk Accipiter chilensis
- Harris's hawk Parabuteo unicinctus
- Black-chested buzzard-eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus
- Roadside hawk Buteo magnirostris (A)
- White-throated hawk Buteo albigula
- Swainson's hawk Buteo swainsoni (A)
- Red-backed hawk Buteo polyosoma
- Puna hawk Buteo poecilochrous (A)
- Rufous-tailed hawk Buteo ventralis
- Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 10 species which occur in Chile.
- Mountain caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus
- White-throated caracara Phalcoboenus albogularis
- Striated caracara Phalcoboenus australis
- Southern caracara Caracara plancus
- Chimango caracara Milvago chimango
- Laughing falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans (A)
- American kestrel Falco sparverius
- Aplomado falcon Falco femoralis
- Orange-breasted falcon Falco deiroleucus (A)
- Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus
New World quails
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- California quail Callipepla californica (I)
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus (I)
Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 13 species which occur in Chile.
- Black rail Laterallus jamaicensis
- Austral rail Rallus antarcticus
- Spotted rail Pardirallus maculatus (A)
- Plumbeous rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus
- Purple gallinule Porphyrio martinica (A)
- Common gallinule Gallinula galeata
- Spot-flanked gallinule Gallinula melanops
- White-winged coot Fulica leucoptera
- Slate-colored coot Fulica ardesiaca
- Red-gartered coot Fulica armillata
- Red-fronted coot Fulica rufifrons
- Giant coot Fulica gigantea
- Horned coot Fulica cornuta
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Wattled jacana Jacana jacana (A)
Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- American painted-snipe Rostratula semicollaris
- Magellanic oystercatcher Haematopus leucopodus
- Blackish oystercatcher Haematopus ater
- American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Peruvian thick-knee Burhinus superciliaris
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 14 species which occur in Chile.
- Southern lapwing Vanellus chilensis
- Andean lapwing Vanellus resplendens
- American golden plover Pluvialis dominica
- Black-bellied plover Pluvialis squatarola
- Semipalmated plover Charadrius semipalmatus
- Wilson's plover Charadrius wilsonia (A)
- Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
- Snowy plover Charadrius nivosus
- Collared plover Charadrius collaris
- Puna plover Charadrius alticola
- Two-banded plover Charadrius falklandicus
- Rufous-chested dotterel Charadrius modestus
- Diademed plover Phegornis mitchellii
- Tawny-throated dotterel Oreopholus ruficollis
The Magellanic plover is a rare wader found only in southernmost South America. In its build and habits it is similar to a turnstone. Its upperparts and breast are pale grey, and the rest of the underparts are white. It has short red legs, a black bill and a red eye. In young birds, the eyes and legs are yellowish in colour.
- Magellanic plover Pluvianellus socialis
Sandpipers and allies
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 31 species which occur in Chile.
- South American snipe Gallinago paraguaiae
- Puna snipe Gallinago andina
- Fuegian snipe Gallinago stricklandii
- Short-billed dowitcher Limnodromus griseus (A)
- Hudsonian godwit Limosa haemastica
- Marbled godwit Limosa fedoa (A)
- Eskimo curlew Numenius borealis (A)
- Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
- Bristle-thighed curlew Numenius tahitiensis (A)
- Upland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Greater yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
- Lesser yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
- Solitary sandpiper Tringa solitaria (A)
- Wandering tattler Tringa incana (A)
- Willet Tringa semipalmata
- Spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia
- Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres
- Surfbird Aphriza virgata
- Red Knot Calidris canutus
- Sanderling Calidris alba
- Semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla (A)
- Western sandpiper Calidris mauri (A)
- Least sandpiper Calidris minutilla (A)
- White-rumped sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis
- Baird's sandpiper Calidris bairdii
- Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos
- Dunlin Calidris alpina (A)
- Stilt sandpiper Calidris himantopus (A)
- Wilson's phalarope Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
- Red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
The seedsnipes are a small family of birds that superficially resemble sparrows. They have short legs and long wings and are herbivorous waders. There are 4 species which occur in Chile.
- Rufous-bellied seedsnipe Attagis gayi
- White-bellied seedsnipe Attagis malouinus
- Gray-breasted seedsnipe Thinocorus orbignyianus
- Least seedsnipe Thinocorus rumicivorus
The sheathbills are scavengers of the Antarctic regions. They have white plumage, and look plump and dove-like, but are believed to be similar to the ancestors of the modern gulls and terns. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Snowy sheathbill Chionis alba
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 6 species which occur in Chile.
- Chilean skua Stercorarius chilensis
- South polar skua Stercorarius maccormicki
- Brown skua Stercorarius antarctica
- Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus (A)
Gulls and terns
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, and terns. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years.
- Belcher's gull Larus belcheri
- Kelp gull Larus dominicanus
- Gray-hooded gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (A)
- Brown-hooded gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis
- Andean gull Chroicocephalus serranus
- Gray gull Leucophaeus modestus
- Dolphin gull Leucophaeus scoresbii
- Laughing gull Leucophaeus atricilla (A)
- Franklin's gull Leucophaeus pipixcan
- Sabine's gull Xema sabini
- Swallow-tailed gull Creagrus furcatus
- Elegant tern Thalasseus elegans
- Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis (A)
- Royal tern Thalasseus maxima (A)
- South American tern Sterna hirundinacea
- Common tern Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea
- Antarctic tern Sterna vittata (Ant)
- Snowy-crowned tern Sterna trudeaui
- Peruvian tern Sternula lorata
- Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus (A)
- Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus
- Black tern Chlidonias niger (A)
- Black noddy Anous minutus (A)
- Brown noddy Anous stolidus
- Gray noddy Procelsterna albivitta
- White tern Gygis alba
- Inca tern Larosterna inca
Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Black skimmer Rynchops niger
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon Columba livia (I)
- Spot-winged pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (A)
- Chilean pigeon Patagioenas araucana
- Eared dove Zenaida auriculata
- Pacific dove Zenaida meloda
- Ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti (A)
- Picui ground dove Columbina picui
- Croaking ground dove Columbina cruziana
- Bare-faced ground dove Metriopelia ceciliae
- Black-winged ground dove Metriopelia melanoptera
- Golden-spotted ground dove Metriopelia aymara
Parrots, macaws and allies
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 5 species which occur in Chile.
- Burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus
- Austral parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus
- Slender-billed parakeet Enicognathus leptorhynchus (E)
- Monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus (I)
- Mountain parakeet Psilopsiagon aurifrons
Cuckoos and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Barn owl Tyto alba
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 6 species which occur in Chile.
- Magellanic horned owl Bubo magellanicus
- Rufous-legged owl Strix rufipes
- Peruvian pygmy owl Glaucidium peruanum
- Austral pygmy owl Glaucidium nanum
- Burrowing owl Athene cunicularia
- Short-eared owl Asio flammeus
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 9 species which occur in Chile.
- Sparkling violetear Colibri coruscans
- Andean hillstar Oreotrochilus estella
- White-sided hillstar Oreotrochilus leucopleurus
- Giant hummingbird Patagona gigas
- Green-backed firecrown Sephanoides sephaniodes
- Juan Fernandez firecrown Sephanoides fernandensis (E)
- Oasis hummingbird Rhodopis vesper
- Peruvian sheartail Thaumastura cora
- Chilean woodstar Eulidia yarrellii
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 4 species which occur in Chile.
- Striped woodpecker Picoides lignarius
- Chilean flicker Colaptes pitius
- Andean flicker Colaptes rupicola
- Magellanic woodpecker Campephilus magellanicus
Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. There are 32 species which occur in Chile.
- Grayish miner Geositta maritima
- Common miner Geositta cunicularia
- Puna miner Geositta punensis
- Short-billed miner Geositta antarctica
- Rufous-banded miner Geositta rufipennis
- Creamy-rumped miner Geositta isabellina
- Scale-throated earthcreeper Upucerthia dumetaria
- Plain-breasted earthcreeper Upucerthia jelskii
- White-throated earthcreeper Upucerthia albigula
- Straight-billed earthcreeper Upucerthia ruficauda
- Rock earthcreeper Upucerthia andaecola (A)
- Band-tailed earthcreeper Eremobius phoenicurus
- Crag chilia Chilia melanura (E)
- Blackish cinclodes Cinclodes antarcticus
- Chilean seaside cinclodes Cinclodes nigrofumosus (E)
- Dark-bellied cinclodes Cinclodes patagonicus
- Gray-flanked cinclodes Cinclodes oustaleti
- Cream-winged cinclodes Cinclodes albiventris
- Buff-winged cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus
- White-winged cinclodes Cinclodes atacamensis
- Des Murs's wiretail Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii
- Thorn-tailed rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda
- Masafuera rayadito Aphrastura masafuerae (E)
- Streaked tit-spinetail Leptasthenura striata
- Plain-mantled tit-spinetail Leptasthenura aegithaloides
- Wren-like rushbird Phleocryptes melanops
- Dark-winged canastero Asthenes arequipae
- Lesser canastero Asthenes pyrrholeuca
- Dusky-tailed canastero Asthenes humicola (E?)
- Canyon canastero Asthenes pudibunda (A)
- Cordilleran canastero Asthenes modesta
- Austral canastero Asthenes anthoides
- White-throated treerunner Pygarrhichas albogularis
The tapaculos are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found in South America. They are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed. There are 8 species which occur in Chile.
- Black-throated huet-huet Pteroptochos tarnii
- Chestnut-throated huet-huet Pteroptochos castaneus
- Moustached turca Pteroptochos megapodius (E)
- White-throated tapaculo Scelorchilus albicollis (E)
- Chucao tapaculo Scelorchilus rubecula
- Ochre-flanked tapaculo Eugralla paradoxa
- Magellanic tapaculo Scytalopus magellanicus
- Dusky tapaculo Scytalopus fuscus (E)
The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges of tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile
- Rufous-tailed plantcutter Phytotoma rara
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 38 species which occur in Chile.
- White-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps
- Pied-crested tit-tyrant Anairetes reguloides
- Yellow-billed tit-tyrant Anairetes flavirostris
- Juan Fernandez tit-tyrant Anairetes fernandezianus (E)
- Tufted tit-tyrant Anairetes parulus
- Many-colored rush tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra
- Warbling doradito Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris
- Bran-colored flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus
- Vermilion flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus
- D'Orbigny's chat-tyrant Ochthoeca oenanthoides
- White-browed chat-tyrant Ochthoeca leucophrys
- Patagonian tyrant Colorhamphus parvirostris
- Fire-eyed diucon Xolmis pyrope
- Chocolate-vented tyrant Neoxolmis rufiventris
- Black-billed shrike-tyrant Agriornis montana
- White-tailed shrike-tyrant Agriornis andicola
- Great shrike-tyrant Agriornis livida
- Gray-bellied shrike-tyrant Agriornis microptera
- Rufous-webbed tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis (A)
- Spot-billed ground tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris
- Dark-faced ground tyrant Muscisaxicola maclovianus
- Cinnamon-bellied ground tyrant Muscisaxicola capistratus
- Rufous-naped ground tyrant Muscisaxicola rufivertex
- Puna ground tyrant Muscisaxicola juninensis
- White-browed ground tyrant Muscisaxicola albilora
- Cinereous ground tyrant Muscisaxicola cinereus
- White-fronted ground tyrant Muscisaxicola albifrons
- Ochre-naped ground tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha
- Black-fronted ground tyrant Muscisaxicola frontalis
- Short-tailed field tyrant Muscigralla brevicauda
- Andean negrito Lessonia oreas
- Austral negrito Lessonia rufa
- Spectacled tyrant Hymenops perspicillatus
- Great kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus (A)
- Streaked flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus (A)
- Tropical kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus (A)
- Eastern kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Fork-tailed flycatcher Tyrannus savana (A)
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 9 species which occur in Chile.
- Southern martin Progne elegans (A)
- Peruvian martin Progne murphyi
- Chilean swallow Tachycineta meyeni
- Blue-and-white swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca
- Andean swallow Haplochelidon andecola
- Tawny-headed swallow Alopochelidon fucata (A)
- Bank swallow Riparia riparia (A)
- Cliff swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
Wagtails and pipits
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Correndera pipit Anthus correndera
- Hellmayr's pipit Anthus hellmayri
- Yellowish pipit Anthus lutescens
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 2 species which occur in Chile.
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Patagonian mockingbird Mimus patagonicus
- White-banded mockingbird Mimus triurus (A)
- Chilean mockingbird Mimus thenca (E)
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 4 species which occur in Chile.
- Veery Catharus fuscescens (A)
- Chiguanco thrush Turdus chiguanco
- Austral thrush Turdus falcklandii
- Creamy-bellied thrush Turdus amaurochalinus (A)
The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- Red-eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus (A)
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 4 species which occur in Chile.
- Tennessee warbler Leiothlypis peregrina (A)
- Blackpoll warbler Dendroica striata (A)
- American redstart Setophaga ruticilla (A)
- Northern waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis (A)
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar.
- Cinereous conebill Conirostrum cinereum
- Tamarugo conebill Conirostrum tamarugense
- Giant conebill Oreomanes fraseri (A)
- Blue-and-yellow tanager Thraupis bonariensis
- Black-hooded sierra finch Phrygilus atriceps
- Gray-hooded sierra finch Phrygilus gayi
- Patagonian sierra finch Phrygilus patagonicus
- Mourning sierra finch Phrygilus fruticeti
- Plumbeous sierra finch Phrygilus unicolor
- Red-backed sierra finch Phrygilus dorsalis
- White-throated sierra finch Phrygilus erythronotus
- Band-tailed sierra finch Phrygilus alaudinus
- Ash-breasted sierra finch Phrygilus plebejus
- Canary-winged finch Melanodera melanodera
- Yellow-bridled finch Melanodera xanthogramma
- White-winged diuca finch Diuca speculifera
- Common diuca finch Diuca diuca
- Slender-billed finch Xenospingus concolor
- Blue-black grassquit Volatinia jacarina
- Chestnut-throated seedeater Sporophila telasco
- Band-tailed seedeater Catamenia analis
- Black-throated flowerpiercer Diglossa brunneiventris
- Puna yellow finch Sicalis lutea
- Saffron finch Sicalis flaveola
- Grassland yellow finch Sicalis luteola
- Bright-rumped yellow finch Sicalis uropygialis
- Greater yellow finch Sicalis auriventris
- Greenish yellow finch Sicalis olivascens
- Patagonian yellow finch Sicalis lebruni
- Red-crested cardinal Paroaria coronata (A)
Buntings, sparrows, and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis
Saltators, cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 3 species which occur in Chile.
- Summer tanager Piranga rubra (A)
- Golden-billed saltator Saltator aurantiirostris
- Black-backed grosbeak Pheucticus aureoventris (A)
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 10 species which occur in Chile.
- Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (A)
- Chestnut-capped blackbird Chrysomus ruficapillus (A)
- Yellow-winged blackbird Agelasticus thilius
- White-browed blackbird Sturnella superciliaris (A)
- Peruvian meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa
- Long-tailed meadowlark Sturnella loyca
- Bay-winged cowbird Molothrus badius (A)
- Shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis
- Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula (A)
- Austral blackbird Curaeus curaeus
Siskins, crossbills and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 5 species which occur in Chile.
- Thick-billed siskin Sporagra crassirostris
- Hooded siskin Sporagra magellanica
- Black-chinned siskin Sporagra barbata
- Black siskin Sporagra atrata
- Yellow-rumped siskin Sporagra uropygialis
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There is 1 species which occurs in Chile.
- House sparrow Passer domesticus (I)
- Globally threatened species in Chile, BirdLife International.
- Arayo, Braulio; Chester, Sharon (1993). The Birds of Chile. Santiago, Chile: Latour. ISBN 956-7309-01-9.
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Jaramillo, Alvaro; Burke, Peter & Beadle, David (2003). Birds of Chile. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-4688-8.
- Jaramillo, Alvaro. "Updated Information - Birds of Chile". Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Chile". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- South American Checklist Committee (2008). "Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories". Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- "Aves de Chile". 1999–2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- Marin, Manuel (2004). Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Chile. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-87334-59-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Birds of Chile.|
- Birds of Chile for the country and by region Birdlist, multi-lingual website by country with standardized codes for abundance and seasonal presence.