List of birds of Egypt

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The sacred ibis, a bird that was venerated in Ancient Egypt, is an example of how birds were a significant part of Egyptian culture.

This is a list of the known species of the birdlife found in Egypt, a country located in North-East Africa.[1] This includes a total of 487 species of birds, of which thirteen are classified as globally threatened species, and three have been identified as being introduced to Egypt. None of the species are endemic to Egypt.[2][3]

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition.[4] All of the birds that fall into the category or in the likeness of any of the descriptors found in the table seen below are included in the total bird count for Egypt.

Within this list, the one to two character tags that are applied to each bird species correspond to the criteria of status or distribution in Egypt. These tags are present next to the common name and binomial name of an appropriate species in the list. Note that not every species of bird found in this list are accompanied with a tag. The following table documents the meaning of each tag to be used in the list:

  • (A) – Accidental, A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Egypt.
  • (I) – Introduced, A species introduced to Egypt as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.
  • (Ex) – Extirpated, A species that no longer occurs in Egypt although populations exist elsewhere.


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Ostriches . Loons . Grebes . Albatrosses . Shearwaters and petrels . Storm petrels . Tropicbirds . Pelicans . Boobies and gannets . Cormorants . Darters . Bitterns, herons and egrets . Storks . Ibises and spoonbills . Flamingos . Ducks, geese and swans . Osprey . Hawks, kites and eagles . Caracaras and falcons . Pheasants and partridges . Cranes . Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots . Bustards . Painted snipe . Crab plover . Oystercatchers . Avocets and stilts . Thick-knees . Pratincoles and coursers . Plovers and lapwings . Sandpipers and allies . Skuas and jaegers . Gulls . Terns . Skimmers . Auks, murres, and puffins . Sandgrouse . Pigeons and doves . Parrots, macaws and allies . Cuckoos and anis . Barn owls . Typical owls . Nightjars . Swifts . Kingfishers . Bee-eaters . Typical rollers . Hoopoes . Woodpeckers and allies .

Passerines: Larks . Swallows and martins . Wagtails and pipits . Bulbuls . Kinglets . Grey Hypocolius . Wrens . Accentors . Thrushes and allies . Cisticolas and allies . Old World warblers . Old World flycatchers . Babblers . Chickadees and titmice . Penduline tits . Sunbirds and spiderhunters . Old World orioles . Shrikes . Bushshrikes and allies . Crows, jays, ravens and magpies . Starlings . Weavers and allies . Waxbills and allies . Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies . Siskins, crossbills and allies . Sparrows .

See also       References

Ostriches[edit]

Order: Struthioniformes. Family: Struthionidae

Loons[edit]

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Loons, known as divers in Europe, are group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resembles in shape when swimming, but they completely unrelated to these waterfowl. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

A red-necked grebe flapping its wings, which are, on average, 60 centimetres (24 inch) in length

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Albatrosses[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

Wedge-tailed shearwater

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Egypt.

Storm petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Tropicbirds[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Pelecanidae

A great white pelican emerging from a body of water

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Sulidae

Brown booby

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Cormorants[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Darters[edit]

An Oriental darter perched on a branch

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.

The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Bitterns, herons and egrets[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Egypt.

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

The Eurasian or common spoonbill

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Flamingos[edit]

Order: Phoenicopteriformes. Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Ducks, geese and swans[edit]

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

A pair of mute swans
An Egyptian goose

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in Egypt.

Osprey[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Hawks, kites and eagles[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Accipitridae

A golden eagle
A Levant sparrowhawk

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 34 species which occur in Egypt.

Caracaras and falcons[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

A Eurasian hobby

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Egypt. In Ancient Egyptian only one species is depicted as breeding in the Delta and called HrT (meaning unknown); just possibly the kestrel is meant

Pheasants and partridges[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

  • Genus Numida
    • Guineafowl, N. m. somaliensis (Neumann, 1899) - Nasal Bristled Helmeted guineafowl' - northern Sudan and South Western Egypt (Western desert)
    • Green peafowl * Pavo muticus (small populations introduced in Western Desert Oases and Upper Egypt south of Aswan)
  • Chukar Alectoris chukar
  • Rock partridge * Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara "aegypticus" (Siwa, Marsa Matruah)
  • Sand partridge Ammoperdix heyi
  • Common quail Coturnix coturnix; Anc.E.g.: pcr.t > Coptic: PERE (meaning unknown)
  • Egyptian Fayoumi, Gallus gallus domesticus feral since dynastic days in Upper Egypt and Fayoum Depression

Cranes[edit]

The common crane

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

  • Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo; Anc.E.g. wDc 'splitter' (??)
  • Common crane Grus grus; Anc.E.g.: D3.t 'the one stretching/reaching' or 'borer'

Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

Common moorhen

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Egypt.

Bustards[edit]

Depiction of a Houbara bustard

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Painted snipe[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Crab plover[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Dromadidae

The crab plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

Oystercatchers[edit]

A black-winged stilt

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Avocets and stilts[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Thick-knees[edit]

A Eurasian thick-knee

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Pratincoles and coursers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Egypt.

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

A grey plover

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Egypt.

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Egypt.

The Eurasian woodcock

Skuas and jaegers[edit]

A great skua in mid-flight

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Gulls[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Egypt.

Picture of black-headed gull taken while flying

Terns[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Sternidae

Gull-billed tern flying over a body of water

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Egypt.

Skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Auks, murres, and puffins[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins bnd differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Sandgrouse[edit]

Depiction of several black-bellied sandgrouses

Order: Pterocliformes. Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Egypt.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae

A perched Laughing dove

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Egypt.

Parrots, macaws and allies[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes. Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Cuckoos and anis[edit]

Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae

Picture of a great spotted cuckoo perched in a tree

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

  • Barn owl Tyto alba; its hieroglyph stands for the consonant -m- probably derived from the owl's name (i)m(w) 'one who moans, laments'

Typical owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae

A short-eared owl in a tree

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Egypt.

Nightjars[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Egypt.

Kingfishers[edit]

A pied kingfisher, seen from above

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Bee-eaters[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Meropidae

Two European bee eaters, one with a bee in its mouth

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Typical rollers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Hoopoes[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

  • Hoopoe Upupa epops; Anc.E.g.: hieroglyph of the bird almost always used as or in the word db 'sundried brick' (literal meaning: 'one that blocks up'); therefore one of the ancient names must have been Db(3)w/Db(3).t 'the one who blocks up (its nest hole')'; a later name would be q(w)q(w)p.t > Coptic KOUKOUPAT/KRAPEP e.a. comparable to Biblical dukhiphat (literal meaning inknown)

Woodpeckers and allies[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Egypt.

A depiction of a Thekla lark

Swallows and martins[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

A perched Barn swallow. Note the blue plumage.

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Egypt.

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

An American pipit

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Egypt.

Bulbuls[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Kinglets[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Grey Hypocolius[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hypocoliidae

The grey hypocolius is a small Middle Eastern bird. They are mainly a uniform grey color, with males having a black triangular mask around the eyes, and with the shape and soft plumage of the waxwings.

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Accentors[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Thrushes and allies[edit]

A Eurasian blackbird, also known as a common blackbird

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Egypt.

Cisticolas and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Old World warblers[edit]

A marsh warbler
Western Orphean warbler (male in center)

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 41 species which occur in Egypt.

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Egypt.

A European robin with a fly in its beak

Babblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

A great tit.

Chickadees and titmice[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Penduline tits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Sunbirds and spiderhunters[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Egypt.

Old World orioles[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Oriolidae

An engraving of a great oriole

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Shrikes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Egypt.

Bushshrikes and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Crows, jays, ravens and magpies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

A common raven

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Egypt. Ancient Egyptian names for crow or raven species include at least gbgb > gbg3/g3bgw/qbq (this bird is once called 'black', its eggs could apparently be gathered according to a medical papyrus, and therefore points to a breeding bird of Egypt). In demotic an cbq-bird can be determined by help of the existence of Coptic ABOOK 'Crow, raven'

Starlings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

A European starling

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Egypt.

Weavers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt.

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Egypt.

Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 13 species which occur in Egypt.

A depiction of two Cretzschmar's buntings

Siskins, crossbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

A photograph taken behind a chaffinch

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Egypt.

Sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

A close-up of a house sparrow

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Egypt.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ "The CIA World Factbook 2007". Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  2. ^ Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Egypt". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  3. ^ "Birds of Egypt, the complete checklist". WICE (World Institute for Conservation and Environment). Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  4. ^ Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-934797-16-1. 
General
  • Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Egypt". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  • "Birds of Egypt, the complete checklist". WICE (World Institute for Conservation and Environment). Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  • Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-934797-16-1. 
  • Shelley, George Ernest (1872). A Handbook to the Birds of Egypt. J. Van Voorst. 
  • Meininger, Peter L.; Wim C. Mullié (1981). Preliminary List of the Birds of Egypt. The Holy Land Conservation Fund. 

External links[edit]

  • Birds of Egypte Birdlist, multi-lingual website by country with standardized codes for abundance and seasonal presence.