List of birds of Florida
The following status codes have been used:
- (I) - Introduced: Birds that have been introduced to Florida by the actions of man, either directly or indirectly.
- (i) - Introduced/native: Birds that naturally occur in Florida at certain seasons, or only in parts of the state, but also have populations in Florida that have been introduced by the actions of man, either directly or indirectly.
- (E) - Extinct a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.
- (A) - Accidental: Birds that occur rarely or accidentally in Florida, and for which the FOSRC requests a full report for verification.
Only birds that are considered to have arrived in Florida without human assistance, or introduced species with established, self-sustaining populations in Florida, are included on this list. Probable escapees are not included. For example, the ringed turtle-dove (Streptopelia "risoria") was previously considered to be an established exotic; however, although occasional sightings are reported from residential areas, they are probably escapees, and evidence of a true self-sustaining population is lacking. They are, therefore, not included on this list. There are 510 species on the Florida state checklist.
This list includes the black-hooded parakeet, a species which is not on the List of North American birds. This species has been accepted as an introduced exotic by the FOSRC; however, the American Birding Association has not yet added the species to the "official" North American list.
This list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds (7th ed., 51st supplement, 2010), published by the American Ornithologists' Union. The table of contents is grouped into passerines (the largest order of birds) and non-passerines. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, casual, accidental, extirpated and extinct species are included in the total species counts for North America and Florida.
Ducks, geese, and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Black-bellied whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis
- Fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor
- Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens
- Ross's goose, Chen rossii
- Brant, Branta bernicla
- Cackling goose, Branta hutchinsonii (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (i)
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus
- Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (I)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa
- Gadwall, Anas strepera
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope
- American wigeon, Anas americana
- American black duck, Anas rubripes
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (i)
- Mottled duck, Anas fulvigula
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca carolinensis
- Common teal, Anas crecca crecca (A)
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria
- Redhead, Aythya americana
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis
- King eider, Somateria spectabilis (A)
- Common eider, Somateria mollissima
- Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
- Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata
- White-winged scoter, Melanitta fusca
- Black scoter, Melanitta americana
- Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser (A)
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominicus (A)
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
New World quail
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus
Partridges, grouse, turkeys, and Old World quail
The Phasianidae is the family containing the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial birds, variable in size but generally plump, with broad, relatively short wings. Many are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.
- Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo
Loons are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well and fly adequately but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are clumsy on land.
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Least grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus (A)
- Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus
- Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena (A)
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
- Western grebe, Aechmorphorus occidentalis (A)
Flamingoes are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down.
- American flamingo, Phoencopterus ruber
- Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross, Thalassarche chlororhynchos (A)
Petrels and shearwaters
- Northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (A)
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodoma hasitata
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Great shearwater, Puffinus gravis
- Sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus
- Short-tailed shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris (A)
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri
The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the ocean's surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
- Wilson's storm petrel, Oceanites oceanicus
- Leach's storm petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
- Band-rumped storm petrel, Oceanodroma castro
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute.
- Wood stork, Mycteria americana
Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens
Gannets and boobies
- Masked booby, Sula dactylatra
- Brown booby, Sula leucogaster
- Red-footed booby, Sula sula
- Northern gannet, Morus bassanus
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.
- Neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
- Double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus
- Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo
Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters.
- Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.
Bitterns, herons, and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of the Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night heron, Nyctanassa violacea
Ibises and spoonbills
The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies are elongated, the neck more so, with long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills.
- American white ibis, Eudocimus albus
- Scarlet ibis, Eudocimus ruber (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
- White-faced ibis, Plegadis chihi
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja
New World vultures
New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers; however, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.
The family Pandionidae is a family of fish-eating birds of prey, possessing a very large, powerful hooked beak for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. The family is monotypic; its sole member, the osprey, is found in Florida.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites, and eagles
The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey that includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. They have very large, hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus
- White-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus
- Snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis
- Mississippi kite, Ictinia mississippiensis
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis (A)
- Red-shouldered hawk, Buteo lineatus
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus
- Short-tailed hawk, Buteo brachyurus
- Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni
- Zone-tailed hawk, Buteo albonotatus (A)
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
- Ferruginous hawk, Buteo regalis (A)
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus (A)
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
Caracaras and falcons
- Northern caracara, Caracara cheriway
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (A)
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Rails, gallinules, and coots
The Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive, making them difficult to observe. Most have strong legs with long toes, short rounded wings, and are weak fliers.
- Yellow rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis
- Clapper rail, Rallus longirostris
- King rail, Rallus elegans
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinica
- Purple swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio (I)
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks extended. Most have elaborate and noisy courtship displays or "dances".
Lapwings and plovers
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are generally found in open country, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (A)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American golden plover, Pluviali dominicas
- Lesser sand plover, Charadrius mongolus (A)
- Greater sand plover, Charadrius leschenaultii (A)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- Mountain plover, Charadrius montanus (A)
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus
Stilts and avocets
The Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Sandpipers and allies
The Scolopacidae are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds which includes the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. Most eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or sand. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (A)
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa (A)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (A)
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Surfbird, Aphriza virgata (A)
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata (A)
- Purple sandpiper, Calidris maritima
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- American woodcock, Scolopax minor
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
The Laridae are a family of medium to large seabirds and containing the gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Gray-hooded gull, Chroicocephalus cirrocephhalus (A)
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A)
- Little gull, Hydrocoleus minutus (A)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan
- Belcher's gull, Larus belcheri (A)
- Heermann's gull, Larus heermanni (A)
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- California gull, Larus californicus (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- "Vega gull", Larus argentatus vega (A)
- Thayer's gull, Larus thayeri (A)
- Iceland gull, Larus glaucoides
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Slaty-backed gull, Larus schistisagus (A)
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black noddy, Anous minutus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Elegant tern, Thalasseus elegans (A)
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger
Skuas are medium to large seabirds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A)
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits; however they are not closely related to penguins, and are (with one extinct exception) able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to breed.
- Dovekie, Alle alle
- Thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia (A)
- Razorbill, Alca torda (A)
- Long-billed murrelet, Brachyrampus perdix (A)
- Ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus (A)
- Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica (A)
Pigeons and doves
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.
- Rock dove, Columba livia (I)
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa (A)
- White-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala
- Band-tailed pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata (A)
- European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur (A)
- Eurasian collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto (I)
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica (i)
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita (A)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
- Passenger pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius (E)
- Common ground dove, Columbina passerina
- White-tipped dove, Leptotila verreauxi (A)
- Key West quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana (A)
Parrots are small to large birds with characteristic curved beaks. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two behind.
- Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (I)
- Monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus (I)
- Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (E)
- Black-hooded parakeet, Nandayus nenday (I)
- White-winged parakeet, Brotogeris versicolurus (I)
Cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites.
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
- Groove-billed ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Flammulated owl, Psiloscops flammeolus (A)
- Eastern screech owl, Megascops asio
- Great horned owl, Bubo virginianus
- Snowy owl, Bubo scandiacus (A)
- Burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia
- Barred owl, Strix varia
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus (A)
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus
- Northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius acadicus (A)
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.
- Lesser nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis
- Eastern whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus
The swifts are small aerial birds, spending most of their lives flying. They have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have very long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris (A)
- Chimney swift, Chaetura pelagica
- Vaux's swift, Chaetura vauxi (A)
- White-throated swift, Aeronautes saxatalis (A)
- Antillean palm-swift, Tachornis phoenicobia (A)
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris (A)
- White-eared hummingbird, Hylocharis leucotis (A)
- Buff-bellied hummingbird, Amazila yucatanensis
- Bahama woodstar, Calliphlox evelynae (A)
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris
- Black-chinned hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri
- Anna's hummingbird, Calypte anna (A)
- Calliope hummingbird, Selasphorus calliope
- Broad-tailed hummingbird, Selasphorus platycercus (A)
- Rufous hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus
- Allen's hummingbird, Selasphorus sasin (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Red-headed woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
- Golden-fronted woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons (A)
- Red-bellied woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
- Downy woodpecker, Picoides pubescens
- Hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus
- Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis
- Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus
- Pileated woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus
- Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis (e)
Tyrant flycatchers are passerines which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Elaenia sp. (A)
- Olive-sided flycatcher, Contopus cooperi
- Western wood-pewee, Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern wood-pewee, Contopus virens
- Cuban pewee, Contopus cariibaeus (A)
- Yellow-bellied flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
- Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
- Alder flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum (A)
- Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (A)
- Least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
- Hammond's flycatcher, Empidonax hammondii (A)
- Black phoebe, Sayornis nigricans (A)
- Eastern phoebe, Sayornis phoebe
- Say's phoebe, Sayornis saya (A)
- Vermilion flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
- Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
- Brown-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus
- La Sagra's flycatcher, Myiarchus sagrae
- Sulphur-bellied flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris (A)
- Piratic flycatcher, Empidonomus leucophaius (A)
- Tropical kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus (A)
- Cassin's kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans (A)
- Western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
- Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus (A)
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana
Shrikes are passerines known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
- Loggerhead shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerines restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus
- Thick-billed vireo, Vireo crassirostris (A)
- Bell's vireo, Vireo bellii
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus
- Yellow-green vireo, Vireo flavoviridis (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree.
- Blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata
- Florida scrub-jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
- American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
- Fish crow, Corvus ossifragus
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
- Horned lark, Eremophila alpestris
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partly joined at the base.
- Purple martin, Progne subis
- Cuban martin, Progne cryptoleuca (A)
- Southern martin, Progne elegans (A)
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
- Mangrove swallow, Tachycineta albilinea (A)
- Bahama swallow, Tachycineta cyaneovirdis (A)
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike most other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.
- Red-breasted nuthatch, Sitta canadensis
- White-breasted nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
- Brown-headed nuthatch, Sitta pusilla
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- Brown creeper, Certhia americana
Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
- Rock wren, Salpinctes obsoletus (A)
- Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus
- Bewick's wren, Thryomanes bewickii (A)
- House wren, Troglodytes aedon
- Winter wren, Troglodytes hyemalis
- Sedge wren, Cistothorus platensis
- Marsh wren, Cistothorus palustris
- Red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (I)
The family Polioptilidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds, containing the gnatcatchers and gnatwrens.
- Blue-gray gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have colored crowns, giving rise to their name.
Old World flycatchers
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe (A)
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis
- Mountain bluebird, Sialia currucoides (A)
- Townsend's solitaire, Myadestes townsendi (A)
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus
- Hermit thrush, Catharus guttatus
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina
- American robin, Turdus migratorius
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus (A)
- Varied thrush, Ixoreus naevius (A)
The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. They are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos See picture at top of article.
- Bahama mockingbird, Mimus gundlachii
- Sage thrasher, Oreoscoptes montanus (A)
- Brown thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
- Curve-billed thrasher, Toxostoma curvirostre (A)
Starlings and mynas
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Their plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground-feeding insectivores of open country.
- White wagtail, Motacilla alba (A)
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens
- Sprague's pipit, Anthus spragueii
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
- Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that have been traditionally grouped with the Emberizeridae (New World sparrows), but differ in a number of respects, and are usually found in open grassy areas.
- Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus
- Chestnut-collared longspur, Calcarius ornatus (A)
- Snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis
The wood warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Bachman's warbler, Vermivora bachmannii (E)
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
- Tennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celata
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Black-throated gray warbler, Setophaga nigrescens
- Golden-cheeked warbler, Setophaga chrysoparia (A)
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens
- Townsend's warbler, Setophaga townsendi
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus
- Kirtland's warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia
- MacGillivray's warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei (A)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens
The bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers, and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809). It is normally placed within the monotypic family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct (hence the assignment Genus: Coereba Incertae sedis).
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.
- Western spindalis, Spindalis zena
American sparrows, towhees, and juncos
The Emberizidae is a large passerine family. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are called sparrows, although they are not closely related to the Old World sparrows in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivacea (A)
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor (A)
- Green-tailed towhee, Pipilo chlorurus (A)
- Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus (A)
- Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
- Bachman's sparrow, Peucaea aestivalis
- American tree sparrow, Spizella arborea (A)
- Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina
- Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida
- Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla
- Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
- Black-throated sparrow, Amphispiza bilineata (A)
- Lark bunting, Calamospiza melanocorys (A)
- Savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Henslow's sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii
- Le Conte's sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii
- Nelson's sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni
- Saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudactus
- Seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus
- Fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca
- Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
- Swamp sparrow, Melospiza georgiana
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
- Harris's sparrow, Zonotrichia querula (A)
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Golden-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis
Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks
The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea
- Western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
- Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
- Black-headed grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea
- Lazuli bunting, Passerina amoena (A)
- Varied bunting, Passerina versicolor (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana
The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World, including the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
- Tawny-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius umeralis (A)
- Eastern meadowlark, Sturnella magna
- Western meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta (A)
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
- Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
- Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
- Common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
- Boat-tailed grackle, Quiscalus major
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis
- Bronzed cowbird, Molothrus aeneus
- Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius
- Hooded oriole, Icterus cucullatus (A)
- Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii (A)
- Spot-breasted oriole, Icterus pectoralis (I)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula
Fringilline finches, cardueline finches, and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerines. They are small to moderately large and have strong, usually conical and sometimes very large, beaks. All have 12 tail feathers and nine primaries. They have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus
- House finch, Haemorhous mexicanus (I)
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (A)
- Pine siskin, Spinus pinus
- American goldfinch, Spinus tristis
- Evening grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
The following species have been reviewed by the FOSRC and, while confirmed in identification, there is uncertainty as to whether they represent escaped individuals or genuine vagrants from established populations.
The following introduced species, while not considered officially established by the FOSRC, have self-sustaining populations and, within range and proper habitat, are likely to be encountered.
- Mandarin duck, Aix galericulata (I)
- Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiaca (I)
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I - Key West)
- Common peafowl, Pavo cristatus (I)
- Purple swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio (I)
- Florida Official State List
- Peterson 2000, p.80.
- Florida Breeding Bird Atlas
- A.O.U. Check-List, 7th edition, 51st supplement
- *"Criteria For Determining Establishment of Exotics". American Birding Association Committee on Exotics. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee (31 December 2010). "Official Florida State Bird List". Florida Ornithological Society. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- American Ornithologists' Union (5 August 2010). "Check-List of North American Birds, 7th Edition, 51st Supplement". American Ornithologists Union. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Florida's breeding bird atlas: A collaborative study of Florida's birdlife". Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 6 January 2003. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Non-Native Birds". Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- Peterson, Roger Tory (2000). A Field Guide to Feeder Birds: Eastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guides. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05944-X. Retrieved 2011-01-17.