List of birds of Madagascar

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The sickle-billed vanga belongs to the family Vangidae, one of Madagascar's endemic families.

Madagascar is an island nation located off the southeastern coast of Africa. Because of its long separation from neighboring continents—through tectonic movement, it split from Africa about 160 million years ago, and from India around 90 million years ago—it contains many species endemic to the island.[1] Of the 281 bird species recorded on Madagascar, 105 are found nowhere else on earth, and a handful of others are shared only with the neighbouring Comoro Islands.[2]

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) follows the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition.[3]

Species status comments are taken from Morris and Hawkins's Birds of Madagascar: A Photographic Guide unless otherwise noted. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts. The IUCN Red List codes are those given by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; they come from the IUCN's Red List website.[4]

Table legend[edit]

  (*) Species endemic to Madagascar
  (%) Species introduced to Madagascar
IUCN Red List Codes
Code Description
CR Critically endangered
EN Endangered
EX Extinct
LC Least concern
NT Near threatened
VU Vulnerable

List of species[edit]

The harlequin quail breeds occasionally in Madagascar.[5]
The little grebe is common on fresh and brackish waters, particularly in western wetlands and the northern highlands.[6]
There are few recent records of black-browed albatross, which was formerly frequent in Madagascar waters.[7]
Though not often seen from land, the Wilson's storm petrel is regularly recorded on migration through Malagasy waters, sometimes in large numbers.[8]
Pink-backed pelicans bred in Madagascar in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but have only been recorded a few times since.[9]
The greater frigatebird is typically found soaring in groups high above the ocean, often in thermals.[10]
The globally threatened Humblot's heron is endemic to Madagascar, though it may also breed on the Comoros.[11]
The endemic, forest-dwelling Madagascar crested ibis is heavily hunted, despite being legally protected.[12]
The Madagascan fish eagle is critically endangered, with a breeding population of fewer than 100 pairs.[13]
The subdesert mesite is restricted to a coastal strip of dry, spiny forest in southwestern Madagascar.[14]
The crab-plover is a common visitor to the island's west coast.[15]
The giant coua feeds on the ground, primarily on insects.[16]
The African palm-swift is common and widespread, particularly in coastal lowland areas with tall palms.[17]
The tiny Madagascar pygmy-kingfisher is found in forests with dense understory.
The scarce and secretive short-legged ground roller is threatened by habitat destruction and degradation.[18]
The cuckoo-roller is found in forests and woodlands throughout the island.
The white-headed vanga is widespread and found in all types of forest.
The Madagascar paradise-flycatcher is a regional endemic, found in both Madagascar and the Comoros.[19]
The long-billed bernieria, formerly thought to be a greenbul, is now considered a Malagasy warbler.
There are multiple subspecies of the endemic Madagascar magpie robin found across the island, differing in the amount of black in the adult male's plumage.[20]
The male souimanga sunbird has iridescent plumage in the breeding season—which is generally from August to January.[19]
The endemic Madagascar red fody is common and widespread, even in the country's capital, Antananarivo.[21]
Taxonomic order Common name Scientific name Status IUCN code Reference
1 White-faced whistling-duck Dendrocygna viduata Common resident LC
2 Fulvous whistling-duck Dendrocygna bicolor Uncommon resident LC
3 White-backed duck Thalassornis leuconotus Rare resident LC
4 Comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Locally common resident LC
5 African pygmy-goose Nettapus auritus Common resident LC
6 Meller's duck* Anas melleri Uncommon resident EN
7 Red-billed duck Anas erythrorhyncha Common resident LC
8 Hottentot teal Anas hottentota Locally common resident LC
9 Bernier's teal* Anas bernieri Rare resident EN
10 Madagascan pochard* Aythya innotata Recently rediscovered CR
11 Helmeted guineafowl% Numida meleagris Common resident LC
12 Madagascan partridge* Margaroperdix madagascarensis Uncommon resident LC
13 Common quail Coturnix coturnix Uncommon resident LC
14 Harlequin quail Coturnix delegorguei Uncommon visitor LC
15 Alaotra grebe* Tachybaptus rufolavatus Extinct EX [22]
16 Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Locally common resident LC
17 Madagascan grebe* Tachybaptus pelzelnii Uncommon resident VU
18 Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus Regular, rare breeder LC
19 Lesser flamingo Phoenicopterus minor Erratic migrant NT
20 Southern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome Very rare vagrant VU
21 Yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos Rare vagrant EN
22 Shy albatross Thalassarche cauta Rare vagrant NT
23 Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys Rare vagrant EN
24 Southern giant petrel Macronectes giganteus Regular offshore NT
25 Cape petrel Daption capense Offshore migrant LC
26 Great-winged petrel Pterodroma macroptera Uncommon LC
27 Soft-plumaged petrel Pterodroma mollis Very rare vagrant LC
28 Barau's petrel Pterodroma baraui Very rare vagrant EN
29 Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata Offshore migrant LC
30 Slender-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri Rare vagrant LC
31 Jouanin's petrel Bulweria fallax Very rare vagrant LC
32 Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea Very rare vagrant LC
33 Flesh-footed shearwater Puffinus carneipes Very rare vagrant LC
34 Wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus Uncommon offshore LC
35 Wilson's storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus Regular migrant LC
36 White-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina Very rare vagrant LC
37 White-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria Very rare vagrant LC
38 Black-bellied storm petrel Fregetta tropica Regular LC
39 White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Visiting breeder LC
40 Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Very rare vagrant LC
41 Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda Visiting breeder LC
42 African openbill stork Anastomus lamelligerus Resident LC
43 Yellow-billed stork Mycteria ibis Locally common LC
44 Greater frigatebird Fregata minor Casual visitor LC
45 Lesser frigatebird Fregata ariel Casual visitor LC
46 Masked booby Sula dactylatra Very rare vagrant LC
47 Brown booby Sula leucogaster Visiting breeder LC
48 Red-footed booby Sula sula Uncommon visitor LC
49 Long-tailed cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus Resident LC
50 African darter Anhinga rufa Resident LC
51 Pink-backed pelican Pelecanus rufescens Rare vagrant LC
52 Hamerkop Scopus umbretta Resident LC
53 Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus Scarce breeder LC
54 Gray heron Ardea cinerea Fairly common resident LC
55 Black-headed heron Ardea melanocephala Very rare vagrant LC
56 Humblot's heron Ardea humbloti Uncommon resident EN
57 Goliath heron Ardea goliath Very rare vagrant LC
58 Purple heron Ardea purpurea Fairly common resident LC
59 Great egret Ardea alba Common resident LC
60 Dimorphic egret Egretta dimorpha Fairly common resident LC
61 Black heron Egretta ardesiaca Fairly common resident LC
62 Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Common resident LC
63 Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides Common resident LC
64 Madagascar pond-heron Ardeola idae Visiting breeder LC
65 Striated heron Butorides striata Fairly common resident LC
66 Black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax Uncommon resident LC
67 Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus Common resident LC
68 Madagascar crested ibis* Lophotibis cristata Rare resident NT
69 Madagascar white ibis Threskiornis bernieri Rare resident EN
70 African spoonbill Platalea alba Uncommon resident LC
71 Osprey Pandion haliaetus Rare vagrant LC
72 Black-shouldered kite Elanus caeruleus LC
73 Madagascan harrier-hawk* Polyboroides radiatus LC
74 Madagascan serpent eagle* Eutriorchis astur EN
75 Madagascar cuckoo-hawk* Aviceda madagascariensis LC
76 Bat hawk Macheiramphus alcinus LC
77 Madagascar marsh harrier* Circus macrosceles VU
78 Frances's goshawk* Accipiter francesii LC
79 Madagascan sparrowhawk* Accipiter madagascariensis NT
80 Henst's goshawk* Accipiter henstii NT
81 Yellow-billed kite Milvus aegyptius
82 Madagascan fish eagle* Haliaeetus vociferoides CR
83 Madagascan buzzard* Buteo brachypterus LC
84 White-breasted mesite* Mesitornis variegata Locally common resident VU
85 Brown mesite* Mesitornis unicolor Uncommon resident VU
86 Subdesert mesite* Monias benschi Uncommon resident VU
87 Madagascar wood-rail* Canirallus kioloides LC
88 Tsingy wood rail* Mentocrex beankaensis NT [23]
89 Madagascan rail* Rallus madagascariensis VU
90 White-throated rail Dryolimnas cuvieri LC
91 Sakalava rail* Amaurornis olivieri EN
92 Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla LC
93 Purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio LC
94 Allen's gallinule Porphyrio alleni LC
95 Common moorhen Gallinula chloropus LC
96 Red-knobbed coot Fulica cristata LC
97 Madagascan flufftail* Sarothrura insularis LC
98 Slender-billed flufftail* Sarothrura watersi EN
99 Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus Fairly common resident LC
100 Pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta Very rare vagrant LC
101 Grey plover Pluvialis squatarola LC
102 Pacific golden plover Pluvialis fulva LC
103 Lesser sandplover Charadrius mongolus LC
104 Greater sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii LC
105 Kittlitz's plover Charadrius pecuarius LC
106 Common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula LC
107 Madagascan plover* Charadrius thoracicus VU
108 Three-banded plover Charadrius tricollaris LC
109 White-fronted plover Charadrius marginatus LC
110 Greater painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis LC
111 Madagascan jacana* Actophilornis albinucha NT
112 Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus LC
113 Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos LC
114 Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus LC
115 Common greenshank Tringa nebularia LC
116 Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis LC
117 Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola LC
118 Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus LC
119 Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata NT
120 Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa NT
121 Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica LC
122 Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres LC
123 Ruff Philomachus pugnax LC
124 Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea LC
125 Sanderling Calidris alba LC
126 Little stint Calidris minuta LC
127 Madagascan snipe* Gallinago macrodactyla VU
128 Madagascan buttonquail* Turnix nigricollis Common resident LC
129 Crab-plover Dromas ardeola Common visitor LC
130 Madagascan pratincole Glareola ocularis VU
131 Brown skua Stercorarius antarctica LC
132 Pomarine skua Sterocorarius pomarinus LC
133 Arctic skua Stercorarius parasiticus LC
134 Long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus LC
135 Gray-headed gull Larus cirrocephalus LC
136 Kelp gull Larus dominicanus LC
137 Brown noddy Anous stolidus LC
138 Lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris LC
139 White tern Gygis alba LC
140 Sooty tern Sterna fuscata LC
141 Bridled tern Sterna anaethetus LC
142 Saunders's tern Sterna saundersi LC
143 Damara tern Sterna balaenarum NT
144 Gull-billed tern Sterna nilotica LC
145 Caspian tern Sterna caspia LC
146 Black tern Chlidonias niger LC
147 White-winged tern Chlidonias leucopterus LC
148 Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus LC
149 Roseate tern Sterna dougallii LC
150 Black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana LC
151 Common tern Sterna hirundo LC
152 Greater crested tern Sterna bergii LC
153 Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis LC
154 Lesser crested tern Sterna bengalensis LC
155 Madagascan sandgrouse* Pterocles personatus LC
156 Rock pigeon% Columba livia LC
157 Malagasy turtle dove Streptopelia picturata LC
158 Namaqua dove Oena capensis LC
159 Madagascan green pigeon Treron australis LC
160 Madagascan blue pigeon* Alectroenas madagascariensis LC
161 Thick-billed cuckoo Pachycoccyx audeberti LC
162 Madagascar lesser cuckoo Cuculus rochii LC
163 Giant coua* Coua gigas LC
164 Coquerel's coua* Coua coquereli LC
165 Red-breasted coua* Coua serriana LC
166 Red-fronted coua* Coua reynaudii LC
167 Red-capped coua* Coua ruficeps LC
168 Running coua* Coua cursor LC
169 Crested coua* Coua cristata LC
170 Verreaux's coua* Coua verreauxi NT
171 Blue coua* Coua caerulea LC
172 Madagascar coucal Centropus toulou LC
173 Barn owl Tyto alba LC
174 Red owl* Tyto soumagnei VU
175 Malagasy scops-owl* Otus rutilus LC
176 Torotoroka scops-owl* Otus madagascariensis
177 Madagascan owl* Asio madagascariensis LC
178 Marsh owl Asio capensis LC
179 White-browed owl Ninox superciliaris LC
180 Collared nightjar* Caprimulgus enarratus LC
181 Madagascan nightjar Caprimulgus madagascariensis LC
182 Malagasy spinetail Zoonavena grandidieri Widespread resident LC
183 Alpine swift Tachymarptis melba Widespread resident LC
184 Madagascar swift Apus balstoni Widespread resident LC
185 Little swift Apus affinis Recent colonist LC
186 African palm swift Cypsiurus parvus Widespread resident LC
187 Malagasy kingfisher Alcedo vintsioides Common resident LC
188 Madagascar pygmy-kingfisher* Ispidina madagascariensis Common resident LC
189 Madagascar bee-eater Merops superciliosus LC
190 European bee-eater Merops apiaster Single vagrant record LC
191 Broad-billed roller Eurystomus glaucurus LC
192 Short-legged ground roller* Brachypteracias leptosomus Resident VU
193 Scaly ground roller* Brachypteracias squamigera Resident VU
194 Pitta-like ground roller* Atelornis pittoides Resident LC
195 Rufous-headed ground roller* Atelornis crossleyi Resident NT
196 Long-tailed ground roller* Uratelornis chimaera Resident VU
197 Cuckoo-roller Leptosomus discolor LC
198 Madagascan hoopoe Upupa marginata LC
199 Madagascar kestrel Falco newtoni Resident LC
200 Banded kestrel* Falco zoniventris Uncommon resident LC
201 Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae Winter visitor LC
202 Sooty falcon Falco concolor Winter visitor NT
203 Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Scarce resident LC
204 Greater vasa parrot* Coracopsis vasa LC
205 Lesser vasa parrot Coracopsis nigra LC
206 Grey-headed lovebird* Agapornis canus LC
207 Velvet asity* Philepitta castanea LC
208 Schlegel's asity* Philepitta schlegeli NT
209 Common sunbird-asity* Neodrepanis coruscans LC
210 Yellow-bellied sunbird-asity* Neodrepanis hypoxanthus VU
211 Archbold's newtonia* Newtonia archboldi LC
212 Common newtonia* Newtonia brunneicauda LC
213 Dark newtonia* Newtonia amphichroa LC
214 Red-tailed newtonia* Newtonia fanovanae VU
215 Tylas vanga* Tylas eduardi LC
216 Red-tailed vanga* Calicalicus madagascariensis Fairly common resident LC
217 Red-shouldered vanga* Calicalicus rufocarpalis Uncommon resident VU
218 Nuthatch vanga* Hypositta corallirostris LC
219 Chabert vanga* Leptopterus chabert LC
220 Crossley's vanga* Mystacornis crossleyi LC
221 Blue vanga* Cyanolanius madagascarinus LC
222 Ward's flycatcher* Pseudobias wardi Range-restricted resident LC
223 Hook-billed vanga* Vanga curvirostris LC
224 Rufous vanga* Schetba rufa LC
225 Helmet vanga* Euryceros prevostii VU
226 Bernier's vanga* Oriolia bernieri VU
227 Sickle-billed vanga* Falculea palliata LC
228 White-headed vanga* Artamella viridis LC
229 Pollen's vanga* Xenopirostris polleni NT
230 Lafresnaye's vanga* Xenopirostris xenopirostris LC
231 Van Dam's vanga* Xenopirostris damii EN
232 Ashy cuckoo-shrike Coracina cinerea LC
233 Eurasian golden oriole Oriolus oriolus LC
234 Crested drongo Dicrurus forficatus Common resident LC
235 Madagascar paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone mutata Common resident LC
236 Pied crow Corvus albus Common resident LC
237 Madagascan lark* Mirafra hova LC
238 Brown-throated martin Riparia paludicola
239 Sand martin Riparia riparia
240 Mascarene martin Phedina borbonica
241 Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
242 Madagascar bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis
243 Madagascar brush warbler* Nesillas typica (E)
244 Madagascan swamp warbler* Acrocephalus newtoni
245 Brown emu-tail* Dromaeocercus brunneus
246 Grey emu-tail* Dromaeocercus seebohmi
247 White-throated oxylabes* Oxylabes madagascariensis
248 Long-billed bernieria* Bernieria madagascariensis
249 Cryptic warbler* Cryptosylvicola randriansoloi
250 Wedge-tailed jery* Hartertula flavoviridis
251 Thamnornis* Thamnornis chloropetoides
252 Yellow-browed oxylabes* Crossleyia xanthophrys
253 Spectacled tetraka* Xanthomixis zosterops
254 Appert's tetraka* Xanthomixis apperti
255 Dusky tetraka* Xanthomixis tenebrosus
256 Gray-crowned tetraka* Xanthomixis cinereiceps
257 Rand's warbler* Randia pseudozosterops
258 Common jery* Neomixis tenella
259 Green jery* Neomixis viridis
260 Stripe-throated jery* Neomixis striatigula
261 Madagascan cisticola Cisticola cherinus
262 Madagascar white-eye Zosterops maderaspatanus
263 Madagascar magpie robin* Copsychus albospecularis
264 Forest rock thrush* Monticola sharpei
265 Benson's rock thrush* Monticola bensoni
266 Littoral rock thrush* Monticola imerinus
267 African stonechat Saxicola torquata
268 Northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe Very rare vagrant LC [24]
269 Madagascan starling* Saroglossa aurata Fairly common resident LC
270 Common myna% Acridotheres tristis Common resident LC
271 Wattled starling Creatophora cinerea Very rare vagrant, LC
272 Souimanga sunbird Cinnyris sovimanga
273 Madagascar sunbird Cinnyris notatus
274 Madagascan wagtail* Motacilla flaviventris
275 House sparrow% Passer domesticus
276 Nelicourvi weaver* Ploceus nelicourvi
277 Sakalava weaver* Ploceus sakalava
278 Madagascar red fody* Foudia madagascariensis
279 Forest fody* Foudia omissa
280 Common waxbill% Estrilda astrild
281 Madagascar munia* Lonchura nana

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karanth, K. Praveen (March 2006). "Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota". Current Science 90 (6): 789–792. 
  2. ^ Morris & Hawkins (1998), p. 5.
  3. ^ Clements, J. F.; Schulenberg, T. S.; Iliff, M. J.; Roberson, D.; Fredericks, T. A.; Sullivan, B. L.; Wood, C. L. (2014). "The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9.". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "IUCN Red List". IUCN. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  5. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 108
  6. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 36
  7. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 40
  8. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 46
  9. ^ Mwema, Martin; Felix Razafindrajao (March 2006). "First Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens sightings in Madagascar since 1960". The Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13 (1): 86–87. 
  10. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 54
  11. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 68
  12. ^ "Madagascar Crested Ibis – BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  13. ^ "Haliaeetus vociferoides". IUCN. Retrieved 2008-10-19. 
  14. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 112
  15. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 128
  16. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 190
  17. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 208
  18. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 218
  19. ^ a b Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 284
  20. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 260
  21. ^ Morris & Hawkins 1998, p. 292
  22. ^ Walker, Matt. "Bird conservation: Alaotra grebe confirmed extinct". BBC News Online. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
  23. ^ Goodman, Steven M.; Raherilalao, Marie Jean; Block, Nicholas L. "Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the Mentocrex kioloides complex (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from Madagascar, with the description of a new species". Zootaxa 2776: 49–60. 
  24. ^ Koenig, Paul (September 2009). "Prèmiere mention du Traquet motteux Oenanthe oenanthe pour Madagascar". Bulletin of the African Bird Club (in French) 16 (2): 223. 

Sources[edit]

  • Morris, Pete; Hawkins, Frank (1998). Birds of Madagascar: A Photographic Guide. Mountfield, UK: Pica Press. ISBN 1-873403-45-3. 
  • Sinclair, Ian; Langrand, Olivier (1998). Birds of the Indian Ocean Islands. Cape Town: Struik. ISBN 1-86872-956-7. 

External links[edit]