List of birds of Massachusetts

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The black-capped chickadee is the state bird of Massachusetts.

This list of Massachusetts birds is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species recorded from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. This list is based on a checklist used by the Massachusetts Avian Records Committee, the list used by most birders to objectively evaluate species recorded in the state. This list is based on the Committee's revision in 2013.

The taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, genera and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) used in the accompanying bird lists adhere to the conventions of the AOU's (1998) Check-list of North American birds, the recognized scientific authority on the taxonomy and nomenclature of North American birds. The AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, the body responsible for maintaining and updating the Check-list, "strongly and unanimously continues to endorse the biological species concept (BSC), in which species are considered to be genetically cohesive groups of populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (AOU 1998). See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for an alternative phylogenetic arrangement based on DNA-DNA hybridization.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Massachusetts as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote certain categories of species:

  • n - Nesting: Confirmed nesting records within the state of Massachusetts.
  • xn - Extralimital nester: Previous record of nesting, but recorded only once or twice.
  • (I) - Introduced: Birds that have been introduced to North America by the actions of man, either directly or indirectly.
  • (E) - Extinct
  • (Ex) - Extirpated: A bird that, while it is not extinct, is no longer found in Massachusetts.
  • (R) - Review list: Birds that if seen require more comprehensive documentation than regularly seen species. By their very nature, these birds are considered irregular or of rare occurrence in Massachusetts.

Note: Birds marked with * is not identified to species, but distinct enough to be considered as a separate entry


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Ducks, geese, and swansPheasants, turkeys and grouseNew World quailLoonsGrebesAlbatrossesFulmers, petrels and shearwatersStorm petrelsTropicbirdsBoobies and gannetsPelicansCormorantsDartersFrigatebirdsBitterns, herons, and egretsIbises and spoonbillsStorksNew World vulturesOspreyHawks, kites, and eaglesCaracaras and falconsRails, gallinules, and cootsLimpkinsCranesLapwings and ploversOystercatchersStilts and avocetsSandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, and phalaropesGulls, terns, and skimmersSkuasAuks, murres, and puffinsPigeons and dovesLories, parakeets, macaws, and parrotsCuckoos, roadrunners, and anisBarn owlsTypical owlsNightjarsSwiftsHummingbirdsKingfishersWoodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers

Passerines: Tyrant flycatchersShrikesVireosJays, crows, magpies, and ravensLarksSwallows and martinsChickadees and titmiceNuthatchesTreecreepersWrensKingletsGnatcatchersOld World flycatchersThrushesMockingbirds and thrashersStarlingsWagtails and pipitsWaxwingsLongspursWood-warblersAmerican sparrows, towhees, and juncosCardinals, grosbeaks and alliesBlackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and oriolesFinchesOld World sparrows

See also       References

Ducks, geese, and swans[edit]

Canada goose at Spy Pond in Arlington
American black duck
Common eider
Long-tailed duck

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.

Pheasants, Turkeys, and Grouse[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans. Turkeys have a distinctive fleshy wattle that hangs from the underside of the beak, and a fleshy protuberance that hangs from the top of its beak called a snood. As with many galliform species, the female (the hen) is smaller than the male (the tom), and much less colorful. With wingspans of 1.5–1.8 meters (almost 6 feet), the turkeys are the largest birds in the open forests in which they live, and are rarely mistaken for any other species. Grouse inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. They are game and are sometimes hunted for food. In all Massachusetts species, Males are polygamous, and have elaborate courtship displays. These heavily built birds have legs feathered to the toes. Most species are year-round residents, and do not migrate.

New World quail[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Loons[edit]

Common loon

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Loons are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost hopeless on land. In Massachusetts, three species have been recorded.

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. In Massachusetts, five species have been recorded.

Albatrosses[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Fulmars, petrels and shearwaters[edit]

Northern fulmar

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

The Procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. In Massachusetts, seven species have been recorded.

Storm petrels[edit]

Leach's storm petrel

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. In Massachusetts, four species have been recorded.

Tropicbirds[edit]

Order: Phaethontiformes. Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Suliformes. Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Suliformes. Family: Sulidae

The Sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Cormorants[edit]

Order: Suliformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Darters[edit]

Order: Suliformes. Family: Anhingidae

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Bitterns, herons, and egrets[edit]

Snowy egret

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Unlike other long necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. In Massachusetts, 14 species have been recorded.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies tend to be elongated, the neck more so, with rather long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills. 3 species occur in Massachusetts.

New World vultures[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Osprey[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae is a family of fish-eating birds of prey, possessing a very large, powerful hooked beak for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. The family is monotypic; its sole member, the osprey, is found in Massachusetts.

  • Osprey, Pandion haliaetus (n)

Hawks, kites, and eagles[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include the osprey, hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

Red-tail hawks at nest

Caracaras and falcons[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. In Massachusetts, seven species have been recorded.

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Virginia rail

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. In Massachusetts, nine species have been recorded.

Cranes[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Lapwings and plovers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. In Massachusetts, 11 species have been recorded.

Oystercatchers[edit]

American oystercatcher

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Sandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, and phalaropes[edit]

Greater yellowlegs
Hudsonian godwit
Purple sandpiper

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. In Massachusetts, 43 species have been recorded.

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.

Skuas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Stercorariidae

They are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers. 5 species have been recorded in Massachusetts.

Auks, murres, and puffins[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. In Massachusetts, nine species have been recorded.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Mourning dove

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Lories, parakeets, macaws, and parrots[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes. Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis[edit]

Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae

Black-billed cuckoo

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. In Massachusetts, three species have been recorded.

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Typical owls[edit]

Eastern screech owl

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. In Massachusetts, 11 species have been recorded.

Nightjars[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. In Massachusetts, three species have been recorded.

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.

Hummingbirds[edit]

Ruby-throated hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. In Massachusetts, six species have been recorded.

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. In Massachusetts, nine species have been recorded.

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Willow flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. In Massachusetts, 23 species have been recorded.

Shrikes[edit]

Northern shrike

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Vireos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. In Massachusetts, seven species have been recorded.

Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens[edit]

Blue jay

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree. In Massachusetts, six species have been recorded.

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Swallows and martins[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. In Massachusetts, nine species have been recorded.

Chickadees and titmice[edit]

Black-capped chickadee

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. In Massachusetts, three species have been recorded.

Nuthatches[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Treecreepers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. In Massachusetts, seven species have been recorded.

Kinglets[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their structure and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers are mainly soft bluish grey in colour, and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. Many species have distinctive black head patterns (esp. males) and long, regularly cocked, black-and-white tails.

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

The Old World flycatchers are a large family of small passerine birds mostly restricted to the Old World. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing.

Thrushes[edit]

Wood thrush

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. In Massachusetts, 13 species have been recorded.

Mockingbirds and thrashers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance. In Massachusetts, four species have been recorded.

Starlings[edit]

An immature female European starling

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. In Massachusetts, one species has been recorded.

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Waxwings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. In Massachusetts, two species have been recorded.

Silky-flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Ptiliogonatidae

Longspurs[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Calcariidae

The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that have been traditionally grouped with the Emberizeridae (New World sparrows), but differ in a number of respects, and are usually found in open grassy areas.

Wood-warblers[edit]

Chestnut-sided warbler
Blackburnian warbler
Common yellowthroat

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Parulidae

The wood warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. In Massachusetts, 43 species have been recorded. In August 2011, the North American Committee of the AOU changed their classification of many of the wood warblers. Since this list is based on the AOU classification, changes to scientific names are updated here.

American sparrows, towhees, and juncos[edit]

Saltmarsh sparrow
Chipping sparrow
Eastern towhee

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. In Massachusetts, 32 species have been recorded.

Cardinals, grosbeaks and allies[edit]

Rose-breasted grosbeak

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. In Massachusetts, eight species have been recorded.

Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles[edit]

Red-winged blackbird
Brown-headed cowbird in Arlington

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. In Massachusetts, 12 species have been recorded.

Finches[edit]

American goldfinch

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. In Massachusetts, 12 species have been recorded.

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.

Supplemental list[edit]

The MARC believes individual birds of the following species could have occurred as wild representatives, but captive origin could not be ruled out:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]