List of birds of Ontario
This list of Ontario birds is a listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the Canadian province of Ontario as determined by the Ontario Bird Records Committee (OBRC). There are, as of 2008, 478 species on this list, 291 of which are known to breed in the province. Ontario has a considerable variety of bird species. One of the factors in this diversity is the size and range of environments in Ontario. Another is the Great Lakes–many birds use the shores as a stopping point during migration.
Several common birds in Ontario, such as the House Sparrow, the Rock Dove, the European Starling, and the Mute Swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by humans from Europe or elsewhere.
This list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds, published by the American Ornithologists' Union. The table of contents is grouped into passerines (the largest order of birds) and non-passerines. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family accounts.
The taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) used in the accompanying bird lists adhere to the conventions of the AOU's (1998) Check-list of North American birds, the recognized scientific authority on the taxonomy and nomenclature of North America birds. The AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, the body responsible for maintaining and updating the Check-list, "strongly and unanimously continues to endorse the biological species concept (BSC), in which species are considered to be genetically cohesive groups of populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (AOU 1998). See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for an alternative phylogenetic arrangement based on DNA-DNA hybridization.
Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in North America as permanent residents, summer or winter residents or visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote certain categories of species:
- (A) = Accidental–occurrence based on one or two (rarely more) records, and unlikely to occur regularly.
- (I) = Introduced–The population in North America was established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.
- (E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.
- (Ex) = Extirpated–No longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.
Ducks, geese, and swans
The family Anatidae includes ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Black-bellied Whistling Duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- Fulvous Whistling Duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
- Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
- Ross's Goose, Chen rossii
- Brant, Branta bernicla
- Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii
- Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
- Mute Swan, Cygnus olor (I)
- Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator
- Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus
- Wood Duck, Aix sponsa
- Gadwall, Anas strepera
- Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope
- American Wigeon, Anas americana
- American Black Duck, Anas rubripes
- Mallard, Anas fulvigula
- Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera
- Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata
- Northern Pintail, Anas bahamensis
- Garganey, Anas querquedula (A)
- Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria
- Redhead, Aythya americana
- Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris
- Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula (A)
- Greater Scaup, Aythya marila
- Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis
- King Eider, Somateria spectabilis
- Common Eider, Somateria mollissima
- Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
- Surf Scoter, Melanitta perspicillata
- White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca
- Black Scoter, Melanitta americana
- Long-tailed Duck, Clangula hyemalis
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
- Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
- Barrow's Goldeneye, Bucephala islandica
- Smew, Mergellus albellus
- Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
- Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
- Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator
- Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
Partridges, grouse and turkeys
The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of pheasants, Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.
- Gray Partridge, Perdix perdix (I)
- Ring-necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (I)
- Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus
- Spruce Grouse, Falcipennis canadensis
- Willow Ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus
- Rock Ptarmigan, Lagopus muta
- Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus
- Greater Prairie Chicken, Tympanuchus cupido (Ex)
- Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo
New World quail
- Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus
Loons, known as divers in Europe, are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost helpless on land.
- Red-throated Loon, Gavia stellata
- Pacific Loon, Gavia pacifica
- Common Loon, Gavia immer
- Yellow-billed Loon, Gavia adamsii (A)
Grebes are small to medium-sized diving birds. They breed on fresh water, but often visit the sea whilst migrating and in winter. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers; however, their feet are placed far back on their bodies, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 19 species worldwide. Of these, five species have been recorded in Ontario.
- Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
- Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus
- Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps grisegena
- Eared Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
- Western Grebe, Aechmorphorus occidentalis (A)
Shearwaters and petrels
- Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis
- Black-capped Petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)
- Greater Shearwater, Puffinus gravis (A)
- Manx Shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (A)
- Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri (A)
The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. All species are accidentals.
- Wilson’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus (A)
- Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa (A)
- Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma castro (A)
- Northern Gannet, Morus bassanus
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.
- Neotropic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
- Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus
- Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo (A)
Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. One species is found in Ontario as an accidental.
- Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga (A)
Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. One species is found in Ontario as an accidental.
- Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens (A)
Bitterns, herons, and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of this family fly with their necks retracted.
- American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
- Least Bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias
- Great Egret, Ardea alba
- Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
- Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricolored Heron, Egretta tricolor
- Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green Heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned Night-Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Nyctanassa violacea
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which comprises the ibises and spoonbills. Its members have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary flight feathers. They are strong fliers and, despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- American White Ibis, Eudocimus albus (A)
- Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
- White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi (A)
Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. One species occurs in Ontario as an accidental.
- Wood Stork, Mycteria americana (A)
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
The Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds mostly have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed Kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Mississippi Kite, Ictinia mississippiensis
- Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
- Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii
- Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
- Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
- Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus
- Swainson's Hawk, Buteo swainsoni
- Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
- Ferruginous Hawk, Buteo regalis (A)
- Rough-legged Hawk, Buteo lagopus
- Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
Caracaras and falcons
- Northern Caracara, Caracara cheriway (A)
- American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus
- Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus
- Prairie Falcon, Falco mexicanus (A)
Rails, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakesgallinules, and coots. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers.
- Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis
- Black Rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- King Rail, Rallus elegans
- Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica (A)
- Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American Coot, Fulica americana
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.
- Black-bellied Plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American Golden-Plover, Pluvialis dominica
- Lesser Sand-Plover, Charadrius mongolus (A)
- Snowy Plover, Charadrius nivosus (A)
- Wilson's Plover, Charadrius wilsonia (A)
- Semipalmated Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- American Oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Sandpipers and allies
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularia
- Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Wandering Tattler, Tringa incana (A)
- Spotted Redshank, Tringa erythropus (A)
- Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Lesser Yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Upland Sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
- Eskimo Curlew, Numenius borealis (A, E?)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Slender-billed Curlew, Numenius tenuirostris (A, E?)
- Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus (A)
- Black-tailed Godwit, Limosa limosa (A)
- Hudsonian Godwit, Limosa haemastica
- Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa
- Ruddy Turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red Knot, Calidris canutus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Little Stint, Calidris minuta (A)
- Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
- Baird's Sandpiper, Calidris bairdii
- Pectoral Sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, Calidris acuminata (A)
- Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Stilt Sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis
- Ruff, Philomachus pugnax
- Short-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
- Wilson's Snipe, Gallinago delicata
- American Woodcock, Scolopax minor
- Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
- Red Phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Laughing Gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan
- Little Gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus
- Black-headed Gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Bonaparte's Gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Heermann's Gull, Larus heermanni (A)
- Mew Gull, Larus canus
- Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
- California Gull, Larus californicus
- Herring Gull, Larus argentatus
- Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri
- Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides
- Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus
- Slaty-backed Gull, Larus schistisagus (A)
- Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus
- Sabine's Gull, Xema sabini
- Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
- Ross's Gull, Rhodostethia rosea (A)
- Ivory Gull, Pagophila eburnea
- Sooty Tern, Onychoprion fuscata (A)
- Least Tern, Sternula antillarum (A)
- Caspian Tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Black Tern, Chlidonias niger
- White-winged Tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Common Tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic Tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri
- Royal Tern, Thalasseus maxima (A)
- Sandwich Tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis (A)
- Black Skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
The family Stercorariidae are large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.
- Pomarine Jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Parasitic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
Auks, murres and puffins
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. The family consists of auks, murres and puffinsThere are and seven Ontario species, six of which are accidentals.
- Dovekie, Alle alle (A)
- Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia (A)
- Razorbill, Alca torda (A)
- Black Guillemot, Cepphus grylle
- Long-billed Murrelet, Brachyramphus perdix (A)
- Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus (A)
- Atlantic Puffin, Fratercula arctica (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock Dove, Columba livia (I)
- Band-tailed Pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata (A)
- Eurasian Collared-Dove, Streptopelia decaocto (A)
- White-winged Dove, Zenaida asiatica (A)
- Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
- Inca Dove, Columbina inca (A)
- Common Ground-Dove, Columbina passerina (A)
Cuckoos and anis
- Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
- Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus
- Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris (A)
- Barn Owl, Tyto alba
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Eastern Screech-Owl, Megascops asio
- Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus
- Snowy Owl, Bubo scandiacus
- Northern Hawk Owl, Surnia ulula
- Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia (A)
- Barred Owl, Strix varia
- Great Gray Owl, Strix nebulosa
- Long-eared Owl, Asio otus
- Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus
- Boreal Owl, Aegolius funereus
- Northern Saw-whet Owl, Aegolius acadicus
Nightjars are medium-sized ground-nesting nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Lesser Nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis (A)
- Common Nighthawk, Chordeiles minor
- Common Poorwill, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii (A)
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis
- Eastern Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.
- Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus (A)
- Broad-billed Hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris (A)
- Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris
- Black-chinned Hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri (A)
- Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus (A)
- Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers
Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers are small to medium sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Lewis's Woodpecker, Melanerpes lewis (A)
- Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
- Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
- Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
- Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens
- Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus
- American Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis
- Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus
- Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
- Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus
Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperi
- Western Wood-Pewee, Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens
- Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
- Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
- Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
- Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii
- Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
- Gray Flycatcher, Empidonax wrightii (A)
- Dusky Flycatcher, Empidonax oberholseri (A)
- Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe
- Say's Phoebe, Sayornis saya (A)
- Vermilion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus (A)
- Ash-throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens (A)
- Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
- Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris (A)
- Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophaius (A)
- Variegated Flycatcher, Empidonomus varius (A)
- Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus (A)
- Couch's Kingbird, Tyrannus couchii
- Cassin's Kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans (A)
- Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
- Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
- Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis (A)
- Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus
- Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (A)
Shrikes are passerine birds known for the habit of some species of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
- White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus
- Bell's Vireo, Vireo bellii (A)
- Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapilla (A)
- Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons
- Plumbeous Vireo, Vireo plumbeus (A)
- Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius
- Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus
- Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
- Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus
Jays, crows, magpies and ravens
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behaviour. 
- Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis
- Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata
- Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana (A)
- Black-billed Magpie, Pica hudsonia
- Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (A)
- American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
- Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus (A)
- Common Raven, Corvus corax
- Horned Lark, Eremophila alpestris
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. The family includes swallows and martins. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Purple Martin, Progne subis
- Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
- Violet-green Swallow, Tachycineta thalassina (A)
- Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
- Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia
- Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
- Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva (A)
- Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica
Chickadees and titmice
- Carolina Chickadee, Poecile carolinensis (A)
- Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapilla
- Boreal Chickadee, Poecile hudsonica
- Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- Brown Creeper, Certhia americana
- Rock Wren, Salpinctes obsoletus (A)
- Carolina Wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus
- Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
- House Wren, Troglodytes aedon
- Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
- Sedge Wren, Cistothorus platensis
- Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris
The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name.
- Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis
- Mountain Bluebird, Sialia currucoides
- Townsend's Solitaire, Myadestes townsendi
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens
- Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's Thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Swainson's Thrush, Catharus ustulatus
- Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus
- Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina
- Eurasian Blackbird, Turdus merula (A)
- Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris (A)
- American Robin, Turdus migratorius
- Varied Thrush, Ixoreus naevius
Old World flycatchers
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.
- Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
- Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
- Sage Thrasher, Oreoscoptes montanus
- Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I)
Wagtails and pipits
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests.
- Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens (A)
Longspurs and snow buntings
- McCown's Longspur, Calcarius mccownii
- Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus
- Smith's Longspur, Calcarius pictus
- Chestnut-collared Longspur, Calcarius ornatus (A)
- Snow Bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis
The Wood-warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera
- Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
- Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned Warbler, Oreothlypis celata
- Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
- Virginia's Warbler, Oreothlypis virginiae (A)
- Northern Parula, Setophaga americana
- Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Cape May Warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Black-throated Blue Warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Black-throated Gray Warbler, Setophaga nigrescens (A)
- Black-throated Green Warbler, Setophaga virens
- Townsend's Warbler, Setophaga townsendi (A)
- Hermit Warbler, Setophaga occidentalis (A)
- Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca
- Yellow-throated Warbler, Setophaga dominica
- Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus
- Kirtland's Warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii
- Prairie Warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Palm Warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackpoll Warbler, Setophaga striata
- Cerulean Warbler, Setophaga cerulea
- Hooded Warbler, Setophaga citrina
- American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary Warbler, Protonotaria citrea
- Worm-eating Warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus
- Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern Waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Louisiana Waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis
- Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosa
- Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia
- MacGillivray's Warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei (A)
- Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Gray-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis poliocephala (A)
- Wilson's Warbler, Cardellina pusilla
- Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis
- Painted Redstart, Myioborus pictus (A)
- Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens
American sparrows, towhees, juncos and longspurs
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds that includes American sparrows, towhees, juncos and longspurs. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Green-tailed Towhee, Pipilo chlorurus (A)
- Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus (A)
- Eastern Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
- Cassin's Sparrow, Peucaea cassinii (A)
- Bachman's Sparrow, Peucaea aestivalis (A)
- American Tree Sparrow, Spizella arborea
- Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
- Clay-colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida
- Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri
- Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla
- Vesper Sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus
- Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
- Black-throated Sparrow, Amphispiza bilineata (A)
- Lark Bunting, Calamospiza melanocorys
- Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
- Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Baird's Sparrow, Ammodramus bairdii (A)
- Henslow's Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii
- Le Conte's Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii
- Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni
- Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca
- Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
- Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
- Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza georgiana
- White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
- Harris's Sparrow, Zonotrichia querula
- White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Golden-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla (A)
- Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
Cardinals and grosbeaks
Cardinals and grosbeaks are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra
- Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea
- Western Tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
- Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
- Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
- Black-headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus
- Blue Grosbeak, Passerina caerulea
- Lazuli Bunting, Passerina amoena (A)
- Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea
- Varied Bunting, Passerina versicolor (A)
- Painted Bunting, Passerina ciris (A)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana
Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and orioles
The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and New World oriole. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
- Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna
- Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
- Yellow-headed Blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
- Rusty Blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
- Brewer's Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
- Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
- Great-tailed Grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus (A)
- Brown-headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater
- Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius
- Hooded Oriole, Icterus cucullatus (A)
- Bullock's Oriole, Icterus bullockii (A)
- Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula
- Scott's Oriole, Icterus parisorum (A)
Finches are small to moderately large seed-eating passerine birds with a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and nine primary flight feathers. Finches have a bouncing flight, alternating bouts of flapping with gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla
- Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte tephrocotis
- Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator
- Purple Finch, Haemorhous purpureus
- Cassin's Finch, Haemorhous cassinii
- House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
- Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
- White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera
- Common Redpoll, Acanthis flammea
- Hoary Redpoll, Acanthis hornemanni
- Pine Siskin, Spinus pinus
- Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria (A)
- American Goldfinch, Spinus tristis
- Evening Grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.
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