List of birds of Ontario

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The Common Loon is the official provincial bird of Ontario.

This list of Ontario birds is a listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the Canadian province of Ontario as determined by the Ontario Bird Records Committee (OBRC). There are, as of 2008, 478 species on this list, 291 of which are known to breed in the province.[1] Ontario has a considerable variety of bird species. One of the factors in this diversity is the size and range of environments in Ontario. Another is the Great Lakes–many birds use the shores as a stopping point during migration.[2]

Several common birds in Ontario, such as the House Sparrow, the Rock Dove, the European Starling, and the Mute Swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by humans from Europe or elsewhere.[3]

This list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds, published by the American Ornithologists' Union.[3] The table of contents is grouped into passerines (the largest order of birds) and non-passerines. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family accounts.


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Ducks, geese and swansPartridges, grouse and turkeysNew World quailLoonsGrebesShearwaters and petrelsStorm-PetrelsGannetsPelicansCormorantsDartersFrigatebirdsBitterns, herons and egretsIbisesStorksNew World vulturesHawks, kites and eaglesCaracaras and falconsRails, gallinules and cootsCranesPloversOystercatchersStilts and avocetsSandpipers and alliesGulls, terns and skimmersJaegersAuks, murres and puffinsPigeons and dovesCuckoos and anisBarn owlsTypical owlsNightjarsSwiftsHummingbirdsKingfishersWoodpeckers, sapsuckers and flickers

Passerines: Tyrant flycatchersShrikesVireosJays, crows, magpies and ravensLarksSwallows and martinsChickadees and titmiceNuthatchesTreecreepersWrensKingletsGnatcatchersThrushesOld World flycatchersMockingbirds and thrashersStarlingsWagtails and pipitsWaxwingsSilky-flycatchersLongspurs and snow buntingsWood-warblersAmerican sparrows, towhees, juncos and longspursCardinals and grosbeaksBlackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and oriolesFinchesOld World sparrows

See also        References

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) used in the accompanying bird lists adhere to the conventions of the AOU's (1998) Check-list of North American birds, the recognized scientific authority on the taxonomy and nomenclature of North America birds. The AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, the body responsible for maintaining and updating the Check-list, "strongly and unanimously continues to endorse the biological species concept (BSC), in which species are considered to be genetically cohesive groups of populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (AOU 1998). See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for an alternative phylogenetic arrangement based on DNA-DNA hybridization.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in North America as permanent residents, summer or winter residents or visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote certain categories of species:

  • (A) = Accidental–occurrence based on one or two (rarely more) records, and unlikely to occur regularly.[4]
  • (I) = Introduced–The population in North America was established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.
  • (E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.
  • (Ex) = Extirpated–No longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.

Ducks, geese, and swans[edit]

Canada Goose
Mute Swan
Greater Scaup
Common Eider
Common Goldeneye
Hooded Merganser

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.[5]

Partridges, grouse and turkeys[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of pheasants, Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.[6]

Ruffed Grouse

New World quail[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.[7]

Loons[edit]

Red-throated Loon

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Loons, known as divers in Europe, are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost helpless on land.[7]

Grebes[edit]

Horned Grebe

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-sized diving birds. They breed on fresh water, but often visit the sea whilst migrating and in winter. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers; however, their feet are placed far back on their bodies, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 19 species worldwide.[8][9] Of these, five species have been recorded in Ontario.

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Northern Fulmar

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary.[10]

Storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. All species are accidentals.[10]

Gannets[edit]

Northern Gannet

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.[11]

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.[11]

Cormorants[edit]

Double-crested Cormorant

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.

Darters[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Anhingidae

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. One species is found in Ontario as an accidental.[11]

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. One species is found in Ontario as an accidental.[11]

Bitterns, herons, and egrets[edit]

American Bittern
Great Blue Heron

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of this family fly with their necks retracted.[7]

Ibises[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which comprises the ibises and spoonbills. Its members have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary flight feathers. They are strong fliers and, despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.[7]

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. One species occurs in Ontario as an accidental.[7]

New World vultures[edit]

Turkey Vulture

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.


Osprey[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Pandionidae

Hawks, kites and eagles[edit]

Red-tailed Hawk
Golden Eagle

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Accipitridae

The Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds mostly have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.[12]


Caracaras and falcons[edit]

Peregrine Falcon

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.[12]

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

American Coot

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakesgallinules, and coots. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers.[13]

Cranes[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".[7]

Plovers[edit]

Killdeer

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.[14]

Oystercatchers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.[7]

Stilts and avocets[edit]

American Avocet

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.[14]

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Willet
Western Sandpiper
Dunlin
Wilson's Snipe
Red-necked Phalarope

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.[14]

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Laughing Gull
Ring-billed Gull
Iceland Gull
Black Tern

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.[11]

Jaegers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.[7]

Auks, murres and puffins[edit]

Black Guillemot

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. The family consists of auks, murres and puffinsThere are and seven Ontario species, six of which are accidentals.[7]

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Mourning Dove

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.[15]

Cuckoos and anis[edit]

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Many Old World cuckoo species are brood parasites.[7]

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.[7]

Typical owls[edit]

Northern Saw-whet Owl

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.[7]

Nightjars[edit]

Common Nighthawk

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized ground-nesting nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.[16]

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.[17]

Hummingbirds[edit]

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.[7]

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.[18]

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers[edit]

Downy Woodpecker

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers are small to medium sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.[7]

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Acadian Flycatcher
Least Flycatcher
Eastern Kingbird

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.[7]

Shrikes[edit]

Northern Shrike

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for the habit of some species of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.[19]

Vireos[edit]

Yellow-throated Vireo

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.[7]

Jays, crows, magpies and ravens[edit]

Blue Jay

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behaviour. [20]

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.[7]

Swallows and martins[edit]

Tree Swallow

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. The family includes swallows and martins. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.[21]

Chickadees and titmice[edit]

Black-capped Chickadee

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

Chickadees and titmice are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. [7]

Nuthatches[edit]

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.[22]

Treecreepers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.[22]

Wrens[edit]

Carolina Wren

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.[7]

Kinglets[edit]

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name.[7]

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Polioptilidae

Gnatcatchers are a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.[7]

Thrushes[edit]

Eastern Bluebird
American Robin

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.[23]

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

Mockingbirds and thrashers[edit]

Northern Mockingbird

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.[7]

Starlings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.[24]

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.[7]

Waxwings[edit]

Cedar Waxwing

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests.[7]

Silky-flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Ptilogonatidae

Longspurs and snow buntings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Calcariidae

Wood-warblers[edit]

Blue-winged Warbler
Northern Parula
American Redstart
Common Yellowthroat
Yellow-breasted Chat

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Parulidae

The Wood-warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.[25]

American sparrows, towhees, juncos and longspurs[edit]

Eastern Towhee
American Tree Sparrow
Dark-eyed Junco

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds that includes American sparrows, towhees, juncos and longspurs. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.[26]

Cardinals and grosbeaks[edit]

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cardinalidae

Cardinals and grosbeaks are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.[7]

Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and orioles[edit]

Red-winged Blackbird
Common Grackle

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and New World oriole. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.[7]

Finches[edit]

Purple Finch
Red Crossbill
American Goldfinch

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

Finches are small to moderately large seed-eating passerine birds with a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and nine primary flight feathers. Finches have a bouncing flight, alternating bouts of flapping with gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.[26]

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Checklist of the Birds of Ontario". Ontario Field Ornithologists. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  2. ^ Hughes, Janice M. (2001). The ROM Field Guide to Birds of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. pp. 5–12. ISBN 978-0-7710-7650-3. 
  3. ^ a b The committee on classification and nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union (1998). Check-list of North American Birds (7th edition ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union. ISBN 1-891276-00-X. 
  4. ^ Hughes, Janice M. (2001). The ROM Field Guide to Birds of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 978-0-7710-7650-3. 
  5. ^ Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Wildfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1. 
  6. ^ Madge, Steve; McGowan, Phil (2002). Pheasants, Partridges and Grouse. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-3966-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Walters, Michael P. (1980). Complete Birds of the World. David & Charles PLC. ISBN 0-7153-7666-7. 
  8. ^ Ogilvie, Malcolm; Chris Rose (2003). Grebes of the World. Uxbridge, UK: Bruce Coleman. ISBN 1-872842-03-8. 
  9. ^ Walker, Matt. "Bird conservation: Alaotra grebe confirmed extinct". BBC News Online. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Onley, Derek; Scofield, Paul (2007). Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters of the World (Helm Field Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-4332-3. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Harrison, Peter; Peterson, Roger Tory (1991). Seabirds: A Complete Guide to the Seabirds of the World (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-3510-X. 
  12. ^ a b Ferguson-Lees, James; Christie, David (2005). Raptors of the World: A Field Guide (Helm Field Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-6957-8. 
  13. ^ Taylor, Barry; van Perlo, Ber (2000). Rails. Pica / Christopher Helm. ISBN 1-873403-59-3. 
  14. ^ a b c Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1991). Shorebirds: An Identification Guide to the Waders of the World. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-60237-8. 
  15. ^ Gibbs, David; Barnes, Eustace; Cox, John (2001). Pigeons and Doves. Pica Press. ISBN 1-873403-60-7. 
  16. ^ Cleere, Nigel; Nurney, David (2000). Nightjars: A Guide to the Nightjars, Frogmouths, Potoos, Oilbird and Owlet-nightjars of the World. Pica / Christopher Helm. ISBN 1-873403-48-8. 
  17. ^ Chantler, Phil; Driessens, Gerald (illustrator (2000). Swifts. Pica / Christopher Helm. ISBN 1-873403-83-6. 
  18. ^ Fry, C. Hilary; Fry, Kathie and Harris, Alan (1992). Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-8028-8. 
  19. ^ Harris, Tony; Franklin, Kim (2000). Shrikes and Bush-shrikes: Including Wood-shrikes, Helmet-shrikes, Shrike Flycatchers, Philentomas, Batises and Wattle-eyes (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-691-07036-9. 
  20. ^ Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1994). Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. A&C Black. ISBN 0-7136-3999-7. 
  21. ^ Turner, Angela K; Rose, Chris (1989). Swallows and Martins of the World : an identification guide and handbook. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-51174-7. 
  22. ^ a b Harrap, Simon; Quinn, David (1996). Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-3964-4. 
  23. ^ Clement, Peter; Hathway, Ren; Wilczur, Jan (2000). Thrushes (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-3940-7. 
  24. ^ Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian (1999). Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X. 
  25. ^ Baker, Kevin; Baker, (1997). Warblers of Europe Asia and North Africa Jeff. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01169-9. 
  26. ^ a b Clement, Peter; Harris, Alan; Davis, John (1999). Finches and Sparrows: An Identification Guide (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7136-5203-9. 
  • Birds of Ontario Birdlist, multi-lingual website by country with standardized codes for abundance and seasonal presence.